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THE 



SPANISH TRANSLATOR; 



7 ■-■' 



PRACTICAL SYSTEM FOR BECOMING ACQUAINTED 



WITH THE 

SPANISH WRITTEN LANGUAGE, 

THROUGH THE MEDIUM OF THE ENGLISH. 
BY 

MARIANO CUBI I SOLER, 

PROFESSOR OF MODERN LANGUAGES IN THE COLLEGE OF LOUISIANA. 

"He that shortens the road to knowledge, lengthens life." — Colton. 



THIRD EDITION, 

WITH CORRECTIONS AND IMPROVEMENTS. 



BALTIMORE: 
FIELDING LUCAS, JR. 

170 MARKET STREET. 



r4> 




Entered, according to the Act of Congress, in the year one thousand 
eight hundred and forty-one, by Fielding Lucas, Jr. in the Clerk's 
office of the District Court of Maryland. 



To WILLIAM GWYNN, Esq. 

If gratitude may be expressed by the dedication of 
book, allow me, sir, to prefix your name to this work 
The warm interest you manifested for my success, when 
success was doubtful; the sincere friendship with which 
you honoured me, when friends were necessary, — have left 
upon my mind an impression not to be obliterated. 

For a long time have I laboured to facilitate the acqui- 
sition of my native language to this great nation. Your 
friendly counsels have often re-animated my ardour, when 
almost exhausted by continued efforts; and, in this last 
production, your kind suggestions have frequently guided 
me in the arduous task. Receive it then as a tribute of 
my friendship. Could its success correspond with my in- 
tentions, it might prove a worthy testimonial of the regard, 
with which I remain, 
Sir, 

Your obedient, 

Humble servant, 

MARIANO CUBI I SOLER. 



The author of this work has recently published a * fourth edition of his 
SPANISH GRAMMAR. Of this Grammar the North American 
Review, the Baltimore Gazette, and the United States Literary 
Gazette, have spoken in the following terms. 

From No. XL VII. of the North American Review. 

" The author has shown much ability, both in regard to the methodi- 
cal arrangement of his materials, and the clear expositions he has given 
of the principles and difficulties in the grammatical construction of the 
language. His views are well explained in the Preface, from which it 
is evident that he has studied the subject with care, and gained much 
practical knowledge from experience. In the full conjugations and 
copious list of irregular verbs, and in the illustration of all the rules of 
syntax by explanations, remarks, and well chosen examples, this 
Grammar is decidedly superior to any we have seen. This we deem 
particularly worthy of notice, because the success of the learner in 
studying Spanish, as perhaps almost every other language, depends 
very much on the readiness with which he may become acquainted 
with the verbs and syntax. That terrible crux to all beginners the 
different uses of the verbs ser and edar, the author has laboured with 
earnestness and ingenuity to remove. He has explained the difficulty 
with as much clearness, probably, as the nature of the subject will 
admit. 

" Mr. Cubi has published in this country a small Spanish Dictionary, 
compiled from the best authorities, designed as a manual for learners ; 
and also Selections from classical Spanish writers. Within the last 
year he has published a Grammar in Spanish, intended for the South 
American market. To a gentleman of his talents, zeal, and industry, 
we cannot but wish a success proportioned to his ardour and exertions." 



*The sixth edition with corrections and improvements has been recently issued 
by the publisher of the Translator. 



Vlll 

From the Baltimore Gazette. 

" The second edition of this elementary work has just issued from 
the press, and were it not for the title page, might pass for an entire 
new work. Mr. Cubi has had the advantage of much experience as an 
instructor in the language, since the first puplication of his Grammar. 
He appears to have minutely noted the difficulties experienced by his 
numerous scholars, and has explained them in the most satisfactory 
manner. Those great obstacles to the rapid progress of the student, 
the irregular verbs, the difference between ser and estar, and the per- 
sonal pronouns, are removed by the ample elucidations of the author. 
The alphabetical list of the former, the full explanation and copious 
notes on the latter, make them plain to the dullest comprehension. 

"Some questions of pronunciation have likewise been investigated, 
on which much dispute formerly existed. The disposition of the ex- 
ercises has been altered materially for the better. The declensions 
of the nouns and verbs are all of them translated, which is essentially 
necessary for the English learner ; and what is invaluable to a person 
who wishes assistance in translating, and who is prosecuting the study 
of the language by himself, a copious Index of each point treated of in 
the work is added. This last is of itself an improvement entitling the 
second edition to great praise. In every point of view, this work may 
be looked upon as by far the best now before the public for the useful 
purposes for which it is intended." 



From the United Stales Literary Gazette. 

« Mr. Cubi has made many important additions and improvements 
in his second edition, which give evidence of much care and exertion ; 
and we cheerfully recommend it to all, who are desirous of obtaining a 
thorough knowledge of the Spanish language." 



PREFACE.* 



In proportion as mankind advance towards refinement and 
elegance, the study of languages appears to become more 
useful and necessary. Many of the sciences owe their origin 
to the ancients, and a great part of the most sublime existing 
literature has been handed down to us from the remotest 
periods. We see, on the other hand, that as political revo- 
lutions give rise to new interest and idioms, and the spirit of 
improvement is continually extending the range of discovery, 
the mutual relation between the different parts of the globe 
occupies a wider space, and becomes more important. 

The means of intellectual improvement are also very much 
increased by a knowledge of languages. A great man has 
not yet been found, whose energies were not roused, or 
whose talents were not improved, by some model of literary 
or scientific excellence. Models of this kind have multiplied, 
as languages have increased. He who, five hundred years 
since, to become an orator, could only resort to a Demos- 
thenes or a Cicero, has now, in addition, a Burke and a 
Pitt — a Bossuet and a Massillon — a Granada and a Leon. 
In the same manner, the merchant, whose speculations were 
confined within the narrow limits of his city, or of his coun- 
try, may now carry them to the extremities of a world, at 
that time, unknown. 

* This Preface, with some very slight variations, was prefixed to the 
first and second editions of this work. 

2 



X PREFACE. 

Impressed with these reflections, it soon occurred to the 
author, that immense benefits would result, if, by some sim- 
ple method, the acquisition of languages could be facilitated. 
Translation, being considered that branch in the study of 
a language, on which all others depend, became the first 
object of his attention. His thoughts were consequently 
engrossed by a plan, which, while it would be suited to the 
tender and growing capacity of youth, would also afford 
every possible facility to any one, who should wish to prose- 
cute the study of a language. With views like these, the 
author did not venture on his undertaking, until he had 
availed himself of every suggestion which he could obtain 
from experienced professors, or eminent individuals — until he 
had made a study of every system of translation, distin- 
guished by any useful invention — until he had followed the 
student, step by step, through the crowd of difficulties and 
perplexities, which frequently beset his path and impede his 
progress. 

This plan has been first applied to the Spanish, this being 
the language of more immediate importance to this extensive 
community. That this new system will perfectly correspond 
to the purposes for which it is intended, the author will not 
pretend to determine. He will, notwithstanding, explain the 
nature and arrangement of his labours, that some conclusions 
may be formed concerning their practical utility. 

As progress, however rapid, is gradual, and the mind of 
man, however stupendous, improves by degrees, the author 
has commenced his work by some easy moral lessons. 
These are followed by a few instructive anecdotes, accounts 
of heroic actions, and sprightly witticisms, all noted for purity 
and simplicity of style. Now the student is supposed to have 
acquired some knowledge of the mechanism of translation, 
and he enters into narrations. After narrations, come descrip- 
tions, portraits, and characters, which, being more brilliant in 
language, are also more difficult to translate. Speeches, com- 



PREFACE. XI 

parisons, invocations, are compositions of a higher order 
than the former, and have therefore been placed next in suc- 
cession. The work then concludes by some allegories, 
fictions, and a few select pieces of poetry, which increase the 
collection to nearly one hundred and fifty pages. 

It being one part of the design of this work to form the 
taste of the student, few extracts have been admitted into it 
which are not master-pieces in their kind, and did not come 
from the pen of Granada or Cervantes — Solis or Quevedo — 
Gracian or Garcilaso — Mariana or Feijoo — Saavedra or Me- 
lendez — Olavides or Cadalso. These are proud ornaments 
of the Spanish literature, and it is in the immortal works of 
these authors chiefly, that the language is found in its native 
splendour and idiomatic purity. 

The author will now proceed to state the method he has 
used, to place, through the medium of these models, the 
translating of the Spanish idiom, within the reach of the 
American or English student. 

The difficulty in distinguishing the verb in all its various 
ramifications of moods, tenses, and persons, from other parts 
of speech, has often been found to impede the progress of 
young students. Hence, perhaps, arise the reluctance with 
which they sometimes attempt, and the facility with which 
they frequently relinquish, the study of a foreign language. 
To obviate this inconvenience, all the verbs which occur in 
this work have been printed in Italic characters. 

Every language, if compared with another, will present 
many uncommon modes of expression, known under the 
appellation of idioms. Of these, no useful selection can be 
made. They are subject to constant modification, and, ac- 
cording to their position in a sentence, to a variety of mean- 
ings. Every nicety of idiom has its peculiar place, and the 
most elegant expression, if not appropriately applied, may 
become an inaccuracy of language. Detached modes of 
expression, are, therefore, like detached words, which, if we 



XII PREFACE. 

cannot connect and use, the greater number we acquire, the 
• more they encumber the mind. To obviate the difficulties 
which this part of the language presents to the beginner, 
every nicety of expression, or intricacy of grammar, has 
been fully explained as it occurs. Thus theory is joined to 
practice, and those obstacles, which, so long as they are not 
removed by oral explanation, throw even the most zealous 
student into languor and despondency, will, in this work, 
form new incentives for the prosecution of his labours. 

In noting the difficulties which the learner encounters, as 
he advances in a language, none has more forcibly struck 
the author, than the unavoidable deficiency of dictionaries. 
Participles and tenses of verbs constitute a considerable por- 
tion of a language ; yet they are not, nor can they be, in- 
cluded in any lexicon, unless it be swollen to an unwieldy 
size. If the student happens, therefore, to have forgotten 
the root of any branch of a verb, which the most tenacious 
memory will not always retain, he is immediately bewil- 
dered. Proper names present also no inconsiderable bar to 
his improvement. The meaning of a whole sentence fre- 
quently depends on an accurate knowledge of a fictitious 
personage, or an unknown writer — of a remote river, or an 
obscure place. These words are generally spelled differ- 
ently in various languages, and even when they happen to 
agree, they sometimes cannot be found in immense encyclo- 
paedias. Parsing is allowed, by all professors, to be the 
only means, by which, in translation, any solid advancement 
can be made. Yet every experienced instructor knows, that, 
in the only manner in which grammars and dictionaries are 
or perhaps can be made, the meaning of a page must be 
known before it can be parsed. We are, therefore, deprived 
of the means, which, in the acquisition of a language, are 
considered the most effectual ; and the beginner is led into a 
labyrinth, the moment he is obliged to understand through 
the medium of analysis. 



PREFACE. Xlll 

To be thus entangled in any one of these intricacies, 
creates in young learners, unless endued with superior 
powers, that disgust at application, that feeling of distress, 
which is so apparent when they are called on to study. If, 
under these circumstances, the instructor is one of those 
who think that youth must learn by intuition, and instead of 
clear explanations, employs rude usage, the young student is 
left to linger for years, afraid of his preceptor and appalled 
by his task. 

It has long been the wish of the author, and it is now the 
chief design of this work, to remove all these obstacles. He 
has, therefore, used means, which, it is fondly hoped, will be 
found equal to the object. Every word contained in the 
extracts, whether proper or common, primitive or derivative, 
has been carefully selected, and alphabetically arranged. 

The author has been particularly careful to give a full 
analysis of every part of speech. Thus, in the pronouns, 
the case in which they are used, and the source from which 
they are derived, have been explained. As to the participles, 
not only the verb from which they have been formed, will be 
found, but whether they are absolute or used as adjectives, 
as substantives, or in any other way. Respecting the verbs, 
every particular concerning them has been fully given. 

On a certain vowel of every Spanish word, consisting of 
more than one syllable, an emphatic stress is laid. This 
vowel is sometimes distinguished by an acute accent ; but, in 
general, no sign whatever is given. That the student may 
never be at a loss to know on what vowel to lay this stress, 
so important in the acquisition of the Spanish language, 
every word contained in the Vocabulary has been regularly 
accented. 

Fully convinced that it is through the medium of our 

understanding alone, that we can attain any knowledge, the 

author has always explained, never performed, the task of 

the student. Hence, it will invariably be found, in this work, 

2* 



XIV PREFACE. 

that facilities cease, when application becomes necessary. A 
student may, for example, find the full meaning of every 
word, and the explanation of every difficulty ; still these are 
but auxiliaries to his conception of the meaning of a sen- 
tence, — the meaning of a sentence has not been conceived 
for him. 

Perfection, however desired, has not probably been at- 
tained in the execution of a work, in which, from a confused 
mass of words, an alphabetical list was to be formed, and, 
from a maze of idiomatic perplexity, clearness and perspi- 
cuity were to be produced. Some words contained in the 
extracts, may have been omitted in the vocabulary — some 
may have been misplaced — and some may have been printed 
in Roman or Italic characters, when the contrary should 
have been done. A few difficulties of idiom might perhaps 
have been better elucidated^ and a few intricacies of grammar, 
more clearly explained. These, however, are defects of very 
little importance ; they are seleom noticed ; and when they 
are, they can readily be supplied. 

To conclude these few remarks, the author will observe, 
that, in this undertaking, it has been his ardent desire to be 
useful. Whether amidst the great number of his professional 
avocations, this wish has merely been a pleasing delusion to 
beguile his literary toil, or a hope which experience will 
realize, the event must decide. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



MORAL LESSONS. 

Prud£ncia, ....... Felics Verela. 25 

Justicia, •••• idem. 26 

Fortaleza, idem. 27 

Templanza, * idem. 27 

Benevolencia, . idem. 28 

Conmiseracion, ..•••♦.. idem. 28 

Beneficencia, idem. 29 

Ira, • 4 idem. 29 

Desesperacion, . idem. 29 

Venganza, idem. 30 

Tristeza, idem. SO 

Alegria, . idem. 3 

Modestia, idem. 31 

Inquietud, idem. 31 

Injenuidad, idem. 32 

Esperanza, . C*** # 82 

Urbanidad, C***. 33 



XVI CONTENTS. 

ANECDOTES. 

P4-GB 

Henrique Octavo, Cedlio de C&rpas. 34 

El Anrigo Fiel, idem. 35 

El Nino Gachon, idem. 36 

El Hombre Benefico, idem. 37 

El Viejo Relijioso, idem. 40 

Juanot i Colin, . idem. 42 

Valor de la Amistad, idem. 45 

La Constancia del Amor, . . . Jose Antonio Conde. 49 

WITTICISMS AND TALES. 

El Valiente Ufano, Jeronimo Feijoo. 53 

El Medico Tunante, idem. 5a 

Respuesta de Uno al Provisor, ...... 55 

La Larga Peticion, Jeronimo Feijoo. 55 

El Estudiante i las Truchas, idem. 56 

Estratajema de un Cura, idem. 57 

SELECT SENTENCES. 
Various Authors, 59 to 62 

HEROIC ACTIONS. 

Humanidad del Czar, Jeronimo Feijoo. 63 

Integridad del Mariscal de Eb;e, idem. 63 

Heroicidad de Guzman el Bueno, . Manuel Jose Quintana. 64 

Serenidad de Carlos Doce, .... Jeronimo Feijoo. 67 

Desinteres de Alibeg, idem. 68 

Lealtad i Constancia de Los Saguntinos, . . Jlscargorta. 70 



CONTENTS. XV11, 

NARRATIONS. 

PAGE 

Mansedumbre de Jesucristo, .... Pablo Olavides. 72 

Penitencias de los Bracmanes, .... Jeronimo Feijoo. 73 

Penitencias de los Auiidas, idem. 74 

Las Artes Divinatorias son Ridiculas, . . . idem. 75 

Comodidades del Rico i del Pobre, .... idem. 76 

El No Se Que, idem. 77 

Debemos Recorrer Nuestras Acciones, . . Lms de Granada. 78 

Amemos la Virtud, . . . . * « i idem. 79 

Calamidades de la Alemania, Borgona, i Lorena, 5 ^^Falardo ° 80 

Como se descubre el Injenio de los Ninos, . . . idem. 81 
Invasion de los Moros en Espana, . . . Juan de Mariana. 82 

Reino de Navarra, . . . . . . idem. 83 

Espanoles Antiguos i Modernos, idem. 84 

Sitio i Produccion de la Isla de Ceilan, [ Bartol %f i £%™ rd " d ° 86 

Tres Acciones forman la Historia de America, Antonio de Solis. 87 

Muerte de Majiscatzin, . . . . . . . idem. 88 

Encuentro de Jil Bias con Chinchilla, Jil Bias. 89 

La Casada i la Relijiosa, Luis de Leon. 90 

En que consiste la verdadera dicha humana, . Garcia Malo. 92 

Destierro del Conde-Duque, Jil Bias. 94 

Historia de Espana, Jose Cadalso. 95 

DESCRIPTIONS. 

Juicio Final, Luis de Granada. 99 

Moradores Celestiales, . idem. 101 

La Inmensidad del Senor, idem, 102 



XV111 . CONTENTS. 

PAGB 

Monte de la Virtud, ..... Jeronimo Feijoo. 103 

Caracter de Chaves, i sus Tertulianos, . . . Jil Bias. 104 

Primer Salida de Don Quijote, . . Miguel de Cervantes. 107 

Retrato de Crisostomo, idem. 108 

Ei Famoso Ladron Moinpodio, idem. 108 

Edad de Oro, . . . idem. 109 

La Jitanilla Preciosa, ....*.. idem. Ill 

Don Quijote a Sancho Dormicio, idem. 112 

Situation Pasada de Galatea, idem. 113 

La Pobreza, . . idem. 114 

Fernando Rei de Aragon, .... Juan de Mariana. 115 

Don Alvaro de Luna, idem. 116 

Pedro el Cruel, ♦ idem. 117 

Paralelo entre la Paz i la Guerra, . Diego Saavedra Fajardo. 118 

SPEECHES AND ADDRESSES. ' 

Razonamiento de Baucio Capeto, . . Juan de Mariana. 120 

Venecia Libre, i Venecia Esclava, . . Jose Joaquin de Mora. 121 

Razonamiento de Don Pelayo, . . . Juan de Mariana. 122 

Pintura de la Inquisition, . . . Ruiz Padron. 123 

Eshortacion de Opas a Don Pelayo, . . Juan de Mariana. 125 

Razonamiento de Montezuma a Cortes, . . Antonio de Solis. 125 

Razonamiento de Carlomagno, . . . Juan de Mariana. 127 

Invocacion al Todopoderoso, .... Pablo Olavides. 128 

La Muerte, idem. 130 

Poder de) D^seo de Gloria, . . . Miguel de Cervantes, 130 



CONTENTS. XIX 

ALLEGORIES AND FICTIONS. 



PAGE 



Historiadores Clasicos Antiguos, . . Diego Saavedra Fajardo. 132 

Encuentro de un Argos Moral, . . . BaUasar Gracian. 133 

Heino de la Inmortalidad, . . . idem. 135 

POETRY. 

Quejas de Nemoroso, .... Garcilaso de la Vega. 138 

La Soledad, . . . . . Juan Melendez Valdes. 139 

Las Flores, . . . idem 141 

VOCABULARY, * 149 



TRADUCTOR ESPANOL. 



MORAL LESSONS. 



PRUPENCIA. 

La prudencia indica al 2 h ombre lo que 3 debe 4 elejir^ prac- 

licar, i omitir en cada circunstancia. Esta virtud no se 5 

dquiere sino por la reflecsion continua que llega a 6 ha- 

ernos 7 habituar a juzgar bien. Procuremos conocer las 8 

1 For rules on reading, orthography and accent of the Spanish Lan- 
guage, see the Author's Grammar, from p. 14 to p. 23. Whenever the 
student is referred to Grammar in this book, it must always be under- 
stood that of the Author, (5th or 6th Edition) entitled, 6 A New Spanish 
Grammar, adapted to every Class of Learners. By Mariano Cubi i 
Soler. 

2 M, contraction of a el 'to the.' Nouns used in a general sense re 
quire the article in Spanish. — See Grammar, R. II. p. 121. 

3 Lo que, 'that which,' 'what.' 

4 El, 'he,' understood before debe. — See Grammar, R. XXII. note 1. 
p. 157. 

5 No se adquiere, literally, 'acquires not itself,' but it means really 'is 
not acquired.' See Grammar, Observations on Se, sec. 2, p. 165. 

6 Llega a, idiomatic, 'which at last.' 

7 Hacernos, makes us. Nos, os, le, la, lo, les, las, me, te, se, objective 
personal pronouns, are placed after infinitives, imperatives and present 
participles, forming with them one single word. — See Grammar, Synt. 
R. XXIII. p. 159. 

8 Las cosas, 'things.' Nouns used in a general sense take the article 
in Spanish. — See note 2. 

3 



36 MORAL LESSONS. 

cosas como son en si, i no como las pintan los h ombres, 9 i 

entonces podremos hacer buen uso de ellas. Sin embargo 10 

es preciso estar al tanto de 11 las atenciones de los otros para 

dirijir nuestras operaciones respecto a ellos. 

Felics Varela. 

JUSTlCIA. 
La justicia nos prescribe dar a cada uno lo que le corres- 
ponde; i es la virtud que sostiene la sociedad. Debemos pues 
no privar & otro de los bienes, honor, i credito que posee, i 
tampoco se han de negar 12 los premios i alabanzas que cada 
uno merece. Asi mismo 13 es preciso correjir los 14 defectos, i 
castigar los 14 delitos; pero de un modo 15 arreglado a 16 la 
prudencia, en terminos 17 que siempre se produzca 18 un 

9 Las 2 pintan 2 los hombres, 1 * 'men represent them.' The subject may, 
generally, go either before or after the verb in Spanish. — See Grammar, 
p. 140 ; and R. XXII. p. 157. 

10 Sin embargo, 'notwithstanding ' 

11 Estar al tanto de, idiomatic, 'to understand.' 

12 Se han de negar, idiomatic, 'are to be refused.' Haber de, means, 
•to be to,' 'must.' — See Grammar, p. 206. Se, is frequently used, as it 
is in this case, to form the passive voice. — See Grammar, Observations 
on Se, sec. 2, p. 165. 

13 Asx mismo, 'also,' 'in the same manner.' 

14 It must be remembered that the article is expressed in Spanish, but 
not in English, before nouns used in a general sense. 

15 De un modo, 'in a manner.' 

16 Arreglado a, 'comformable to,' 'agreeable to.' 

17 En terminos, is synonimous of de un modo, 'in a manner.' 

18 Se produzca, instead of sea producido, 'be produced,' because, as it 
has already been observed in note 5 and 12, se, in Spanish, is fre- 
quently used to form the passive voice. — See Grammar, Observation 2, 
p. 165. 

* The numbers put to Spanish words in the notes, show the position they occupy 
in the sentence, when translated into English. 



MORAL LESSONS. 



27 



bien; que el castigo no esceda 19 al delito, ni el premio, al 

merito. 

Felics Varela. 

FORTALEZA. 
La fortaleza sostiene al hombre 30 en los peligros ; le ensefla 
a sufrir los males; a no vacilar en la abundancia de los 
bienes ; i a emprender graudes obras. Pero es preciso que 
no dejenere en temeridad, 6 mejor dicho, 21 en barbarie ; pues 
hai muchos que creen que son fuertes porque se esponen a 
todos los peligros sin necesidad, i buscan, por decirlo asi, 29 
los males, para ostent.ar que puedon sufrirlos. Otros desti- 
erran de su alma la compasion ; otros aspiran al barbaro 
ejercicio de sus fuerzas contra sus semejantes, como lo 
harian entre si los animales mas feroces, 23 i esto creen que es 
la virtud de la fortaleza. jQue engaiiados viven! Toda 
virtud es racional i no puede inspirarnos* 4 operaciones tan 

brutales. 

Felics Varela. 

TEMPLAJN'ZA. 
La templanza pone unos justos limites a todos nuestros 
apetitos para que 25 no se opo?igan 26 a lo que dicta la razon, i 

19 No esceda, 'do not exceed.' Do, is not used in Spanish to express 
the negative action of verbs. — See Grammar, p. SO and 190, note at 
bottom. 

20 Al hombre, 'man.' An objective case, governed by a verb, if it be 
a being, or an object personified, is invariably preceded by the preposi- 
tion a, 'to.' — See Grammar, R. LIY. p. 214. 

21 O mejor dicho, 'or rather.' 

22 Por decirlo asi, idiomatic, 'as it were.' 

23 Como lo 6 harian 5 entre 7 si 8 los 1 animates* mas- feroces 3 , as the most 
ferocious animals would do it among themselves. 

24 The subject in Spanish goes either before or after the verb. — See 
Grammar, p. 140, R. XXII. p. 157 and note 9. 

25 Para que, synonymous with a fin de que, 'to the end that,' or simply 
'that.' 

26 No se opongan, 'they may not oppose themselves,' 'they may not be 
contrary to.' 



28 MORAL LESSOXS. 

mcuida la lei, smkndo asi mismo 27 para conservar la safud. 
No solo en los manjares, como se crcc 2S por lo comun, 29 sino 
tambien en ios deleites de los demas sentidos, tierce cabida 30 
la templanza. Nos cnse/la 31 a usar los placeres como medios 
para aliviar nuestro espiritu ; i no como objetos en que debe 
Jijarse nutstra alma. 32 

Felics Varela. 

BENEVOLENCIA. 

La benevolencia produce en nosotros una sensacion apaci- 

ble, i en los demas, aprecio; pues todos avian al que 33 desea 

los bienes para sus semejantes. Sin embargo, es preciso que 

no dejenere en una absoluto condescendencia, i un deseo de 

que todos consigan lo que apeteccn, ora sea justo, ora sea 

injusto. 

Felics Varela. 

CONMISERACION. 
La conmiseracion es como el distintivo de la humanidad, 
pues solo las fleras no se resienten de los estragos de sus 
semejantes, ni ponen termino a su furor. Pero es preciso no 
confundir la conmiseracion con la 74 debilidad que pretende 
dejar impunes los delitos i protejer al 35 malevolo. 

Felics Varela. 

27 Asi inismo, idiomatic, 'at the same time,' 'likewise. 5 

28 Se cree, believes itself, i. e. 'it is believed,' se being used in Spanish 
to form the passive voice. 

29 Por lo comun, idiomatic, 'commonly,' 'generally.' 

30 Tiene cahirta, may be contained, i. e. 'may be used.' 

31 Nos ensena, 'it teaches us.' The subject ella, 'it,' is understood in 
Spanish. Personal pronouns, as subjects of verbs, are only used in a 
few cases. — See Grammar, R. XXII. note 1, p. 157. 

32 Debe fijarse nuestra alma, 'our soul should be absorbed.' The sub- 
ject in Spanish goes either before or after the verb. — See Grammar*, p. 
140 ; and R. XXII. p. 197. 

33 Jll que, 'him who-' — See Grammar, note 2, p. 181. 

34 La, that.— See Grammar, R. XXXVI. note 1, p. 182. 

35 See why it is al, and not el.— See Grammar, R. LIV. p. 214, and 
note 20. 



MORAL LESSONS 



BENEFIC£NCIA. 



29 



La beneficencia nos hace amables, pero sera indiscreta, si 
distribuimos los benef icios sin consideracion a las personas f 9 
pues muchas veces se conceden dones 37 a sujetos que no han 
de 38 hacer uso de ellos, i son inu tiles ; 6 a personas que les 
dan mala applicacion i vienen a ser 29 perjuiciales. 

Felics Varela 

IRA. 

La ira convierte al hombre en una fiera, privandole de todo, 

el uso de su razon. Basta decir esto para entenderse que 

debe ser reprimida. Sin embargo, hai una ira santa que es la 

que escita™ en un espiritu arreglado, la vista del crimen, i la 

obstinacion del criminal. En tal caso debe arreglarse por la 

lei divina i humana, para no perder el amor natural que debe- 

mos a todo hombre, por el odio que merece el vicio. Amemos 

al malo i aborrezcamos su maid ad ; pero mientras no se cor- 

rija manifestemosle el rigor que merece. 

Felics Varela. 

DESESPERACION. 

La desesperacion siempre es irracional, i jamas tiene funda- 
mento. El hombre debil, el hombre de un espiritu bajo, es el 
que no puede sufrir los males, i se desespera. 41 Siempre la 

36 Las personas, 'persons,' 'men.' The article is placed in Spanish 
before nouns expressive of a whole class, or species, or genus. — See 
Grammar, R. II. p. 120, and note 5, 12, 18, 28. 

37 Se conceden dones, 'favours are granted.' Se is used, in Spanish, to 
express the passive voice.— See Grammar, note 2, p. 165. 

38 No han de, 'are not to.' 

39 Vienen a ser, idiomatic, 'become, 5 'turn out.' 

40 Place escita after criminal, its subject ; at the end of the sentence. 

41 Se desespera, 'despairs himself,' that is, 'despairs.' Neuter verbs in 
English, are sometimes reflective in Spanish, and vice versa, 

3* 



30 mohal lessons. 

desesperacion proviene de ignorancia, pues no se advierten 4 * 
los medios de evitarla. 6 praporcionarl^ 43 i en consecuencia 
el espiritu se embrutece. 

Felics Varela 

VENGANZA. 

Prueba la venganza tin alma debil i rastrera; porque ver- 

daderamente los males recibidos no se destruyen 44 con hacer 

otros iguales al que 45 los causo; i es una necia complacencia 

la de no seiitir 46 los males porque otro tambien los siente. 

Pero no se debe inferir de aqui 47 que el que hace an dano se 

quede impune ; pues hai el recurso de aplicarle la pena que 

merece, no por venganza, sino por correccion, para evitar que 

haga mayores daiios, 

Felics Varela. 

TRISTEZA. 

La tristeza debe moderarse 48 con todo empeno porque un 

alma triste es un alma decaida 6 abatida ; i en el abatimiento 

no pucden ejercerse 49 acciones grandes. Debemos considerar 

un espiritu triste como un cuerpo desfallecido, que apenas 

puede ejercer las acciones mas sencillas. 

Felics Varela. 

42 No se advierien, do not perceive themselves, i. e, 'are not perceived.' 
Se, as frequently repeated, is used to form the passive voice. — Note 5, 12, 
18, 28, 36. 

43 The subject in Spanish goes either before or after the verb. — Note 
23, 32. In translating the above phrase, construct it thus : los medios de 
evitarla 6 proporcionarla no se advierten. 

44 No se destruyen, do not destroy themselves, i. e. 'are not destroyed.' 
46 M que, 'him who. 5 — Grammar, R. XXXV. and note, p. 180-1. 

46 La de no sentir, that of not feeling, i. e. 'not to feel,' 

47 De aqui, 'hence.' 

48 Debe moderarse, 'should be moderated.' 

40 No pucden ejercerse, 'cannot be accomplished.' 



Moral lessons. 31 



ALEGRlA. 



La alegria ecsalta al alma, i es como el gran resorte de sus 
operaciones 5 mas cuando es escesiva llega a trastornar el 
espiritu i le da cierta lijereza opuesta a la madurez i buen 
juicio. Conviene reflecsionar sobre la inconstancia de la 
alegria en el mismo acto en que la esperimentamos; esto ser* 
vird para moderarla, i hacemos menos sensible su perdida. 

Felics Varela. 

MODESTIA, 

Port freno a tu lengua para que las palabras que salgan de 
tu boca no alteren tu sosiego, i te proporcionen discordias. 50 
Cualquiera que 51 hahla con gusto de las faltas ajenas, oird con 
dolor hablar de las suyas. No te alabes a ti 52 mismo porque 
no granjeas sino el menosprecio ; no procures hacer ridiculos 
a los otros, porque es peligroso emperio. Una burla picante 
es la ponzona de la amistad, i e] que no puede contener su 
lengua, no vivird con quietud, Un grand e hablador es el 
azote de las concurrencias ; se aflije el oido con su locuaci-* 
dad, i jeneralmente enfada i molesta; porque es su lengua 
como un torrente en que se anega la conversaciom 

Felics Varela. 

INQTJIETUD. 

Mir a el orijen de la inquietud que traes, i las desgracias de 
que te quejas, i verds que provienen de tu propia locura ; de 
tu amor propio ; 53 i de tu desarreglada imajinacion. Corrij 

50 Te proportioned, discordias, 'bring discord upon you.' 

51 Cualquiera que, 'whoever.' — See Grammar, p. 134, R. 8. 

52 No te alabes a ti mismo, 'do not praise thyself.' Two pronominal 
objective cases are sometimes elegantly repeated. — Grammar, Observa- 
tion 2, p. 164. 

^ Ainor propio, 'self-love. 9 



3SJ MOIUL LESSONS. 

tu interior, i no murmur es del orden que Dios ha establecido 

No te digas jamas 54 a ti mismo, "Si tuviera hacienda, poder i 

reposo, yo seria feliz :" advierte que estas cosas tienen sus 

inconvenientes i daHan 4 los que 55 las poseen. No tengas 

envidia 56 al que goza una felicidad aparente, porque no conoces 

sus penas secretas. La mayor sabiduria es contentarse con 

poco; porque^ el que aumenta sus riquezas aumenta sus cui- 

dados. 

Felics Varela. 

INJENUIDAD* 

El hombre injenuo desprecia los artificios de la hipocresia; 
se pone de acuerdo 57 consigo mismo ; i jamas se embaraza en 
sus operaciones : tiene bastante valor para decir la verdad, i 
le falta bS para mentir. El hipocrita opera de un modo con- 
trario a sus sentimientos ; estd profundamente escondido : da 
a sus discursos las apariencias de verdad, mientras que 59 la 
unica occupacion de su vida, es el engano. Es incomprehen- 
sible para los necios, pero estd mui descubierto a la vista del 
prudente. ; O insensato hipocrita ! las fatigas que pasas para 
ocultar lo que eres, son mas grandes que las que costaria el 

conseguir lo que quieres parecer, 

Felics Varela. 

ESPERANZA. 

Es la esperanza Una de las facultades del alma, que mat 
sirven a hacemos felices en este mundo de miserias, cuando 
estd guiada por el juicio i la moderacion. Debemos pues 

54 No te digas jamas a ti mismo, 'never say to thyself.' Two nega* 
tive adverbs are used in Spanish to express energetically the same nega- 
tion. — See Grammar, p. 222, note 4* 

55 A los que, 'them or those who.' — Note 46. 

56 No tengas envidia, 'envy not.' 

57 Se pone de acuerdo, idiomatic, 'he agrees,' or 'is consistent.' 

58 / le falta para mentir, 'and not enough.' — See FaUan, Grammar, p 
269, near the bottom. 

59 Mientras que, 'whilst,' 'at the same time that.' 



MORAL LESSONS. 33 

desde naestra ninez cultivar este don celestial, que solo el 
puede aliviar nuestras desgracias, i dulc'^ficar la amarga copa 
de nuestras miserias. Pero al mismo tiempo es preciso que 
no abata nuestra actividad, 6 sirva de instrumento 60 para in 
terceptar nuestros esfuerzos. La esperanza ha de ser* ra- 
cional; no vana. Hagamos pues de nuestra parte 61 lo que se 
debe 62 para que se efectue lo que esperamos; 63 dejemos sr 

ecsito al Todo Poderoso 

Cubi. 

URBANIDAD. 
La urbaniclad es una obligacion que debe el hombre a sus 
semej antes en su trato con ellos. Es de la mayor impor- 
tancia, pues, que los padres inculquen esta idea a sus hijos 
desde la cuna. La urbaniclad pone, en gran medida, freno a 
nuestras pasiones ; i da, en el trato social, cierta delicadeza, 
que sin ella los hombres dejenerartan en brutos. No se 
limita este deber, como muchos creen, en una mera forma 
esterior, que se ha inventado parar obrar segun el estado de 
algunos indivicluos respecto de otros ; no, este deber va 
mucho mas lejos. Es una virtue! social, por medio de la 
dial se procara 64 siempre no obrar ni hablar de modo que 
repugne a los sentimientos de las personas con quienes iene- 
mos trato. Es la que ensefia al juez a ser recto con afabili- 
dad ; al jeneral, severo con ternura ; la que quita toda osten- 
tacion i orgullo al 65 ponderoso ; i la que inspvra a todos los 
hombres en jeneral a hacerae agradables por medios dulces, 

verdacleros i virtuosos. 

Cubi. 

60 Sirva de instrumento para, 'be instrumental m. s 
* Ha de ser, 'is to be, 5 'must be.' — Note 12. 

61 De nuestra parte, 'on our side.' 

62 Lo que se debe, 'what is necessary, 5 'what must be done. 5 

63 Construct the phrase thus : lo que esperamos se efectue 

64 Se procura, 'it is endeavoured,' 'we endeavour.' 

65 Al, 'from the.' Verbs of depriving require a 'to,' and not de, 'from. 5 



ANECDOTES 



HENRIQUE OCTAVO. 

Indi spues to el rei de Inglaterra Henrique octavo con el 
rei de Francia, Francisco primero, resolvio e?wiarle un emba- 
jador encargado de decir a este principe palabras fieras i 
amenazadoras ; i para desempenar esta comision, elijib a 66 un 
obispo Ingles, en quien tenia mucha confianza, i creia mui a 
proposito 67 para la ejecucion de su proyecto. Luego que el 
prelado supo el objeto de su embajada, temeroso de perder 68 
la vida, si trataba a Francisco primero del modo que querta 
su amo, le represento el peligro a que le esponia, rogdndole 
con instancia que le ecsonerase 69 de semejante comision. 
u Nada tanas," le replied Henrique octavo, "si el rei de Francia 
te quita la vida, 70 yo hare cortar 71 la cabeza a cuantos Fran- 
ceses se hallen 72 en mis estados." u Asi lo creo, senor," replied 

66 A, 'to,' precedes, as it has been said in note 20, a being or thing 
personified in the objective case. 

67 A proposito, 'adapted,' 'fit.' 

68 De perder, 'of losing.' Prepositions require, in Spanish, the infini- 
tive, and not the present participle as they do in English. — Grammar, 
R. LII. note 1, p. 204. 

69 Que le ecsonerase, 'to release him.' — See Grammar, R. LVI. note 4, 
p. 216. 

70 Te quita la vida, takes away the life to thee, i. e. 'takes away thy 
life.' The article and the personal pronouns, and sometimes the article 
alone, are used, in Spanish, to designate the parts of the body, which, 
in English are pointed out, through the medium of the possessive pro- 
nouns. — See Observations, Grammar, p. 170-1. 

71 Yo hare cortar, I shall order to cut, i. e. 'I shall order to be cut off.' 
Verbs of command require an active, not a passive infinitive, in Spanish 
See Grammar, R. LV. p. 215. 

72 Se hallen, may find themselves, i. e. 'may be found.' — See note 5, 
12, 18, 28, 36, 43. 



ANECDOTES. 35 

el obispo, M pero permitidme os diga, que de cuantas cabezas 
hagais cortar, seguramente no habrd una siquiera que siente™ 
tan bien a mi cuerpo como la mia." 74 

Cecilio de Corpas. 

EL AMIGO FIEL. 

Un hombre respetable, que habia hecho gran papel en 
Paris, quedb reducido a la indijencia, i solo se alimentaba de 
las limosnas de pan que de ocho en ocho 75 dias le mandahan 
de la parroquia. Un dia encargb le enviasen mayor cantidad ; 
llamole el cura, i le preguntb si vivta solo. " g Con quien 
qiiereiS) senor, que yo viva" le respondib, "cuando todo el 
mundo me ha abandonado ?" "Pues si estais solo," continub 
el cura, u i porque pedis mas pan del 76 necesario ?" Descon- 
certado el pobre, 77 confesb que tenia un perro. El cura le 
manifesto que el solo era un distribuidor del pan de los po- 
bres, i que la honradez ecsijia que se deshiciese de su perro. 
■*I bien, senor," esclamb, u si le abandono, i quien me amaraV 
Enternecido el parroco, sacb la bolsa, i se 78 la d£6, diciendo: 
* ; Tomad, que esto me perteneceP 

Cecilio de Corpas. 

73 Que siente, 'that will become.' Verbs expressive of fitness require 
to be in the subjunctive, in Spanish. — Grammar, R.LVI. note l,p. 216. 

74 La mia, 'mine.' Mine, thine, &c. used as above, require to be 
preceded by the article, in Spanish. — Grammar, R. XXXVII. note 2, 
p. 169. 

75 De ocho en ocho dias, idiomatic, 'every eight days.' 

76 Del, 'than.' In this phrase que es, 'that which is,' is understood 
See when de means 'than.' — Grammar, note 2, p. 171. 

77 El pobre, 'the poor man.' Adjectives qualifying man, or woman, 
are frequently used as substantives. In such cases the articles el, la, los, 
or las, is used. 

78 Se la did, 'gave it to him.' Se means, sometimes, 'to it,' 'to him,' 
'to her,' 'to them,' or 'to you.' — See Grammar, se, Observations 3, p. 165 



36 ANECDOTES. 



EL NINO GACHON. 



Cierta senora tenia un hijo a quien no querza contradecir 
para que no se pusiese enfermo. Los parientes, amigos, i aun 
el mismo marido, le Meier on presente 79 que iba a perder al 
chico, mas todo fue inutil. Un dia oyb a su hijo llorar en el 
patio, con muestras de mucha colera. Al instante corre, i 
averigua que la causa 80 es negarle un criado 81 cierta cosa que 
le pedia : "Bien impertinente sois," le dijo la seiiora, "de 82 no 
dar al nino lo que os pide." "Afe mia, 5583 respondib el criado, 
"que* 4 bien puede llorar hasta manana ; que no la obteiidraP 
A estas palabras, la seiiora se encolerizb en terminos 85 que 
fue a buscar al marido para que castigase a aquel imprudente. 
Su 86 esposo, que era tan debil con su mujer, como esta con el 
hijo, grita al criado : 44 Insolente, ^ como teneis la desverg'denza 
de no obedecer a la sehora ?" u Es verdad, senor," contestb el 
criado, c mas la senora puede dar al nino lo que pide: hace un 
cuarto de hora 87 qiriere 88 le de la lima, que ha visto reflejada 
en la fuente." A estas palabras, todos se pusieron a reir, i lo 
mismo 89 la senora, no obstante su colera. Esta escena la 
avergonzb i corrijib en lo sucesivo. 

Cecilio De Corpas. 

79 Le hicieron presente, idiomatic, 'manifested to her.' 

80 De ello, 'of it,' understood. 

81 Negarle un criado, 'that a servant refused to him.' 

82 De, 'in.' Prepositions cannot always be literally translated. 
83 Afe mia, 'by my faith,' 'by my troth.' 

84 Que, is frequently redundant. Here it might just as well be left out 

85 En terminos, 'so much,' 'in such a manner.' 

8e By the context of the phrase the student will know when su, is to 
be translated by 'its,' 'her,' 'his,' 'their,' or 'your.' 

87 Que, 'since,' understood. 

88 Que yo, 'that I,' understood. 

89 1 lo mismo, 'and also,' 'likewise.' 



ANECDOTES. 



EL HOMBRE BENEFICO. 



37 



Ibamos a Deifos, Licias i yo, 90 a llevar a Apolo nuestra 
ifrenda; ya divisdbamos la colina sobre que estd el templo, 
adomado de colunas de una maravillosa blancura, i elevado 
desde un bosque de laureles hacia la azulada boveda celeste. 
Mas lejos, nuestros ojos perdzan de vista la inmensa planicie 
de los mares. Era mediodia ; la arena nos abrasaba los 
pies, i a cada paso que ddbamos se levantaba una polvareda 
inflamada que nos quemaba los ojos, introduciendose por 
nuestros labios resecos. Asi ibamos subiendo 91 llenos de 
languidez ; mas mui pronto apresurdmos el paso, cuando 
percibz?nos delante de nosotros, sobre el borde del camino, 
algunos altos i espesos arboles, cuya sombra era tan 92 oscura 
como la de la noche. Llenos de un pavor relijioso entramos 
oor aquel sitio, cuya boca despedza una dulce frescura. 

Este delicioso lugar ofrecza a la vez cuanto podia recrear 
los sentidos, pues los arboles rodeaban una glorieta de ces- 
pedes, regada por una fuente de fresca i cristalina agua ; 
ramas cubiertas de peras i doradas manzanas se inclinaban 
hacia ella. La fuente salza a borbotones 93 del pie de un se- 
pulcro rodeado de madre de selva, sauces i yedra. u \ O 
Dios ! 55 esclame, u \ que delicioso lugar! Mi corazon bendice 
a aquel 94 cuya mano benefica ha plantado estos arboles, i 
cuyas cenizas puede ser reposen aqui." Ved aqui, me dijo 
Licias, algunos caracteres que percibo por entre las ramas en 
el borde del sepulcro : tal vez nos dirdn quien ha sido el que 
se ha dignado proveer al descanso del viajero fatigado. Xe- 

90 Construct Licias i yo ibamos d Delfos. 

91 Ibamos subiendo, c we were ascending.' — See Grammar, R. LII. note 
5, p. 204. 

92 Tan oscura como la, 'as dark as that of.' — See how comparisons and 
comparatives are translated in Spanish ; Grammar, p. 150-2. 

93 A borbotones, c in bubbling streams.' 

94 A aquel, 'him.'— Grammar, R. XXXV. and note p. 180-1. 

4 



38 ANECDOTES. 

vanto las ramas con su baston, i leyb estas palabras. 6 Aqui 
yacen las cenizas de Amintas. Su vida solo fue una progre- 
sion de beneficios. Queriendo seguir dispensandolos des- 
pues de su muerte, condujo esta fuente aqui, i plantb los 
arboles.' 

" j Bendita sea tu ceniza, hombre jeneroso, i todos los 
tuyos, 95 i cuanto te pertenezca /" Diciendo estas palabras 
vi a lo lejos, por entre los drboles y una persona que se acer- 
caba hacia nosotros ; era una joven mui bella que vettia a la 
fuente con un cantaro. u Yo os saludo" nos dijof 6 con una 
voz graciosa "vosotros sois estranjeros, i estais cansados 97 de 
lo mucho que habeis andado con el calor que hace. 9S Decidme 
g necesitais de otros refrescos que aqui no hayais encontrado ? 
u Te lo agradecemos" le dije yo, " si, te lo agradecemos, 
mujer amable i bienhechora; ^*que podremos desear ya ? El 
agua de esta fuente es tan pura, como las frutas deliciosas, i 
fresca la sombra. Estamos llenos de veneracion por el hom- 
bre de bien cuyas cenizas se Italian™ aqui; su beneficencia 
previno a todas las necesidades de los viajeros. ^ Tu paraces 
ser de este sitio ; le habrds conocido 100 sin duda. \ Ah ! dittos, 
mientras reposamos a la sombra, quien fue este hombre vir- 
tuoso." Entonces ella se sentb; puso el cantaro a su lado, i 
principib con una sonrisa graciosa de este modo : 

"Pues que deseais saber quien era el que yace en esa 
tumba, como hizo esta fuente i plantb los arboles,voi a dectr- 
oslo.* Amintas se llamaba 101 este hombre de bien. Ser fitil 



96 Los tuyos, 'thine,' i. e. thy family, relations, &e. Note 74. 

96 Nos dijo, 'said she to us.' 

97 A causa, 'on account,' understood. 

98 El calor que hace, 'this heat,' 'this warm weather.' 

99 Se hallan, find themselves, i. e. 'are found,' 'repose.' 

100 Le habrds conocido, 'you must have known him.' The future is 
used because the person who spoke was not sure that she had really 
known the old man. — See Grammar, R. XLIII. note 2, p. 196. 

* Deciroslo, 'to tell it to you.' — Grammar, R. XXIV. note, 1, p. 160 

101 Se llamaba, called himself, 'was called,' 'was the name of 



ANECDOTES. 39 

a los hombres i honrar a Dios, era su ocupacion mas dulce, 102 
i no hai sitio alguino 103 en estos alrededores, donde su memoria 
no se reverencie 104 con ternura ; naclie, sin derramar lagrimas, 
puede contar los rasgos de su beneficencia i bondad. En sus 
ultimos dias, vema continuamente a sentarse aqui al lado del 
camino, i con su aire dulce i amable saluddba a los viajeros, 
ofreciendo refresco a los fatigados. 

' 1 1 que V dijo un dia, 4 < si conduzco aqui una fuente i planto 
arboles fru tales, <; no aliviare mucho tiempo, aun despues de 
mi muerte, a los que, fatigados de los calores, Uegueri aqui en 
el mediodia ? La sombra i el agua estdn lejos de este sitio, 
es necesario ejecutar mi designio.' Efectivamente, el, con 
sus propias manos, gaio el agua, i planto los arboles; procu- 
rando que sus frutos madurasen en diferentes sazones. No 
ha tenido el gusto de t^erlos, mas se ha paseado bajo la na- 
ciente sombra de los arbustitos, que prendieron i crecieron 
en su tiempo. Cuando el cielo llamb su alma a si, para pre- 
miar su beneficencia, nosotros depositamos su ataud en esa 
tumba, para que cuantos pasasen hendijesen sus cenizas." 

A esta relacion, llenos de respeto, hendijimos las cenizas 
de aquel hombre estimable, diciendo a la pastora : " Esta 
fuente nos ha parecido bien dulce ; la frescura de la sombra 
nos ha recreado ; pero mucho mas nos ha sido interesante la 
narracion que acabas de hacemos. 105 jBendigan los Dioses 
tod os los instantes de tu vida!" Llenos de un afecto relijioso, 
dirijtmos nuestros pasos al templo de Apolo. 

Cecilio de Corpas. 

102 Mas dulce, more sweet, i. e. 'sweetest.' — Grammar, R. XXI. p. 154. 

103 No hai sitio alguno, 'there is no place.' — Grammar, Observation, 
p. 150. 

104 No se reverencie, 'is not revered.' 

105 Acabas de hacemos, 'you have just made to us 



40 



ANECDOTES. 



EL VIEJO RELIJIOSO. 

En la tarde de mi hermoso dia de verano, 106 salt a pasear 
para disfrutar la frescura del campo. A pocos pasos, perdz 
de vista mi heredad, i empezo a ensancharse mi espiritu 107 con 
los objetos que se 108 le presentabdn. Ya los ganados eniraban 
en sus rediles, i los bueyes con paso lento volvian a sus 
casas, cuando distraido me halle a la orilla de un Wo, 
bastante entrada 109 la noche. Co?itemplaba la hermosura de 
las aguas, la inmensa majestad del cielo, i el hermoso orden 
i armonia de los seres, cuando una voz me distrajo de mis 
meditaciones. Volvt la vista, i adverti cerca de mi a un re- 
spetable anciano de rodillas, que oraba vivamente. Fijc la 
atencion, i con el silencio, entendi estas palabras : 

"O tu, cuyo poder es infinito, padre de los hombres, desde 
ese trono sublime, rodeado de coros inumerables de espiritus 
puros, dignate escuchar a un debil mortal, i recibir sus home 
najes. 

u En medio del silencio de la noche elevo mi voz, i vengo a 
adorarte, intelijencia, eterna, que me has sacado de la nada 

"El universo, gran Dios, es tu tempi o, i los cielos inmensos 
la boveda de esta iglesia magnifica de que el hombre puro e 
inocente es el sacerdpte. 

u i Como, insensatos mortales, podeis desconocer esta sabi- 
duria visible i universal que gobierna el mundo. ^ Como, a 
la vista de los globos que circulan al rededor de las nubes, 
de los mares profundos, i de esos tesoros esparcidos con 
tanta profusion en la superficie de la tierra, olvidais a su 
Autor todo pocleroso ? 



106 Dia de verano, 'summer day.' — Grammar, R. XV. note 2, p. 141. 

107 Construct mi espiritu empezo a ensancharse. 

108 Remember that se is used to form the passive voice. 

109 Bastante entrada, 'sufficiently advanced.' Participles are fre- 
quently used in an absolute manner. — Grammar, R. LIII. note 4, p. 205. 



ANECDOTES* 41 

u Yo te bendigo, Dios supremo, por haberme criado 110 en el 
campo, lejos de esas ciudades corrompidas, i de haberme 
apartado de todo orgullo i ambicion. Gracias a tu bondad 
paternal, gozo hace un siglo 111 de los verdaderos bienes de la 
vida, la paz del alma, i la feliz mediocridad* 

" Jamas ha$ cesado de pfodigarme los bienes de tu amor ; 
mis ultimos dias aun son marcados por tus beneficios ; abun- 
dantes mieses llenan mis graneros ; riegas mis praderias, i 
mis arboles estdn esentos de las furias del aire. Por colmo 
de felicidad, me has conservado mi esposa i los dos hijos que 
hacen la delicia de nuestros dias* ;Dios mio, nada deseo 
sino morir antes que ellos ! Lo conozco; toco el fin de mis 
dias; pronto mis cenizas se mezclardn 112 con las de mis 
padres ; cuando esto se verifique; yo os recomiendo mis 
hijos ] tened piedad de 113 su tierna madre ; velad sobre estos 
objetos caros ; 6 Dios mio, no los abandones jamas." 

Acabando estas palabras, sus ojos se banaron de 114 lagri* 
mas; profundos suspiros eshalaba su corazon, i apenas respi* 
raba. To crez ver entonces no se que 115 de divino brillar en 
aquel rostro. Levantose tranquilmente, i se retirb a su casa 5 
donde yo le oi mucho tiempo continuar bendiciendo a Dios* 

Ya principiaba a clarear, los pajarillos anunciaban el dia 

con sus cantos alhagueiios ; el labrador salt a con su carreta, 

i yo, admirado de cuanto habia escuchado, me lev ante i volvi 

tranquilmente a mi heredad. 

Cecilio de Corpas. 

no p or haberme criado, 'for having brought me up.— Note 68. 

111 Gozo hace un siglo de, or, hace un siglo que gozo de, 'it is an age 
since I enjoy,' or, 'I have been enjoying for an age.' — Grammar, R. XL* 
note 2, p. 193. 

112 Se mezclardn, will mix themselves, i. e. 'will be mixed.' 

113 Tened piedad de, 'have pity on,' and not 'of,' as in Spanish.— 
Grammar, R. LVII. note 3, p. 217. 

ni De, is here translated by 'with.' 

11S No se que; this expression is equivalent to the French je ne sais 
quoi. It means 'something,' 'a certain something.' 
4* 



42 



AtfECDdTES; 



JUANOT I COLIN. 



Juanot i Colin aprendian a leer en casa del maestro de la 
aldea; aquel era hijo de un mulatero, i Colin, de un buen 
labrador. Estos dos jovenes se amaban mucho, teniendo 
entre si las familiaridades que siempre se reciter dan con giib + o, 
cnando despues se encuentran en el munclo unos amigos de 
escuela. 116 

Ya estaban para 117 atabar siis estudios, cuando un dia vino 
el sastre a traer un rico vestido i una carta al senor de la 
Juanoteria. Colin admirb el traje, pero sin envidiar\e\ mas 
Juanot dejo de estudiar; 118 se miraba al espejo, tomando un 
aire de superioridad enfadosa Con Colin. Poco tiempo despues 
un ayuda de camara vino en posta, trayendo una segunda 
carta al serior marques de la Juanoteria, que era la orden de 
su serior 119 padre que fuese a Paris. Juanot month en la silla 
volante, alargando la mano a Colin con una sonrisa de pro- 
teccion noble. Colin llorb, i Juanot partio entre la pompa i 
la gloria. 

Es preciso advertir que Juanot el padre, a fuerza de in-* 
trigas, habta adquirido rapidamente bienes inmensos en los 
abastos; 120 hacia seis meses que liabia comprado un mar- 
quesado, cuando retirb de la escuela al serior marquesito^ 
para entrarle en Paris en el gran mundo. 

Colin, siempre tierno, escribib una carta a su antiguo com- 
pafiero; pero el marquesito no conteslb, i Colin estuvo enfermo 
de la pesadumbre. 

El senor de la Juanoteria trataha de educar brillantemente 
a su hijo; pero la senora marquesa no quiso que aprendiese 



116 Unos amigos de escuela, 'school-inates.* 

u1 Estaban para, idiomatic, 'they were about.' 

118 Dejo de estudiar, idiomatic, 'no longer studied,' 'left off studying.' 

119 Su serior padre, 'his father.' Senor is placed before padre, madre, 
humano, and before titles of honour, to express respect and deference 

120 En los abastos, idiomatic, 'as purveyor.' 



ANECf>6T#S; 43 

ei Latin, pues que en los teatros se hablaba Frances ; 121 tampoco 
le gusto la jeografia, pues que los postillones tienen la obli- 
gacion de saber los caminos : en fin, se decidib que el mar- 
quesito aprendiese a bailar. Este, dedicado a semej antes 
tareas, se hizo un libertino, gas t undo sumas inmensas en falsos 
placeres, interin los marqueses 122 padres 123 solo se ocupaban 
de 124 vivir como grandes senores; 

Una viuda joven i noble, 125 de poca fortuna, se resolvib de 
apoderarse de los bienes de los marqueses, casandose con el 
senorito. Una vieja propuso la boda* Los padres, deslum- 
brados con la noble alianza, hicieron los preparativos. En la 
noche del matrimonio, ya cerca de efectilarse 126 la ceremonia, 
llega un criado mui de prisa : " Seiiores,- ' dijo, " yo traigo 
otras novedades ; los acreedores i la justicia se hart apoderado 
de la casa ; todos huyen, i trato de asegurar mis salarios." 
"Veamos que es eso," dijo el marques, "Si," replicb la 
viuda, " id a castigar a esos villanos." Efectivamente corre^ 
i halla a su padre preso, los criados profugos, i todo embar- 
gado ; su madre sola, llorando, no le respondia nada, sino Con 
suspiros por sus perdidas grandezas. 

Despues que llorb con su madre, pasb a casa de la novia, 127 
quien, enterada del suceso, le preguntb que queria. El novio 
queda inmovil. u ; Asi abandonais a vuestra madre V dijo la 
viuda; "id i consoladX^\ decidle que le quiero bien, i si nece* 



v11 Se hablaba Frances, 'French was spoken. 5 — Note 72. 

122 Los marqueses, 'the marques and marchioness.' The masculine 
plural of any title refers both to the male and female. 

123 Padres, 'his parents,' 'old.' 

124 Solo se ocupaban de, 'they only thought of.' 

125 The author has said nothing in regard to the agreement, position 
and accidents of adjectives ; because they offer very little difficulty in 
translation. The student, however, is referred to Grammar, from page 
142 to 150, where he will find whatever he may wish concerning them. 

126 Efectuarse, the same as ser efectuado, 'to be,' or 'being effected.' 

127 Casa de la novia, 'bride's.' — Grammar, R. XL. note 4, p. 141. 



44 AMrjbOTES* 

sito una criada, a ningima mejor que a esa pobre mujer darB 
la preferencia." El marques, pasmado, lleno de colera, va a 
visitar a sus amigos, los que le recibieron afectadamente^ 
daiidole vagas esperanzas. En media hora conocio el mundo 
mejor que en todo el resto de su vida* 

Acabado de desesperacion, vio aeercarse una berlina vieja 
con cortinillas 128 de cuero, seguida de cuatro carretas mui 
cargadas. Venia en el coche un hombre rustico, pero de 
buena cara, con su mujer i familia. El viajero contemplo aT 
marques inmoble i dolorido : " j O Dios !" grita^ u yo Creo que 
es Juanot*" A este nombre, el marques alzb la vista, i el 
coche se detuvo. "Si, es Juanot, no hai duda." El hombre 
se aped, i corre a abrazar a su Compaiiero ; Juanot reconocid 
a Colin. " Tu me has abandonado," le dijo este, " aunque 
seas gran senor, yo te amare siempre." Juanot, confuso i 
enternecido, le contb su historia. u Ven a la posada donde 
estoij" respondib Colin, "i me dirds el resto; abraza a mi 
mujer, vainos a comer juntos.* 5 

Todos fueron a pie, seguidos del equipaje. . u { A quien 
pertenece eso ?" dijo el marques. " Todo es mio i de mi 
mujer," 129 contestb Colin. " Dirijo una fabrica de manufac- 
tura de hierro i cobre ; me he casado con la hija de un nego- 
ciante rico ; trabajamos; Dios nos bendice, i somos felices. 
Te ayudaremos. No seas mas marques, pues ninguna gran« 
deza vale un buen amigo ; vendrds conmigo al campo ; te 
dare parte en los negocios, i viviremos alegres en la tierra en 
que hemos nacido." 

Juan se veza 130 traspasado de dolor i alegria; la ternura i la 
vergiienza le decian: 4 Todos los amigos te han sido infieles, 
i Colin despreciado viene solo al socorro de la desgracia.' 

128 Cortinillas de cuero, 'leather curtains.' — Grammar, R. XL. note 2, 
p. 141. 

129 1 de mi mujer, 'and my wife's. 5 — Grammar, above R. 
130 Se veia, saw himself, i. e. 'was. 5 



ANECDOTES. 45 

; Que instraccion ! La bondad de Colin desplegb el buen 
natural del corazon de Juanot, que el mundo no le kali a qui- 
tado 131 todavia, i conocib le 132 era imposible abandonar a sus 
padres. "Nosotros cuidaremos de tu madre, i en cuanto a 
tu padre, que esta preso, yo entiendo de negocios, i me encar- 
gare de los suyos." 133 Efectivamente, logrb desenredarle de 
las manos de los acreedores, i Juanot volvib a su patria con 
sus padres, que ejercieron su antigua profesion ; casb con 
una hermana de Colin, que le kizo feliz, i los tres marqueses 
conocieron que la dicha no esta en las vanidades del mundo. 

Cecilio de Corpas. 

VALOR DE LA AMISTAD. 

Un Espariol i un Frances, marineros, se hallaban cautivos en 
Arjel ; el primero se llamaba Antonio i el otro Rojerio, i la 
casualidad hizo los empleasen 1 ' 34 en un mismo trabajo. Como 
la amistad es el consuelo de los desgraciados, los dos cautivos 
se consolaban mutuamente, hablaban de sus familias, lloraban 
juntos, i asi sobrellevaban las penas a que estaban condenados. 

Estaban trabajando en la construccion de un camino que 
atravesaba una montana ; un dia el Espariol se detuvo, i 
dejando caer sus brazos ; dib un profundo suspiro, mirando 
toda la estension del mar : " Amigo," dijo a Rojerio, a todos 
mis votos se kalian en esa estension de agua : ; que no 135 pu- 

131 No le habia quitado, 'had not taken away from him. 9 — See next 
note. 

132 Le 'for him.' As verbs, substantives and adjectives, in Spanish, 
require sometimes, prepositions different from those which they require 
in English, le, must often be translated by 'in,' 'for,' 'from,' .'with him' 
or 'her.' The same may be observed in regard to me, te, se, nos, os, les. 

133 De los suyos, 'of his.' — See note 74. 

134 La casualidad hizo los empleasen, idiomatic, 'they were by chance 
employed.' 

135 Q,ue no, idiomatic, 'would that.' 



46 



ANECDOTES. 



diera atravesarla. contigo ! Creo ver 126 ami mujer e hijos 
que me alargan los brazos desde Cadiz, 6 que lloran por mi 
muerte." Antonio estaba embebido en esta imajen, i eada 
vez que vema a la montaiia, miraba con melancolia todo el 
espacio que le separaba de su pais. 

Un dia abrazando con transporte a su compaiiero : w mira?** 
le dijo, u desde aqui veo un buque ; el no abordard hacia 
este sitio ; pero, si tu quieres, Rojerio, maiiana acabardn 
nuestros males i seremos libres. Si, manana ese buque pasard 
a dos leguas de la costa, i entonces nos precipitaremos al 
mar de lo alto de la roca : esperaremos el buque, 6 perecere- 
mos, pues la muerte es preferible a una cruel esclavitud." 
a Si tu puedes salvartef respondib Rojerio, " con gusto lo 
sufrire todo ; pero ve a buscar a mi padre, i si su vejez no le 

ha quitado la vida, dile" "jQue vaya a ver a tu 

padre!" u ^*pues que pretendes hacer? yo no puedo partir 
dejdndote esclavo. Pero yo no se nadar, i tu si." 137 "Yo 
se amarte" respondib el Espanol estrechando a Rojerio contra 
su pecho ; u mi vida es la tuya, los dos nos salvaremos, pues 
la amistad me dard vigor ; tu te atards con este cenidor." 
" Es inutil, Antonio, pensar en eso ; yo no espongo a un 
amigo a que muera; 138 ese ceiiidor se me escapard 6 te sumird 
conmigo en el fondo." " Pues bien nos ahogaremos. «: Pero 
a que formar 139 esos temores ? La amistad sostendrd mi 
valor, te amo mucho para que deje de 139 hacer milagros. Mas 

136 Creo ver, 'I believe I see.' One verb governs another in the infini 
tive, as the student must have observed before now. — Grammar, R. LV 
and notes, p. 215. 

* Mira, 'see,' (thou.) Intimate friends address themselves with tu, 
and not vmd, 'you.' 

137 1 tit si, 'and you do.' Si, and no, serve to affirm or deny the action 
of a preceding verb without repeating it ; as, en tu esta bien, i en mi no; 
'in thee it is right, and in me it is not;' ellos no pueden; pero vmd si-, 
they cannot, but you can.' 

138 A que, the same as para que. 

»39 <j) e j e de,' 'I should fail to.' 



ANECDOTES. 47 

los que nos guardan me parecen estar alerta, i aun hai com- 
paiieros tan viles que nos pueden delatar. " A Dios, oigo la 
campana que nos llama; es preciso separamos. Adios, 
amado Rojerio. 55 

Todo la noche estuvo Antonio pensando en su viaje, ere- 
yendo mui facil el paso del mar hasta el buque. Rojerio al 
contrario se figuraba ahogado, i causante de la perdida de su 
companero. Por la maiiana, como no sacaseri 140 los eselavos 
a la hora ordinaria, el Espaiiol se devoraba de impaciencia, i 
Rojerio no sabia si debut alegrarse 6 sentir este contratiempo. 
En fin, vinieron a llevarlos al trabajo, i al caer del dia, # vi- 
endose solos los dos am igos, 141 esc lamb Antonio: "Jlprove- 
chemos el momento." "No, amigo mio, jamas podre resol- 
verme a esponerte. Adios, adios, te abrazo por la ultima vez, 
sdlvate^ acuerdate de mi, no te olvides de mi padre, con- 
snelale." A estas palabras, Rojerio cayb en los brazos de 
Antonio, derramando un torrente de lagrimas." " Lloras^ 
Rojerio; no son lagrimas 142 lo que ahora conviene, sino valor 
i espiritu ; si nos detenemos, somos perdidos, i tal vez jamas 
hallaremos otra ocasion : escoje; 6 vienes, 6 me rompo la ea- 
beza contra las rocas." El Frances se arrodilla; pero el otro 
persiste; en fin, al cabo de un instante, Antonio le abraza 
tiernamente, i ganando la elevacion de una roca, se precipitan 
en el mar. Caen al fondo, suben; Antonio nada llevando a 
Rojerio, que parece openerse a los esfuerzos de su amigo, 
por temor de causar su perdida. 

Los que estaban en el buque, sorprehendidos de un espec- 
taculo que no distinguian bien, Cretan que era un monstruo 
marino lo que se acercaba a ellos. Un nuevo objeto llama 

140 Como no sacasen, c as they did not turn out.' 
* M caer del dia, 'at the fall of day.' 

141 Construct los dos amigos viendose solos. 

142 No son lagrimas, 'it is not tears.' — Grammar, Observation in N. B. 
p 103. 



48 



ANECDOTES. 



su curiosidad : una chalupa se apresuraba en seguir lo que 
juzgaban monstruo marino, i eran los soldados de la guardia 
de los esclavos, que trataban de alcanzar a Antonio i Rojerio. 
Este los vib venir; mira a su amigo que parecia debilitarse ; 143 
hace un esfuerzo, i se separa de Antonio, diciendole : "nos 
persiguen ; sdlvate i dejame morir, pues interrumpo tus esfu- 
erzos." Apenas dijo esto, cayb al fondo del mar. Un nuevo 
transporte de amistad reanimb al Espanol, i abalanzdndose al 
Frances, le coje al momento de perecer, i ambos desaparecen. 

La chalupa, incierta del rumbo por donde debia mar char, 
se habta deteniclo, mientras que una lancha enviada del navio 
pasaba a reconocer lo que desde el apenas disiinguian; en fin, 
vieron dos hombres de los cuales el uno tenia abrazado al 
otro, esforzdndose en nadar hacia la barca. Al momento 
void esta a su socorro, i ya Antonio estaba por 144 dejar esca- 
par a Rojerio, cuando oye gritar desde la lancha; entonces, 
estrecha a su amigo ; hace nuevos esfuerzos, i agarra con 
mano desfallecida uno de los bordes de la barca. Procsimo 
estaba a soltarse cuando los ayuddron; las fuerzas de Anto- 
nio estaban apuradas, i solo pndo esclamar: "socorred a mi 
amigo; yo mueroP Rojerio, que estaba desmayado, abrib 
los ojos, i viendo a Antonio tendido sin muestras de vida, se 
avanzb a el abrazandole i dando gritos : u j Mi amigo, bien- 
hechor mio ! ^ es posible que yo sea tu asesino ? ; Ah ! 
I pier da yo 145 una vida desgraciada, habiendo perdido a mi 
amigo !" 

El cielo, que sin duda se conmueve de las lagrimas cuando 
son sinceras, did una muestra de su bondad en favor de un 
afecto tan raro. Antonio arrojb un suspiro ; Rojerio grita 
lleno de jubilo ; todos se acercan a socorrer al desgraciado 
Espanol , quien, abriendo los ojos i dirijiendolos hacia su 
compaiiero, esclamb: "jhe salvado a mi amado Rojerio!" 

143 Debilitarse, 'to become, to grow weak.' 

144 Estaba por, idiomatic, 'was about to,' 'on the verge of.' 
143 Pier da yo, 'may I lose.' 



ANECDOTES. 49 

La barca llegb al navio, i estos dos hombres inspirdron el 

mayor respeto a todos. Rojerio llega a Francia, corre a los 

brazos de su padre, que jnensa morir de aiegria ; i a poco 146 

fue nombrado gondolero de los estanques de Versalles* El 

Espanol, a quien se le ofrecib un destino, quiso mejor ir a su 

tierra i quedarse con su mujer e hijos; mas la ausencia no 

disminuyo nada la amistad de ambos. 

Cecilio de Corpas 

LA CONSTANCIA DEL AMOR. 

En el tiempo que Antequera esiaba ya en poder de Cris- 
tianos, i frontera contra el reino de Granada, halt a en ella 
un caballero, Alcaide de aquella ciudad, que se llamaba Nar- 
vaez. Este, como era costumbre, hacia entradas en tierra de 
Granada algunas veces, otras enviaba jente suya que las 
hiciese; el mismo estilo tertian los Granadinos 147 en todas 
aquellas fronteras. Jlcaecib una vez que Narvaez envib cier- 
tos caballos a correr, los cuales partiendo a la hora que con- 
viene partir para aquel efecto entraron bien dentro de la 
tierra de Granada: i yendo por su camino 148 no hollar on* 
otra presa sino fue un esforzado mozo el cual venio de la 
manera que aqui se dira; i por ser de noche 149 no pudo esca- 
parse ; porque sin pensar, dio en 150 los caballos de Narvaez, 
i ellos tambien en el : i viendo que no habta otra cosa en que 
ganarj' 01 i avisados del joven que toda la campaiia estaba 

146 A poco, 'a little while, 5 or 'time after.' 

147 El mismo estilo tertian los Granadinos, 'the Granadians in their 
turn did the same.' 

148 Yendo por su camino, 'going, following their way.' 
* Ninguna, 'any,' understood. 

149 p or ser d e nocJie^ <being, as it was, in the night time.' 

150 Did en, idiomatic, 'fell upon,' 'met unawares.' 

151 No habia otra cosa en que ganar, 'nothing else couUi be obtained.* 



60 



ANECDOTES. 



limpia, otro dia de manana 162 se volvieron a Ronda i presen- 
tdronle a Narvaez. 

Era este mancebo de hasta veinte i dos a veinte i tres 
aiios, caballero i rani jenlil hombre : traia una marlota de 
seda morada mui bien guarnecida a su modo, 153 una tocacorta 
mui fina sobre un bonete de grana, en un caballo mui escelente 
l una lanza i una adarga labrada como suelen ser las de Moros 
principals. Narvaez le pregunto quien era, i el dijo que era 
hijo del Alcaide de Ronda, bien conocido entre Cristianos por 
ser hombre de guerra. 154 Preguntandole donde iba, no re- 
spondib palabra; porque lloraba tanto que las lagrimas le 
impedian el habla. Narvaez le dijo : " Maravillome de li, 
que siendo caballero e hijo de un Alcaide tan valiente como 
es tu padre, i sabicndo que estos son casos de guerra, estes 
tan abatido i llores como mujer, pareciendo en tu disposicion 
buen soldado i buen caballero." A este respondib el Moro : 
"No lloro por verme en prision, ni por ser tu cautivo, ni estas 
lagrimas son por la perdida de mi libertad, sino por otra mui 
mayor i que me duele mas que verme en la fortuna que me 
reo." 

Oidas estas palabras, Narvaez le rogb mucho que le dijese 
la causa de su llanto, i el mancebo le dijo: " Sdbete que ha 
muehos dias que 155 yo soi servidor i enamorado de una hija 
del Alcaide de un tal castillo, i Ada servido con mucha lealtad, 
i muchas veces he peleado por su servicio contra vosotros los 
Cristianos, i ella ahora viendo la obligacion, que me tenia 156 
era contenta de casarse conmigo, i habiame enviado a lla- 
viar 157 para que la sacase, i venirse* en mi compaiiia a mi 

152 Otro dia de manana, 'the next day in the morning.' 

153 A su modo, 'after his fashion.' 

154 Hombre de guerra, £ a military man.' 

155 Sdbete or sabe que ha muehos dias que, 'it is some time since/ 

156 Que me tenia, 'under which she was to me.' 

157 Habiame enviado d llamar, 'she had sent for me.' 
* Ella, 'she,' understood. 



ANECDOTES. 51 

casa, dejando la de* su padre por amor de mi, i yendo yo con 
este contentamiento esperando alcanzar cosa tan deseada, 
quiso mi mala fortuna que me tomasen cautivo tus caballos, i 
perdiese mi libertad i todo el bien i buena ventura que pensaba 
tener: si esto te parece que no merece lagrimas, yo no se con 
que mostrar la miseria en que estoi." 

Fue tanta la piedad que Narvaez tuvo, que le dijo: "Tu 
eres caballero, i si como caballero me prometes de volver a 
mi prision, yo te dare licencia sobre tu fe." El Moro lo 
aceptdj i ddndole palabra se partib, i aquella noche llegb al 
castillo donde estaba su dam a, donde tuvo mui buena forma 
de hacerle saber que estaba alii, i ella se did tan buena 
mafia 158 que le did hora i lugar donde la pudo hollar a solas ; 
mas todo el razonamiento del Moro fueron lagrimas sin po- 
derle hablar palabra: i maravillada la Mora de esto le dijo: 
" Como es esto ; i ahora que tienes lo que deseas, pues me 
tienes en tu poder para llevarme^ muestras tanta tristeza." ? 
El Moro le respondib: "Sabete que viniendo a verte yo fui 
cautivo de los caballos de Anteguera, i me llevdron a Nar- 
vaez, el cual, como caballero, sabiendo mi mala fortuna me 159 
tuvo lastima, i sobre mi fe me did licencia quq te viniese a 
ver; i asi yo vengo a verte, no como libre, sino como esclavo; 
i pues yo no tengo libertad, no plegue a Dios 160 que querien- 
dote yo tanto, te lleve a donde pierdas la tuya : yo me vol- 
vere, porque he dado mi f e, procurare rescatarme, i volvere 
por ti." 

La Mora le respondib: "Antes de ahora me has mostrado 



" * La de, 'that of.' 

158 Se did tan buena mana, 'she acted with so much address.' 

159 Verbs, adjectives, and substantives, requiring sometimes, in En- 
glish, prepositions different from those required in Spanish, me often 
represents the meaning of 'to,' 'on,' 'with,' 'from,' 'in me.' The same 
may be observed in regard to te, le, se, nos, os, and les. 

iso tf plegue & Dios, 'God forbid.' 



52 ANECDOTES. 

lo que 161 me quieres,i ahora me lo muestras mej or, pues tienes 

tanto respeto a mi libertad ; mas pues eres tan buen caballero 

que miras lo que a mi me debes, i lo que debes a tu fe, no 

plegue a Dios que yo es/e en compaiiia de nadie 162 sinofuere 

la tuya, i aunque no quieras, me he de ir contigo, i si fueres 

esclavo, sere esclava, i si Dios te diere libertad, a mi me 163 la 

dard tambien: aqui tengo este cofre con mui preciosas joyas, 

tbmame a las ancas de tu caballo, porque yo soi mui contenta 

de ser companera de tu for tuna." 

Dicho esto se salib con el, i el la tomb a las ancas del 

caballo, i otro dia llegaron a Anteguera donde se presentdron 

delante de Narvaez, el cual los recibib mui bien, i les Jiizo 

mucha fiesta, 164 ddndoles algunas cosas, dlabando el amor de 

la Mora i la palabra i verdad del Moro ; i otro dia les did 

licencia que se fuesen libres a su tierra, i los mandb acorn- 

pafiar hasta ponerlos en salvo. Esta aventura, el amor de la 

doncella i del Granadino, i mas la jenerosidad del Alcaide 

Narvaez, fue mui celebrada de los buenos caballeros de 

Granada, i cantada en los versos de los mej ores injenios de 

entonces.* 

Jose Antonio Conde. 



161 Lo que, here, synonymous of cuanto, 'how much.' 

162 De nadie, 'of no one,' meaning 'of any one.' 

163 A mi me, 'to me.' — See reasons for this tautology, Grammar, Ob- 
servation 2, p. 165. 

164 Les hizo ?nucha fiesta, idiomatic, 'he entertained them with great 
cordiality.' 

* This historical anecdote has been beautifully translated into English 
by Washington Irving. 



WITTICISMS AND TALES. 



EL VALIENTE UFANO. 

XJno mui preciado de 165 maton se llegb a Madrid a un gran 

senor ofreciendose a servirle, como valiente suyo, para matar 

a diestra i a siniestra 166 a cuantos se le antojase* 167 Este lialia 

recibido muchas heridas en algunas pendencias, i presentaba 

por testimonio de su valentia las cicatrices* El senor le 

despidio con irrision diciendole : " Traigame V. para va- 

lientes mios a los que le dieron todos esos golpes ; que a 

esos me atengo en todo caso* 

Jeronimo Feijoo. 

EL MEDICO TUNANTE. 
Llegb en la ciudad de Zaragoza un tunante publicando que 
sabza raros arcanos de medecina ; entre otros, el de remozar 
las viejas. La prosa del bribon era tan persuasiva, que las 
mas del pueblo lo creyeron, Llegaron pues muchisimas a 
pedirle que les hiciese tan precioso beneficio. El les dijo, 
que cada una pusiese en una cedulilla, su nombre i la edad 
que tenia, como circumstancia precisa para la ejecucion del 
arcano. Habia entre ellas septuajenarias, octojenarias, nona- 
jenarias. 

Hicieronlo asi puntualmente, sin disimular alguna ni* un 
dia de edad para no perder la dicha de remozarse; i fueron 
citadas por el tunante para venir a su posada el dia siguiente. 
Vinieron, i el, al uerlas, 168 empezo a lamentar de que una 

165 Mui preciado de, the same as que se preciaba mucho de s 'who prided 
himself on being.' 

166 A diestra i a siniestra,, -at random.' 

167 Se le antojase, 'it might cross his fancy.' 'he might wish.' — Gram- 
mar, Observation 3, p. 221. 

* Siguiera. understood ; ni Siguier a, 'not even.' 
1< &M verlas, 'on seeing them.' M, thus used, means 'on.' 
5* 



54 WITTICISMS AND TALES. 

bruja le habia robado todas las cedulillas aquella noche, envi 
diosa del bien que le esperaba; asi quefue preciso volver a 
escribir 169 cada una su nombre i edad de nuevo ; i por no re- 
tardarles mas el conocimiento,* les declare, que toda la ope 
racion se reducia a que, a la que fuese mas vieja 170 entre 
todas, habian de quemar viva ; i tamando las demas una por- 
tion de sus cenizas, todas se remozarian. 

Pas?ndronse al oir esto las viejas ; pero credulas siempre 
de la promesa, tratan de hacer nuevas cedulas. Hicieron\&& 
en efecto, pero no con la legalidad quef la vez primera ; 
porque medrosa cada una de que ella port mas vieja le tocase 
ser ]n sacrificada a las llamas, ninguna hubo que no se 172 
quitase muchos anos. La que tenia 173 noventa§, pongo por 
ejemplo, se ponia cincuenta ; la de|| sesenta, trenticinco, &c 
Recibio el picaron las nuevas cedulas, i sacando entonces las 
que le habian dado el dia antecedente, hecho el cotejo de unas 
con otras, les dijo: "Ahora bien, seiioras mias ; ya Vds 
logrdron lo que les 174 prometi; ya todas se remozdron. Vmd 
tenia ayer noventa aiios, ahora ya no tiene mas que cincuenta 
Vmd. ayer sesenta, hoi trenticinco." Discurriendo asi por 
todas 175 las despacho tan corridas, como se deja conocer. 176 

El rnismo. 



169 Volver a escriber, 'to write again.' — Grammar, note 2, p. 219. 
* Del secretOy 'of the secret,' understood. 

170 A que, a la que fuese mas vieja, 'to this, that her who was the oldest.' 
f Las hicieron, 'they made them,' understood. 

f Ser, 'being,' understood ; por ser, 'as she was.' 

171 Le tocase ser. 'should fall upon her lot to be.' 

172 Se, to her; here, 'from her/ — See note 157. 
§ Alios, 'years,' understood. 

173 Tenia, 'she was;' tener is used instead of ser, speaking of age. 
|| Le edad, 'of age,' 'old,' understood. 

174 Les, 'you,' le and les, are objectives of Vmd. and Vmds. as well as 
of el i ellos. See those various words in the vocabulary. 

173 Discurriendo asi por todas, idiomatic, 'addressing them all thus. 5 
176 Como se deja conocer ', as it lets itself be known, i. e. 'as it appears,' 
'as the thing itself shows,' 'as it is manifest.' 



WITTICISMS AND TALES. 55 

RESPUESTA DE UNO AL PROVISOR. 

Un hombre que querta apartarse de su mujer, con quien 
tenia poca paz, parecib a este fin ante el provisor. Estrafib 
este la propuesta, porque conocia la mujer i era de buenas 
cualidades. "; Porque quereis dejar a vuestra mujer?" le 
preguntb el provisor \ u £ no es virtuosa ?" u Si, seiior," re* 
spondib el hombre, "< No es rica ?" "Si, seiior." ^ No 
es fecunda ?" " Si, seiior." En fin, a todas las partidas re* 
spondia en abono suyo. "Pues," le <%'o el pretor ; "si vuestra 
mujer tiene tantas calidades buenas, i porque quereis apartar os 
de ella?" A esto el hombre, descalzando un zapato, preguntb 
al provisor ; " Seiior, i este zapato no es nuevo ?" u Si," re* 
spondib el provisor. Afiadio; "< no estd bien hecho ?" u Si, 
a lo que 177 parece;" respondio el provisor. "<; No es de buen 
cordoban i buena suela ?" Respondio del mismo modo que 
si. 178 "Pues, vea V., con todo esto," dijo el descontento 
marido, "yo quiero quitarme este zapato, \ p oner me otro que 
yo se donde me aprieta i manca, i Ymd. no." 

LA LARGA PETICIOJNT. 

Estando enfermo el papa Urban o Quinto en Viterbo, envib 
la ciudad de Perusa* tres comisarios a solicit ar a su santidad 179 
la espedicion de cierto negocio. Uno de ellos que era doctor 
i a quien por su grado le tocaba hablar, compuso i mandb a la 
memoria 180 una larga oracion sobre el asunto ; siendo tan 
necio que por mas que 131 los companeros le instdron a qi:l 

177 A lo que, 'as far as.' 

178 Que si, 'that it was.' — See note 134. 
* Construct la ciudad de Perusa envib. 

179 A su santidad, 'from her holiness.' — See note 129, 157. 

180 Mandb a la memoria, 'committed to memory,' 'learned by heart.' 

181 Por mas que, 'how much soever,' 'however much.' — Grammar, 
however , p; 225. 



56 WITTICISMS AND TALES. 

la acortase no quiso hacerlo. Llegado el caso de la audien- 
cia,* en/116 el importuno doctor toda su molestisima obra. 
Siendo Urbano de jenio benignisimo, le tolerb sin cortarle, 6 
interrumpirle, aunque se dejaba ver 182 la violencia que en 
ello se hacm. Acabada la oracion, el papa, sin negar 183 ni 
conceder, pregunto a los disputados, si qucrtarvf otra cosa. 
Entonces uno de los otros dos que era mui discreto, i halt a 
notado la nausea con que el papa Italia escuchado al doctor, 
le dijo: "Santisimo Padre, otra cosa ha insertado nuestra 
ciudad en la comision, i es, que si Vuestra Beatitud no nos 
concede prontamente lo que pedimos, nuestro compaiiero 
vuelva a relatar\ todo su sermon." 

Jeronimo Feijoo. 

EL ESTUDIANTE I LAS TRUCHAS. 

Volviendo un estudiante de Salamanca a su tierra, con mui 
pocos cuartos, se trataba para que no se le acabasen 184 antes 
de conluir el viaje, con estrecha economia por el camino. 
Sucedio que llegando a hacer noche a una posada§ donde la 
huespeda era mujer de lindo entendimiento, lindo modo, i 
mucho agrado, le pregunto* "que queria cenar?"* Respon- 
dib que|| un par de huevos. u <;No mas, sefior Licenciado?" 
dijo la huespeda. A lo que respondib el estudiante ; " bas* 
tame, senora, que yo ceno poco." 

Trajeron los huevos, i al tiempo de cenarlos, le propuso la 

* Construct el caso de la audencia llegado. 

182 Se dejaba ver, it let itself be seen, i. e. 'was manifest.' — See note 176. 

183 Sin negar, 'without refusing. 5 — Note 68. 
f Alguna, 'some,' understood. 

% See note 68. 

184 para Que no se le acabasen, (los cuartos,) that they (the cuartos or 
money,) should not end themselves to him, i. e. 'that he might not re- 
main pennyless.' 

§ Construct a una posada a hacer noche, 'at an inn to stop for the night.* 
|| Queria cenar, understood. 



WITTICISMS AND TALES. 57 

huespeda unas truchas mui buenas, que tenia por si* las que- 
ria. Negose el estudiante al envite. " Mire, serior Licen- 
ciado," afiadib la huespeda, "que son mui ricas, porque tienen 
las cuatro F. F. F. F." "<j Como las cuatro efes ?" replied el 
estudiante. ";Pues no sabe, serior Licenciado," repuso la 
huespeda, w que las truchas paraser regaladas hande tener las 
cuatro efes ?" "Nunca tal| he oido," dijo el estudiante, "y 
quisiera saber, que cuatro efes son esas, 6 que signifies, ese 
enigma." "Yo se lo dire, seiior," respondio la huespeda : 
u quiere decir, que las truchas mas sabrosas son las que tienen 
cuatro circunstancias dej frescas, frias, fritas, i fragosas." A 
lo que respondio el estudiante, u ya caigo en ello ; 1So pero, se- 
fiora, si las truchas no tienen otra efe mas, para mi no sirvenP 
u <;Qae otra efe mas es esa ?" pregunto la huespeda — "seriora, 
que sean fladas, porque en mi bolsa no hai§ con que pagarl&s 
por ahora. Agrado tanto la agudeza a la huespeda, que no 
solo le presentb las truchas graciosamente, mas le previno la 
alforja para lo que le restaba de camino. 

Jeronimo Feijoo. 

ESTRATAJEMA DE UN CURA. 

Habiendo conspirado unos caballeros de buen humor en 
meter gorra a un cura de aldea, que era mas agudo que libe- 
ral, fueron con este intento de manana a su casa, i le mani- 
festdron a lo que iban, pretestando no se que honesto motivo ; 
el viendo la avenida, los recibib con buen semblante i buenas 
palabras, i al momento despachb los criados que tenia como 
que iban lH6 a diferentes partes a buscar lo necesario para el 

* Acaso, understood ; por si acaso, 'in the event that he. 5 
f Cosa, 'thing,' understood. 
X Ser, 'being,' understood. 

185 Caigo en ello, 'I understand it.' 
§ Diner -o, 'money,' understood. 

186 Como que iban, like como si fuesen, 'as if they went.' 



58 WITTICISMS AND TALES. 

convite. Tomb luego el breviario debajo del brazo, i les 
dijo: "Seiiores. con licencia de Vmds. voi, mientras se pre- 
para la comida, 187 a conciliar un pobre apestado, a quien 
confese ayer tarde por darle el viatico, porque esta mui de 
peligro," i al m omen to tomb la puerta. Cayeron en el lazo 
los caballeros,* i sin porter la menor duda en que era verdad 
lo que decia el cura, considerando el riesgo de que el contra- 
jese el contajio del enfermo, i se le comunicase a ellos, se 
escapdron inmediatamente, i con tanta priesa como si la peste 
fuese tras ellos ; i cada uno se fue a comer a su casa. 

Jeronimo Feijoo. 

187 Mientras se prepara la comida, 'while dinner is getting readv.' 
* Begin by Los Caballeros.— See notes 2, 8, 23. 



SELECT SENTENCES. 



La vida no es un sueiio ; sino una realidad, anuncio i pre* 
ludio de otra mas positiva, i mas duradera.* 



Ofrecimientos es la moneda que corre en este sigl6; hojas 
p 0r iss f ru ^ Uevan ya los arboles ;f palabras por obras los 
hombres.f 



Antonio Perez. 



Lastimar con verdades sin tiempo ni modo, 189 mas es mali- 
cia que 190 celo, mas es atrevimiento que advertencia* 



El tiempo es el bien mas precioso de cuantos 191 nosj ha 
prodigado la mano benefica del Omnipotente. El momento 
actual es el tinico que nos pertenece: el que 192 le precedib 
void para siempre ; el que va a seguirle 193 es incierto. 



Con todos los h ombres ten paz, guerra con todos los vicios, 
i contigo concordia; concertando tus palabras con tus pensa- 

* Those sentences to which the name of their author has not been 
attached, are extracted from a work, entitled, ' Cartas sobre la Education 
del Bello Secso,' written by a Chilian lady. In thought or language this 
book is second to none of its kind. 

188 p or> 'instead of.' 
f See notes 9, 23. 

189 Sin tiempo, 'unseasonably;' ni modo, 'and improperly.* 

190 Mas es que, 6 it is rather than.' 

191 De cuantos, 'of all those which.' 
X Nos, 'upon us.' 

192 El que, 'that which,' 'the one which.' 

193 Va a seguirle, idiomatic, 'will follow it/ 



60 



Select sentences. 



mientos, tus obras con tus palabras, i tus deseos con tus 

obras. 

Juan Eusebio Nierembersr. 



Ten gran cuenta con 194 tu palabra i credito, que quien 196 los 
pierde no tiene mas que 196 perder. 



Juan Eusebio Niereniberg. 



El que responde antes de oir lo que 197 le preguntan, se 
acredita de necio, 198 i merece que le sonrojen. La muerte i la 
vida est an en manos de la lengua ; segun el uso que se ha- 
ga m de ella serdn los frutos. 



La prodigalidad es el azote de las buenas costumbres ; es 
un jermen corruptor que emponzofia todos los sentimientos, 
que nos somete a las mas duras privaciones, que nos convierte 
en objetos de burla i desprecio ; en fin, es un manantial ina 
gotable de males domesticos, i a veces de horribles catastrofes. 



La pobreza no tiene armas contra el que 200 sale conten- 
tarse 201 con poco; el vicio no tiene prestijios a los ojos acos- 
tumbrados al sublime espectaculo de la virtud. El fastidio 
no aburre jamas a quien 202 sabe ocuparse; el vano aparato 

194 Ten gran cuenta con, 'be very careful of.' 

195 Que quien, 'for he who.' Que, often means, 'for,' 'because.' 

196 No tiene mas que, 'has nothing else to.' 

197 Lo que, 'what,' 'that which.' Ellos, 'they,' is understood. — See 
note 31, and Grammar, R. XXII. p. 157. 

198 Se acredita de necio, 'proves himself to be a fool.' 

199 Se haga, 'shall be made.' — See notes 5, 12, 18, and others. 

200 El que, 'him who.' 

* 01 Contentarse, 'how to be contented,' 
202 A quien, 'to him who.' 



SELECT SENTENCES. 6l 

del lujo, el veneno de la seduccion son impotentes en un co^ 
razon que sabe dar su verdadero precio a las cosas. 



El fin de la* guerra debe ser 202 la* victoria, el de 204 la* vic^ 
toria la* conqiiista, i el de 204 la* conquista la* conservacion i 
la* libertadi 



La verdad es el fundamento i la razon de la perfeccion i de 
la belleza. No serza bella i perfecta una cosa,| de cualquiera 
naturaleza que sea, si no fuera verdaderamente todo lo que 
debe ser. 



El orden social no es mas que 205 una serie de sacrificios i 
de condescendencias. El joven que no sabe dominccrse, sera 
el azote de los que le obedezcan* 06 i la victima de sus supe- 
riors. 



La agricultura es el principio vital de laj poblacion, el 

orijen material de laj industria, la fuente inagotable del J co- 

mercio, en siima, la base i fundamento del poder real de las J 

sociedades* 

Ortiz.§ 

* The article is used in Spanish, but omitted in English, before nouns 
taken in a general sense. — See Grammar, p. 121 ; and notes 2, 8, &c 

203 Debe ser, 'should be, J 'ought to be.' 

204 El de, 'that of.'— See Grammar, R. XXXVI. note 1, p. 182. 
f Begin the phrase by Una cosa. — See note 23. 

205 No es mas que, 'is nothing more than/ 'nothing but.' 

206 Le obedezcan, 'will obey him. 5 The Spanish subjunctive present, 
frequently requires the English future of the indicative. 

t Suppress the article in English. 

§ The construction of this sentence has been changed a little from 
the original. 

6 



62 SELECT SENTENCES. 

jQue es un conquistador sino un azote que la ira clivina 
envza a los pueblos ; un astro maligno, que solo infiuye mu- 
ertes, robos, desolaciones, e incendios; un cometa, que igual- 
mente amenaza a las chozas que a los palacios ; en fin, un 
hombre enemigo de todos los hombres, pues a todos quisiera 
quitar la libertad, 207 i en la prosecucion de este designio a 
muchos quita la hacienda i la vida! 

Jeronimo Feijoo. 

Las pasiones que continuamente nos ajitan son mui pode* 
rosas i fuertes : no tenemos otras armas para resistir a ellas, 
que las de la virtud, i esta se adquiere con la buena crianza* 
Nuestra humana i flaca naturaleza nos inclina al mal; pero 
cuando llega a gustar 208 los encantos de la virtud, como los 
placeres que produce son verdaderos, i traen consigo una per*- 
petua e inmu table tranquilidad, la prejiere al vicio, que siem- 
pre es seguido de los remordimientos eternos, que en medio 
de los gustos i deleites del mundo, ecsalan unos fetidos va- 
pores que qfuscan el corazon, i le atormentan sin cesar. 209 

Garcia-Malo* 

207 A todos quisiera quitar la libertad^ 'he should like to deprive them 
all of liberty.' 

208 Llega a gustar, 'it once tastes/ 'it comes to taste.' 

209 Sin cesar, 'without ceasing, 5 'incessantly.' A preposition in Span- 
ish, requires invariably an infinitive, and not a participle present, as in 
English, when it governs a verb. — See Grammar, R. LII. note 1, p. 204. 



HEROIC ACTIONS. 



HUMANIDAD DEL CZAR. 

Obstinado el Gobernador de Nerva en no rendirse, entra- 
ron los Rusianos la Plaza por asalto. Ordenb al punto el 
Czar* a sus oficiales, que impidiesen toda violencia sobre los 
habitadores ; mas, no pudiendo estos coniener a los soldados, 
que furiosos 210 robaban, violaban, i mataban cuanto vezan, 
acudib el Czar por si mismo al remedio, i corriendo de calle 
en calle, 211 arrancaba las mujeres i los niiios de las manos 
de los Rusianos ; amenazaba a estos con los mas severos 
castigos para que se detuviesen, ayudando, al imperio de su 
voz, el terror de su espada ; pues con ella matb mas de cin- 
cuenta de los que 212 hallo mas obstinados en proseguir las 
violencias. En fin, atajado el desorden, haciendo juntar 213 
en la Casa de ayuntamiento los principales ciudadanos, entro 
el, i poniendo su espada toda baiiada en sangre sobre una 
mesa, les dijo estas palabras : " No es sangre de los ciudada- 
nos de Nerva la de que estd tenido este acero, sino de mu- 
chos Rusianos, que he sacrificado a vuestra conservacion." 

Jeroniino Feijoo. 

INTEGRIDAD DEL MARISCAL DE ETRE. 

Estaban algunos cortesanos entreteniendo con macsimas de 
politica tirana, al gran Luis decimo-cuarto, cuando aquel prin 

* Construct el Czai al punto ordend, 'the Czar immediately ordered.' 

210 Furiosos, 'furiously. 5 In such cases the Spanish adjective is ren- 
dered by an English adverb. 

211 De calle en calle, 'through every street.' 

212 De los que, 'of those whom.' — Grammar, R. XXXV. and note, p. 
180, 181. 

213 Haciendo juntar, 'ordering to be assembled.' — Note 71. 



64 # HEROIC ACTIONS. 

cipe no tenia mas de* quince arios. A cinco mas que tuviera 2U 
el menor castigo que les darza^ serta desterrarlos para siem- 
pre de su presencia, i de la corte. Mas la falta de esperiencia, 
la capacidad, aun no del todo formada, junto con el ardor de 
su vivisimo espiritu, le hacian oir con agrado, aquella idea de 
un ilimitado poder: al tiempo mismo, que el Mariscal de 
Etre, hombre anciano, de gran consejo i madurez, que se 
hallaba poco distante del rei, estaba escuchando a aquellos 
aduladores con suma indignacion. Prosiguiendo estos su 
asunto, trajeron a la conversacion el ejemplo de los Empera- 
dores Otomanos, refiriendo como aquellos monarcas son due- 
iios despoticos de las vidas i haciendas de sus vasallos. 
"Verdaderamente eso es reinar," dijo el gran Luis, " felices 
monarcas por cierto." Traspasdronle estas palabras el co- 
razon de parte a parte al buen Mariscal de Etre, 215 por consi- 
derar 216 las perniciosas resultas de aquella condescendencia, i 
llegdndose prontamente al rei, intrepido 217 le dijo: "pero, 
senor, advertid, que a dos 6 tres de esos emperadores en 
mis dias les dieron garrote." 

Jeronimo Feijoo. 

HERO'iCIDAD DE GUZMAN EL BUENO.f 

Entre los personajes malvados que hubo en aquel siglo, i 
los produjo mui malos, debe distinguirse el Infante Don 
Juan, uno de los hermanos del rei Alborotbse de 

* No tenia mas de, 'he was but.' — See note 173. 

214 A cinco mas que tuviera, 'had he been five years older.' — Grammar, 
Observation 2, p. 201. 

215 Traspasdronle estas palabras el corazon al buen Mariscal de Etre, 
'these words pierced through good Mareschal's Etre's heart.' 

216 Por considerar, 'for considering,' i. e. 'as he considered.'— Note 68, 
182. 

217 Intrepido, 'intrepidly,' 'boldly.' — Note 187. 

t Guzman el Bueno, 'Guzman the good,' one of the greatest and best 
Spanish chivalrous characters of the middle ages, was intrusted by 



HEROIC ACTIONS. 65 

nuevo, 218 i no pudiendo mantenerse en Castilla, se huyb a 
Portugal, de donde aquel rei le mandb salir. De alii se em* 
bar co, i llegb a Tanjer, i of redo sus servicios al rei de Mar- 
ruecos, 219 Aben Iacob, que pensaba entonces hacer guerra al 
rei de Castilla. Le recibib con todo honor i cortesia, i le 
envib en compaiiia de seis mil jinetes con los cuales pasaron 

el estrecho, 220 i se pusieroi\ sobre Tarifa 

Tenia en su poder (el Infante Don Juan) al hijo mayor de 
Guzman que sus padres 221 le liabtan eonfiado 222 anteriormente 
para que lo llevase a la corte de Portugal, con quien tenian 
deudo. 223 En vez de dejarlo alii, 224 le llevb al Africa, i le 
trajo a Esparia consigo ; i entonces le creyb instrumento se* 
guro para el logro de sus fines. Sacble maniatado de la 
tienda, donde le tenia, i se le presentb al padre, intimandole 
que si no rendta la plaza, le matarzan a su vista. 225 

King Sancho IV. son of Alphonsus the Learned,* at the end of the 
thirteenth century, with the defence of the fortress of Tarifa, the most 
southern point of Spain. Don Juan, brother to the king, who had in 
charge the oldest son of Guzman the Good, went over to the Moors and 
besieged Tarifa. He had Guzman's son brought before the ramparts of 
the castle, and told the father, that if he did not surrender, he would 
murder his son before his own eyes. Don Juan did so ; but Guzman 
remained faithful to his trust. 

218 Alborotose de nuevo, 'he rose in rebellion again/ 

219 Rei de Marruecos, 'king of Morocco. 5 

220 Estrecho, 'the straits of Gibraltar.' 

221 Padres, 'parents. 5 Guzman and his wife. 

222 Le habian eonfiado, 'had entrusted to him. 5 

223 Con quien tenian deudo, 'to whom they were related. 5 

224 De dejarlo alii, 'of leaving him there. 5 A preposition requires 
always the verb to be in the infinitive. — See Grammar, R. LII. note 1, 
p. 204. 

225 A su vista, 'before his eyes. 5 

•Very improperly called <the Wise.' 

6* 



66 HEROIC ACTIONS* 

Al ver 226 el hijo, al oir 22Q sus jemidos, i al escuchar 226 las 
palabras del asesino, las lagrimas vinieron a los ojos del pa- 
dre; pero la fe jurada al rei, la salud de la patria, la indigna- 
cion producida por aquella conducta tan ecsecrable, luchan 
con la naturaleza, i vencen; mostrdndose el heroe entero 227 
contra la iniquidad de los hombres i el rigor de la fortuna* 

"No enjendre hijo," prorumpia 228 "para que fuese 222 con*- 
tra mi tierra; antes enjendre hijo a mi patria para que fuese 
contra todos los enemigos de ella. Si Don Juan le diese 
muerte, a mi dara gloria, a mi hijo verdadera vida, i a el 
eterna infamia en el mundo, i condenacion eterna despues de 
muerto. 230 I para que vean 231 cuan lejos estoi de rendir la 
plaza, i faltar a mi deber, alia va mi cuchillo, si acaso les 
falta 232 arma para completar su atrocidad." Dicho esto, sacb 
el cuchillo que llevaba a la cintura, 233 le arrojb al campo, i se 
retlrb al Castillo. 

Sentbse a comer con su esposa, reprimiendo el dolor en el 
pecho, para que no saliese en el rostro. Entretanto el Infante^ 
desesperado i rabioso, hizo degollar la vietima, 234 a cuyo sac- 
rificio los cristianos que estaban en el muro, prorumpieron en 
alaridos. Salib al ruido Guzman, i cierto de donde nacta 233 
volvib a la mesa, diciendo: "Guide 236 que los enemigos en- 

226 Al ver, 'on seeing,' al oir, 'on hearing,' al escuchar, 'on listening to/ 
Al, before a Spanish infinitive, should be Englished on. 

227 Mostrdndose el heroe entero, 'the hero maintaining himself firm.' 

228 Prorumpio, 'burst forth Guzman.* 

229 Para que fuese, 'that he might be.* 

230 Despues de muerto, 'after his death.' 

231 I para que vean, -and that you may see.* 

232 Les falta, 'you are in want of,' 'you have no/ 

233 A la cintura, 'at his waist.' The articles and not the possessive 
pronouns are used in Spanish to point out the various portions of the 
body. — See Grammar, Observation, p. 170. 

234 Hizo degollar la victima, 'ordered the victim to be beheaded.' 

235 De donde nacia, 'whence it originated.' 

236 Cuide, now obsolete, like pense, I thought 



HEROIC ACTIONS; 6t 

irahan en Tarifa." De alii a poco 237 los Moros, desconflados 
de allanar su constancia, i temiendo el socorro que ya venia 228 
de Sevilla a los sitiados, lev ant droit el cerco que habia durado 
seis meses, i se volvieron a Africa sin mas fruto que la igno 
minia i el horror que su ecsecrable conducta merecia. 

Manuel Jose Quintana* 

SERENIDAD DE CARLOS DOCE. 

Estando Carlos dictando a su secretario una carta para 
Stockolmo, cayb una bomba en la cuadra inmediata al gabinete, 
en que estaban los dos, i reventb en el mismo momento* 
Estaba abierta la puerta de comunicacion del gabinete a la 
cuadra;* pero hubo la dicha de que ninguno de los cascos de 
la bomba se encaminase por aquelle parte. 239 A la vista, i al 
horrisono estallido de la bomba, despavorido el secretario^ 
dejb caer de la mano la pluma. 240 Pero el rei, como si ni 
con la vista, ni con el oido hubiese percibido novedad alguna, 
con rostro firme^ con sosegada voz "que es eso," le dijo; 
"porque soltais la pluma?" sorprendido aun el espiritu del 
secretario : " Serior, la bomba," fue todo lo que pudo arti- 
cular. A lo que el rei replied, con el mismo sosiego : "Que 
conecsion tiene la bomba con lo que yo estoi dictando. Pro* 
seguidP I sin que hubiese mas palabras en medio, 241 se con 

tinub la carta* 242 

Jeronimo Feijoo. 

237 De alii a poco, 'shortly after.' 

238 Que ya venia, 'that was already coming. 5 

* Construct, La puerta de comunicacion del gabinete a la cuadra 
estaba abierta. 

239 Se encaminase por aquella parte, 'should go that way.* 

240 JDejo caer de la mano la pluma, 'the pen dropped from his hand * 
241 1 sin que hubiese en medio, 'without intervening.' 

242 Se continuo la caHa, the same as la carta fue continuada. — Note 5* 
12, 18. Grammar, se, Observation 2, p. 165. 



68 HEROIC ACTIONS. 



DESINTERES DE ALIBEG. 



Mahomet Alibeg, al principio del siglo pasado, desde el hu- 
milde estado de pastorcillo, silhid al elevaclo puesto de mayor-* 
domo mayor del rei de Persia. Un dia, que aquel rei andaba 
6 caza 243 le encontro tanendo la flama, i guardando cabras en 
el monte. Por diversion le hizo algunas preguntas, i prendado 
de la vivacidad i agudeza con que responded el niiio, se le 
llevb consigo a palacio: donde habiendo mandado instruirle 244 
la rectitud de su corazon, i claridad de su injenio, ganaron 
la inclinacion del rei; de modo, que elevdndole prontamente 
de cargo en cargo, vino a cotocarle en el que ya se dijo, de 
mayordomo mayor. 

Su integridad inflecsible al atractivo de los presentes, cosa 245 
mui rara entre los Mahometanos, concito contra el poderosos 
enemigos; pero sin atreverse a intentar 246 hostilidad alguna 
por v erle 247 tan duerio del animo 248 del soberano : hasta que 
muerto este, i entrando el 249 sucesor, que era joven, *le suje- 
rieron, que Mahomet habza usurpado alf erario real grandes 
tesoros. Ordenole el principe que dentro de quince dias diese 
cuentas. A que Mahomet intrepido respo?idio^ que no era 
menester esa dilacion, i que su majest&d fuese servido ir inme- 



243 JLndaba a caza, 'was a hunting.' 

241 Instruirle, 'to be instructed.' Verbs of command require an active, 
not a passive infinitive in Spanish. — Note 71, 190; or Grammar, R. LV. 
p. 215. 

245 Cosa, 'a thing.' The a not used in Spanish. — Grammar, case 2, 
r>. 137. 

24G Sin atreverse a intentar, 'without daring to attempt.' 

247 p or ver j £i < as they saw him.' 

248 Tan dueno del animo, 'so much in the good will.' 

249 El, 'his.' Articles are often used instead of possessives. — Gram- 
mar, Observations, p. 170-1. 

* They, (the enemies of Alibeg,) understood. 

f Al, to the, i. e. 'from the.' Verbs denoting taking away, require, in 
Spanish, a 'to,' and not de, 'from.' 



HEROIC ACTIONS. 69 

diatamente con el a casa del tesorero, alii se las daria 2 ^ 
Fue el rei, seguido de los acusadores ; pero se hallo todo en 
tan bello orden, i con tanta ecsactitud ajustada la cuenta de 
los caudales en los libros, que nadie tuvo que decir 2bl 

De alii se pasb 252 a la casa del mismo Mahomet, donde el rei 
admirb la moderacion que habza en alhajas, i adornos. Pero 
observando uno de los enemigos del valido la puerta de un 
cuarto cerrada, guarnecida con tres cadenas fuertes, se 253 lo 
advirtib al rei, el cual le preguntb que tenia cerrado en aquel 
cuarto. "Seiior," respondib Mahomet, "aqui guardo lo que 
es mio. Todo lo que hasta ahora se ha visto, es de V. M." 
Diciendo esto, abrib la puerta. Entrb el rei en el cuarto, i 
volviendo a todas partes los ojos, no vib otra cosa, sino las 
alhajas siguientes: una zamarra, una alforja, un cayado, i 
una flauta. 

Atonito las miraba el rei, cuando, ponie?idose de rodillas de- 
lante de el Mahomet, le dijo: " Seiior, este es el habito, i estos 
los bienes, que yo tenia cuando el padre de V. M. me trajo a 
la corte. Esto es lo que entonces tenza^ i esto lo que ahora 
tengo. Solo esto conozco por mio. I pues que lo es, suplico 
con el mayor rendimiento a V. M. me permita gozarlo, volvi- 
endome al monte de donde me estrajo mi fortuna." 

Aqui no pudiendo contener el rei las lagrimas, le* echo los m 
brazos al 254 jeneroso valido, i no contento con esta demostra- 
cion, despojdndose prontamente de sus reales habitos, se los 
hizo vestir a Mahomet ; lo que en Persia se estima por la su- 

250 Se, frequently stands for 'to him,' 'to her,' 'to you.' Las, 'them,' 
refers here to cuentas, 'accounts;' therefore, alii se las daria, means, 
'there he would give, render, show or present them to him.' 

251 Tuvo que decir, 'had fault to find.' 

252 Sepaso, 'they went.' — See 3d use of se, Grammar, p. 164. 

253 Se, 'to him,' pleonastically used. — Grammar, p. 164. 
* This le is redundantly used. — See Grammar, p. 164. 

254 Echo los brazos, 'threw his arms.' The article used instead of the 
pronoun. — See Grammar, p. 170-1. 



70 



HEROIC ACTIONS. 



prema honra que el rei puede hacer a un vasallo. De este 
suceso resultb que Mahomet logrb despues cons tan tes 255 la 
confianza i cariiio del principe toda su vida. 

Jeronirno Feijoo. 

LEALTAD I CONSTaNCIA DE LOS SAGUNTINOS.* 

En vano por medio de una oculta mina logrb Anibal intro- 
ducir sus tropas en la plaza, i sorprejiderla ; pues sus bizarros 
defensores, lejos de desanimarse, se retiraron al centro de la 
ciudad, se fortificaron en un pequeiio recinto adonde encer- 
raron sus familias i sus haberes; i en esta disposicion se 
mantuvieron con audacia incomparable, hasta que los viveres 
quedaron absolutamente apurados. Aun entonces oyeron con 
desprecio las condiciones propuestas por Anibal como indig- 
nas de su heroico valor i reputacion ; i creyendo mas decoroso 
vender su libertad i vidas al caro precio de la sangre de Car- 
tago, i caer como esforzados, 256 antes que dejarse consumir 257 
del hambre, tomaron la magnamina resolucion de morir com- 
batiendo, i de sepultarse bajo las ruinas de su patria. 

Encendieron en medio de la plaza una crecida hoguera; 
entregaron a las llamas sus alhajas mas preciosas ; i, aprove- 
chdndose de las sombras i silencio de la noche, hicieron el 

235 Constantes, 'constantly.' — See notes 187, 194. 

* The Saguntines, or inhabitants of Saguntum, now called Murviedro, 
on the coast of Valencia. At the beginning of the second century be- 
fore Christ, this city was invested in due form, by Annibal, at the 
head of 150,000 men. After a siege of eight months, provisions entirely 
failed at Saguntum, whose male inhabitants, rather than die with, or 
surrender through hunger, sallied forth to meet the enemy, while the 
females set the city on fire, killed their infants, and threw themselves 
into the flames. The classic scholar has no doubt read in Livy a very 
interesting account of this memorable event. 

256 Caer como esforzados, 'to fall in battle like brave men.' 

257 Antes que dejarse consumir, 'rather than allow themselves to be 
wasted away.' 



HEROIC ACTIONS. 7] 

altimo esfuerzo de su valor moribundo con una impetuosa 

Balida. Sorprendieron al ejercito, 258 le atacaron con furor i 

rabia, e hicieron horrible carniceria. El combate fue obsti- 

nado. Los Esparioles pelearon como leones, i solo ceso el 

estrago 259 de los. Cartajineses cuando dejaron de vivir los Sa- 

guntinos. 260 Observaban sus mujeres desde la trinchera la 

sangrienta pelea; i luego que 261 conocieron que el acero 

enemigo habia acabado con 262 los ultimos defensores de Sa 

gunto, quitaron la vida a sus tiernos hijos; i despues sacrifi^ 

caron las suyas 263 al rigor de la espada, i a la voracidad del 

incendio que consumia los edificios. Asi perecib despues de 

ocho meses de sitio la celebre Sagunto, victima de su con- 

slancia i lealtad; dejando al vencedor por despojo 264 un mon- 

ton de cenizas i un espantoso esqueleto de ciudad. La 

memoria de su ruina sera perpetuamente gloriosa a los 

Espanoles. 

Ascargorta. 

258 Al ejercito, 'the enemy's army.' 

259 Construct el estrago solo ceso. The subject is frequently placed in 
Spanish after the verb. — See Grammar, Observations, p. 140, R. XXII. 
p. 157. 

260 Construct cuando los Saguntinos dejaron de vivir, 'when the Sagun- 
tines ceased to live.' — See the above note. 

201 Luego que, 'as soon as.' 

262 Habia acabado con, 'had put an end to ' 

883 Las suyas, 'their own.' 

2W Por despojo, 'spoils.' 



Narrations* 



g MANSEDUMBRE DE JESUCRISTO, 

Jamas en el universo ha parecido un hombre tan dulce^ 
tan virtuoso, tan benefico i tan amable. En todas sus ac- 
ciones i discursos no se propuso otro objeto que hacemos 
bien, instruimos, consolamos, i damos ideas 6 esperanzas 
las mas capaces de satisfacer a nuestro deseo insaciable de 
grandeza i de felicidad. Nada le aflijia, sino nuestros errores : 
nada le desagradaba, sino nuestros vicios: nada le daba 
placer, sino nuestras virtudes, i nada le consolaba tanto como 
recojer la oveja que se le perdta. 

Nunca se le vio verdaderamente contristado, sino cuando 
preveia nuestra obstinacion i las desgracias que nos debia 
acarrear. 

Haced reflecsion sobre lo que hizo, cuando yendo con sus 
discipulos a Jerusalem, predijo las calamidades procsimas de 
aquella rebelde i endurecida nacion. Ved la ternura i sensi- 
bilidad con que las profetiza, los suspiros dolientes que eshala, 
el torrente de lagrimas que vierte. ± Que corazon se aflijib 
nunca tanto 265 con los males ajenos? 266 dQue hombre sen- 1 
sible i jeneroso no se entemecerd viendo una espresion tan 
dolorida de un amor tan desinteresado i tierno ? No, no es 
posible estudiar ni percibir el caracter de su espiritu, i la dul- 
zura de su corazon, sin reconocer que fue el mejor de los 
hombres ; i que jamas el cielo en su misericordia les ha dado 
un bienhechor tan digno de su mano* 

Vedle cuando en sus viajes pasando por Samaria, solo, sin 
haber comido, i fatigado del calor i cansancio se sienta junto 

265 Se aflijib nunca tanto, 'was ever so much afflicted.' 

266 Males ajenos, 'other persons evils.' — Grammar, 10, note 1, p. 184 



NARflATlONSe 73 

a Siquem eerca cle un pozo • ; Con que afabilidad habla a una 
mujer comun i pecadora! jComo la convida con el agua ce- 
lestial de su gracia ! \ Como la declara positivamente que el 
es el Mesias! jComo la inslruye en el modo cle adorar a 
Dios en espiritu i verdad! jComo, cuando los discipulos 
llegan i le compadecen de 267 no haber com id o todavia, les 
responde que su alimento es servir a su Padre i ganarle, co 
razones! jComo, cuando los hombres de la ciudad vienen 
conducidos por aquella mnjer, tambien les liabla con el mismo 
agrado! jComo aunque su designio fuese continuar su 
cainino rogaclo por aquellos Samaritanos^ se detiene! jComo 
cnira con ellos a la ciudad, i pasa con ellos el tiempo nece- 
sario hasta que los inslruye i convierie! ^Que afabilidad! 
;Que celo! ;Que condescendencia! 

Vedle con la Cananea. En una de sus escursiones se le 
presenia 263 una mujer estranjera i jentil, implora su socorro. 
Se resiste, porque parece que no estaba en el orden de su 
providencia empezar sino por las ovejas perdidas de Israel, 
Pero la infeliz 269 con humildad i con f e redoMa sus instancias, 
repite sus ruegos con aquella hnportunidad que le agrada 
tanto, i su buen corazon, sin poder resistir mas, se rinde, le 
concede lo que pide, i la despacha consolada. 

Pablo Olavides, 

PENITENCIAS DE LOS BRACMANES. 

Hal unos, que en los dias mas ardientes del estio, en un 
suelo arenoso, retostado de los rayos del sol, desnudos, flados* 
solo sobre un pie, se estmx\ desde el amanecer hasta el ano- 

267 Le compadecen de, 'pity him for.' 
26t > Se le presenta, 'appears before him.* 

269 La infeliz, 'the unhappy woman.' In such cases the substantive 
is seldom expressed in Spanish. — Note 77 
* Fiados, 'standing.' 

t Se estdn, 'remain,' (in this manner,) understoed. 
7 



74 NARRATIONS. 

checer. Hai quienes, 270 elevandose los pies en garfios de 

hierro, fiados en el tronco de un arbol, se estan* pendientes 

alii pies arriba, i cabeza abajo, hasta que el peso del cuerpo, 

rasgando carnes, venas, nervios, i arterias, hace caer el cuerpo 

a. tierra. Hai quienes haciendose atar las manos en las es- 

paldas, 271 llevan violentamente los brazos por sobre los hom- 

bros, estan padeciendo por mucho tiempo inmensos dolores, 

hasta que por ultimo pierden el uso de manos i brazos, 

quedando estos por el resto de su vida pendientes, como 

partes inanimadas. Pero sus mas ordinarias mortificaciones 

son prolijos, i severisimos ayunos, con total abstinencia de 

comida i bebida, que los reduce a la apariencia de meros 

esqueletos. 

Jeronimo Feijoo. 

PENITENC1AS DE LOS AMIDAS. 

Los sectarios de Amida, se hacen encarcelar 272 en unas ca- 
vernas, donde apenas tienen espacio para estar sentados, i 
donde no pueden respirar sino por un tubo, que tienen cuidado 
de conservar. Alii se dejan morir de hambre tranquilamente, 
con la esperanza de que Amida vendrci a recibir su alma al 
salir 273 del cuerpo. Otros, se colocan sobre las puntas de 
unas rocas altisimas, donde hai minas de azufre, 274 de que a 
veces salen algunas llamas ; i alii estan invocando sin cesar la 
Deidad ; rogandole que acepte el sacrif icio de su vida, i luego 

270 Unas, quien, cual, este, are used often to express, 'some,' 'this one,' 
'those, 5 'others,' as the sense may require; hai quienes, 'there are some who.* 

♦See note (f) p. 73. 

271 Haciendose atar las manos en las espaldas, making their hands to be 
tied, i. e. 'having their hands tied behind their backs.' 

272 Se hacen encarcelar, 'order themselves to be confined/- Note 
71, 190. 

273 Al salir, 'on going out,' or 'separating itself;' al, in such cd.--.es, is 
equivalent to 'on.' 

274 Minas de azufre, 'sulphur mines.' — Grammar, R. XV. note 2, p. 141. 



NARRATIONS. 75 

que parece alguna llama, tomdndola por serial de consentimi- 
ento del Dios, 270 se arrojan por aquellos precipicios, en que 
se hacen pedazos. 276 Otros se tienden en tierra al encuentro 
de 277 los carros, en que llevan sus idolos en procesion, pa- 
ra que las ruedas les quiebren los huesos, 278 i destruyan el 
cuerpo. Otros particularmente en las grandes solemnidades, 
en que es mayor el concurso al templo, se postran a la entrada, 
esperando a que cuando sea mayor el aprieto de la jente al 

entrar, 6 al salir, los pise* 79 i sofoque. 

Jeronimo Feijoo. 

LAS ARTES DIVINATORIAS SON RIDlCULAS. 

Rara presuncion la del hombre, querer averiguar lo que 
estd por venir! 280 Pestafiea en lo pasado, anda a tientas 281 en 
lo presente, i* juzga tener ojos para lo futuro. Mientenle 282 
las historias en lo que fue, los sentidos en lo que 65, i* cree 
a vanos suenos 233 en lo que sera. 284 Esta estravagancia del 
entendimiento nace del desorden de la voluntad. Cuanto 
esta estd mas ciega, tanto 285 pretende que el entendimiento sea 
mas lince. Grande ceguera nuestra es abrazar con el deseo 
lo ilicito; perb aun mayor buscar con el discurso, lo impene- 
trable. 



275 Del Bios, 'of the God.' Here, de ellos, 'of them, 5 is understood. 

276 Se hacen pedazos, 'they tear themselves to pieces.' 

277 Al encuentro de, 'to be met by.' 

278 Les quubren los huesos, 'may break their bones.' — Grammar, 3, 
p. 171. 

279 Los pise, 'it (the crowd) may trample upon them.' 

280 Estd por venir, 'is to come.' 

281 Anda a, tientas, 'he gropes.' 

* Sin embargo, 'yet,' 'notwithstanding,' understood. 

282 Mientenle, 'give him the lie,' 'give him erroneous accounts of.' 

283 A vanos suenos, 'with foolish confidence.' 

284 Sera, 'is to he.' 

285 Cuanto esta 'the more the will,' tanto, 'so much the more/ 

Grammar, R. XIX. p. 152. 



76 



NARRATIONS. 



Desde el celebro del hombre, a la rejion de los futures 
continjentes, no abrib camino alguno la naturaleza; i donde 
no hat senda, que guie al termino deseado, cualquiera rumbo 
que se tome, lleva al precipicio. Esta ambicion fue el vicioso 
orijen de tanta practica supersticiosa 286 como invent dron los 
antiguos idolatras. Buscaban nolicia de lo venidero en los 
astros, en los cadaveres, en las piedras, en los troncos, en el 
acaso de las suertes, 237 en los delirios de sueiios, en las entra- 
nas de las victimas, en las voces de los brutos. A toda la 
naturaleza preguntaban lo que hatea de suceder 288 i creian oir 
la respuesta por mas que la hallaban sorda 289 a la consulta. 
De la variedad de instrurnentos, que usaban para adivinar, se 
denominaron tantes artes divinatorias,* que apenas caben en 
la memoria los nombres, v 

Jeronimo Feijoo. 

COMODIDADES DEL RICO I DEL POBRE. 

Viste el rico delicada olanda, i el pobre gruesa estopa; 
pero dime si hasta ahora diste quejarse algun pobre, de que 
la aspereza de la estopa, le ocasionaba al cuerpo alguna mo- 
lestia. 290 Esta ocioso el rico, i el pobre trabajando todo el 
dia : pero no observas mas alegre al pobre en el trabajo, que 
al rico en el ocio ; especialmente si trabaja en compania? 
pasa\ festivo,^ cantando, i chanceando su tarea. Jlcabada 

286 De tanta practica supersticiosa, 'of so many a superstitious prac- 
tice,' the singular is used for the plural in both languages. 
281 En el acaso de las suertes, 'in the chance of fate.' 

288 <Lo que habia de suceder,' 'what was to happen.' — Note 12. 

289 Construct par mas sorda que la hallaban, 'how deaf soever they 
might find her,' (all nature.) — Note 180. 

* Construct tantes artes divinatorias se denominaron. 
2yo Construct le ocasionaba alguna molestia al cuerpo. — Grammar* Ob- 
servations, p. 170-1. 

t Pasa, (el tiempo) understood, 'spends his time/ 
t Note 187. 



NARRATIONS* 77 

esta, 291 el descanso no es tin ocio insipido, como el del rico, 292 
sino un dulce reposo ; i despues duerme el pobre con blando 
i continuado suerio, al paso que con inquietud impaciente da 
el rico mil vueltas en la cama, de modo que se puede decir 
que el pobre trabaja de dia, i el rico de noche. 

Si se ofrece una Jornada,* es verdad que el rico la hace a 
caballo 6 en carroza, i el pobre a pie. Sin embargo, el rico 
tiene mucho mas que sentir en ella: 293 ya la inclemencia del 
tiempo, ya la incornodidad de la posada, ya la dureza del 
lecho, ya la faita de regaio. El pobre, hecho a todo, nada 
estrafia; i asi de nada se duele. Yo, en mis viajes, he notado 
que siempre el mozo de a pief que me asistia^ sentia mucho 
menos que yo, las incomodidades del camino. Pues afiadase 
& esto el susto^ de los ladrones, a quienes el pobre no tiene 
por que temer; 29i cuando al rico, tras de cada tronco que hai 
en el camino, se le representa un salteador. 

Jeronimo Feijoo, 

EL NO SE QUE. 295 

En muchas producciones, no solo de la naturaleza, mas 
aun del arte, encuentran los hombres, fuera de aquellas per- 
fecciones sujetas a su comprehension, otro jenero de primor 
misterioso, que cuanto # lisonjea el gnsto* atormenta el enten- 

291 Acabada esta. 'this being- finished.'— Grammar, R. LIII. note 4, 
p. 205. 

292 Como el del rico, 'as that cf the rich man. 5 — Grammar, R. XXXVI, 
note 1, p. 182. 

* Construct, Si una Jornada se ofrece, 'if a voyage is to be performed. 

293 Que sentir en ella. Ho feel in it,' (the journey.) — 'Grammar, R.L"V, 
note 5, p. 215. 

f Mozo de a pie, or de espuela, 'footman. 5 

254 No tiene por que tenter, 'has no reason to fear. 5 

2 " 5 El no se que, 'the certain something ;' the <je ne sais quoi.' > — Note 113. 

* Mas f tanto mas, understood, 'the more.' — Grammar, R. XXXVI. 
p. 182. 

7* 



78 narrations. 

dimiento; que pa/pa el sentido, 296 i no puede descifrar la 
razon; i asi, al querer 297 espJicar\e, no encontrando voces, ni 
conceptos que satisfagan la idea, 29S se dejan caer desalentados 
en el rudo informe, 299 de que tal cosa tiene un no se que, que 
agrada, que enamorcu que kechiza, i no hai que pedirles 300 
revelacion mas clara de esta natural misterio. Entran en un 
edificio, que al primer golpe de vista 301 los llena de gusto i 
admiracion. Bepdsanle luego eon atento ecsamen, i no kaU 
Ian que ni por su grandeza, ni por la copia de luz, ni por la 
preciosidad del material, ni por la ecsacta observancia de las 
reglas de arquitectura csceda, ni aun acaso iguale a otros que 
kan visto sin tener que gustar 6 que admirar en ellos. 302 Si 
les pre gunt an, que kalian de esquisito, 6 primoroso en este, 
respondent ^ tiene un no se que, que embelesa." 

Jeroniuio Feijoo, 

DEBEMOS RECORRER NUESTRAS ACCIONES. 

Piensa en los pecados que has hecho, i haces cada clia r 
despues que abrisle los ojos al conocimiento de Dios ; i hai- 
lards que todavia vive en ti Adan con muchas de las raices i 
costumbres antiguas. Mira, cuan descarado eres para con 
Dios, cuan ingrato a sus beneficios, cuan rebelde a sus inspi- 

raciones, cuan perezoso para las cosas de su servicio , 

Consider a cuan duro eres para con el projimo, i cuan 
piadoso para contigo: cuan aniigo de tw piopia voluntad, i de 

296 El sentido, 'our senses.' 

297 Al querer, 'on being willing/ 'anxious.' — Note 167., 218. 
208 Que satisfagan la idea, 'to convey the idea.' 

290 Se dejan caer desalentados en el rudo informe de, 'they despair of 
giving any better explanation than this.' 

300 I no hai qvs pedirles, 'and there is no asking them,' or 'we must not 
ask them.' 

301 Al primer golpe de vista,, 'at first sight.' 

302 Sin tener que gustar 6 admirar en ellos, 'without having much to 
admire or to be pleased at.' 



Narrations. 79 

til carne i de tu honra, i de todos tus intereses. Mir a como 
todavia eres soberbio, airado, subito, vanaglorioso, envidioso, 
malicioso, regalado, mudable, liviano, sensual, amigo de tus 
recreaciones i conversaciones, risas i palerias. Mira, otrosi 
cuan inconstante eres en los buenos propositos, cimn inconsi- 
derado en tus palabras, cuan desproveido en tus obras, i cuan 
cobarde i pusilanime para cualesquier graves negocios. 

Considera ya por esta orden la muchedumbre de tus peca- 
dos, considera luego la graved ad de ellos, para que veas como 
por todas partes es crecida tu miseria, Para lo cual debes 
primeramente consider ar: contra quien pecaste; i hallards 
que pecaste contra Dios, cuya bondad i majestad es infmita, i 
cuyos beneficios i misericordias para con el hombre, sobre- 

pujan las arenas del mar i Asi se paga aquella sangre 

preciosa que se derramb en la cruz ? ; O miserable de ti, 303 
por lo que perdiste, i mucho mas por lo que hiciste, i mui 
mucho mas si con todo esto no sientes tu perdicion! 

Luis de Granada. 

AMEMOS LA VIRTUD. 

Vemos que entre las cosas criadas, unas hai honestas, otras 
hermosas, otras provechosas, otras agraclables, i otras con 
otras perfecciones. Entre estas tanto suele una ser mas # per- 
fecta i mas digna de ser amada, cuanto mas cle estas perfec- 
ciones participa. Pues, segun esto, i cuanto merece ser 
amada la virtud, en quien todas estas perfecciones se hallcm? 
Porque si por honestidad va* 304 ; que cosa mas honesta que la 
virtud que es la raiz i fuente de toda honestidad ? Si por 
honra ua, <:a quien se debe la honra i el acatamiento, sino a 
la virtud? Si por hermosura va, ; que cosa mas hermosa, que 

303 / O miserable de ti! 'wo to thee !' 'O wretched that thou art !' 
* Tanto suele una ser, c one is apt to he the more.' — Grammar, R. 
XXXVI. p. 182. 

a(M Si por honestidad va, «if it be in regard to honesty.' 



SO ttAfcRATIONSi 

la imajen de la virtud ? Si por utilidad va, < que cosa hai de 

mayores utilidades i esperanzas que la virtud ? pues por ella 

se alcanza el sumo biem La longura de los dias, con los 

bienes de la eternidad, estdn en su diestra; i en su siniestra, 

riquezas i gloria. Pues, si por deleites Da, <que mayores de- 

leites, que los de la buena conciencia i de la caridad, i de la 

paz, i de la libertad de los hijos de Dios, i de las consola- 

eiones del Espiritu Santo, lo cual todo anda en compania de 

la virtud? Pues si* desea lama i memoria; en memoria 

eterna vivird el justo, i el n ombre de los malos se pudrird, i 

asi como humo, desaparecerd. 

Luis de Granada. 

CALAMIDADES DE LA ALEMXNIA, BORGOff A, I LORENA. 

<; Que jeneros de tormentos crueles, inventdron los tiranos 
contra la inocencia, que no los 305 hayamos™ 6 visto en obra? 307 
No ya contra barbaros inhumanos, sino Contra naciones 
cultas, civiles, i relijiosas; i no contraf enemigas, sino con* 
tra si mismas, turbando\ el orden natural del parentesco, i 
desconocido el afecto a la patria. 308 Las mismas§ ausiliares 
se volvian contra quien las sustentaba; mas sangrienta era la 
defensa que la oposicion; no habia diferencia entre la protec* 

* La virtud, or el virtuoso, understood. 

305 Los, is here redundantly used. It might just as well be left out ; 
if it were not that it seems to fill up the period better, and give it a more 
harmonious rotundity. In similar instances we frequently find these 
pronominal objectives used, apparently against the rules of grammar. 

306 Hayamos. Here the indicative, and not the subjunctive, as in 
Spanish, is required in English. The genius of the two languages 
sometimes differs in regard to the use of moods and tenses. — Grammar, 
p. 215, 217. 

307 En obra, inflicted, put in practice. 

f Naciones; J Asi, or de esta manera, understood. 

308 J desconocido el afecto d la pdtria, and the love of country being 
disregarded. — Grammar, R. LIU. note 4, p. 205. 

§ Tropas, understood. 



NARRATIONS, 81 

cion i el despojo; entre la amistad i la hostilidad. A ningun 
edif icio iluslre, a ningun lugar sagrado, perdono la furia i la 
llama. Breve espacio de tiempo vib en cenizas las villas i las 
ciudades, i reducidas a desiertos las poblaciones. 

Insaciable/we la sed de sangre humana. Como en troncos, 
se probaban en los pechos de los horabres las pistolas i las 
espadas; la vista se alegraba de los disformes visajes de la 
muerte; abiertos los pechos i vientres human os Servian de 

pesebres Las mujeres se vendian i permutaban por 

vacas i caballos, como las demas presas i despojos En 

las selvas i bosques, donde tienen refujio las fieras,* no lo 
teman los hombres; porque con perros venteros los buscaban 
por el rastro. Los lagos no estaban seguros de la codicia 
injeniosa en inquirir las alhajas, sacando\&s con anzuelos i 
redes de sus profundos senos. Aun los huesos difuntos per- 
dieron su ultimo reposo; trastornadas las urnas, 309 i levantados 
los marmoles. para buscar lo que en ellos estaba escondido. 

Diego Saavedra Fajardo. 

COMO SE DESCUBRE EL INJENIO DE LOS NINOS. 

Si el nino es jeneroso i altivo, serena la frente i los ojuelos, 
i risueiio oye las alabanzas ; i los| retira entristeciendose, si 
se le afea algo. 310 Si es animoso ; afirnia el rostro, i no se 
conturba con las sombras i amenazas de miedos ; sQ liberal, 
desprecia los juguetes, i los reparte; si vengativo, dura en 
los enojos, i no depone las lagrimas 311 sin la satisfaction ; si 

* Construct las fieras tienen refujio. 

309 Trastornadas la,s urnas, 'the urns being or having been upset/ 
Participles are very frequently used in this absolute manner. — See the 
preceding note. 

f Los, 'them/ referring to the eyes. 

310 Si se le afea algo, 'if he be reproached with any thing.' 
X Es, understood. 

311 No depone las lagrimas, 'does not cease from shedding tears.* 



£2 NARRATIONS. 

colerico, por lijeras causas se conmneve, deja caer el sobre- 
cejo, 312 mira de soslayo, 313 i levanta las manecillas; si benig- 
no, con la visa i los ojos granjea las voluntades ; 314 si melan- 
colieo, aborrece la compania, ama la soledad, eg obstinado en 
el lianto, dificil en la risa, i siempre cubierta con nubecillas 
de tristeza la frente ; 313 si aiegre, ya levanta las cejas, i adelan- 
tando los ojuelos, vierte por ellos luces de regocijo, ya los 
retire^ i plegados los parpados en graciosos dobleces, mani- 
fiesta por ellos lo festivo del animo, 316 asi las demas virtudes 
6 vicios traslada el corazon al rostro, hasta que mas adver- 
tida la edad 317 los retira i cela. Pero no siempre estos juicios 
salen ciertos, 318 porque la naturaleza tal vez burla 219 la curi 
osidad humana que investiga sus obras, i se retira de su 

curso ordinario Otras veces la naturaleza se esfuerza 

por escederse a si misma, 320 i junta monstruosamente grand es 
virtudes i grandes vicios, como se vio en Alcibiades. * . . . . 
Asi obra la naturaleza desconocida a si misma ; pero la razon 
i el arte, corrljen i pulen sus obras. 

Diego Saavedra Fajardo. 

INVASION DE LOS MOROS EN ESPANA. 

No se puede pensar jenero de mal con que Espana no 
fuese aflijida; claro castigo de Dios, que por tal manera 

312 Deja caer el sobrecejo, 'puts on a frown.' 

313 Mira de soslayo, 'looks askance.' 

314 Granjea las voluntades, 'gains the good will of every body. 5 

315 Siempre cubierta con nubecillas de trisieza la frente, 'his face always 
clouded with sadness.' 

316 Lo festivo del animo, 'the cheerfulness of his mind.' 

317 Hasta que mas advertida la edad, 'until becoming more cautious by 
age.' 

318 Estos juicios salen ciertos, 'these opinions prove to be correct.' 

319 La naturaleza tal vez burla, 'nature sometimes baffles.' 

320 Se esfuerza para escederse d si misma, 'makes efforts to surpass 
herself.' 



NARRATIONS. 83 

tomaba venganza, no solo de los malos, sino tambien de los 

inocentes, por el menosprecio de la relijion i de sus leyes 

De esta manera cayb Espaiia; tal fue el fin del nobilisimo 
reino de los Godos. Con el cielo sin duda se revuelven las 
cosas de aca, 321 lo que tuvo principio, es necesario se acabe; 
lo que nace, muere; i lo que crece, se envejece. Cayb, pues, 
el reino i jente de los Godos; no sin providencia i consejo 
del cielo, como a mi me parece, para que despues de tal cas- 
tigo, de las cenizas i de la sepultura de aquella jente naciese 
i se levantase una nueva i santa Espaiia; de may ores fuerzas 
i seiiorio que antes era, refujio en este tiempo, amparo i co- 
lumna de la relijion catolica, que,* compuesta de todas sus 
partes, i como de sus miembros, termina su mui ancho impe- 
rio, i le estiende, como hoi lo vemos, hasta los ultimos fines 
del Levante i Poniente. 

Juan de Mariana. 

REINO DE NAVARRA. 

Despues de aquel memorable i triste estrago con que casi 
toda Espaiia que do asolada i sujeta por los moros, jente feroz 
i despiadada ; de las ruinas del imperio Gotico, no de otra 
manera que de 322 los materiales i pertrechos de algun grande 
edificio cuando cae, muchos seiiorios se levantaron; peque- 
iios al principio, de estrechos terminos i flacas fuerzas. Las 
reliquias de los Esparioles que escapdron de aquel fuego, i de 
aquel naufrajio comun i miserable, echados de sus moradas 
antiguas, parte se refujidron a las Asturias, de que resultb el 
reino de Leon ; parte se encerrb en los montes Pirineos, en 
sus cumbres i asperezas, donde moran, i tienen su asiento los 
Vizcainos i Navarros Estos, confiados en la fortaleza i 

321 Con el cielo sin duda se revuelven las cosas de acd, 'by the decrees of 
heaven the affairs of this world are without doubt directed.' 

* Que, refers to Espana. 

322 No de otra manera que de, 'in the same manner as from the.' 



84 narrations* 

Iragura de aquellos lugares, no solo defcndieron su libertad^ 

sino irataron i acometieron tambien de ayndar 323 a los demas 

de Espafia ; varones sin duda escelentes ; de mayor animo 

que fuerzas. 

Juan de Mariana* 

ESPANOLES ANTlGUOS I MODERNOS. 

Groseras, i sin policia ni crmnza, fuer on antiguamente las 
costumbres de los Espanoles. Sus injenios mas de fieras, 
que de hombres. En guardar secreto se senalaron estraor^ 
dinariamente: no eran parte los tormentos, 324 por rigurosos 
que fuesen* 25 para hacersele quebrantar. Sus animos inqui- 
etos i bulliciosos: la lijereza i soltura de los cuerpos estraor- 
dinaria; dados a las relijiones falsas i culto de los dioses: 
aborrecedores del estudio de las ciencias, bien que de grandes 
injenios. Lo cual, 326 transferidos en otras provincias, mostrd*- 
ron bastantemente, que ni en claridad de entendimiento, ni en 
escelencia de memoria, ni aun en la elocuencia i hermosura 
de las palabras, daban ventaja a 327 ninguna otra nacion. En 
la guerra fueron mas valientes contra los enemigos, que astu- 
tos i sagaces. El arreo de que usaban, simple i grosero ; el 
mantenimiento mas en cantidad que esquisito ni regalado: 
bebzan de ordinario agua, vino mui poco : contra los malhe- 
chores eran rigurosos, con los estranjeros, benignos i amo- 
rosos. 

Esto fue antiguamente ; porque en este tiempo mucho se 
han acrecentado asi 328 los vicios, corno 328 las virtudes. Los 

323 Tratdron i acometieron tambien de ayudar, 'thought of aiding and 
did actually aid.' 

324 No eran parte los tormentos, 'torments could not.' 

325 p or rigurosos que fuesen, 'however severe.' — Note 180, 233. 

326 Lo cual, 'which,' referring to the circumstance of being de grandes 
injenios, 'possessed of great talents.' 

327 Daban ventaja a, 'were surpassed by.' 

323 j[ s ' t como; 'both and ;' 'as well ..... as.' 



NARRATIONS. 85 

estudios de la sabidurfa Jlorecen cuanto en cualquiera parte 
del mundo. En ninguna provmcia hai mayores, ni mas 
ciertos premios para la virtud; en ninguna nacion tiene la 
carrera mas abierta i patente el valor i doctrina 329 para adelan- 
tarse 330 En lo que mas se senalan es en la constancia de la 
relijion i creencia antigua: con tanta mayor gloria, pues en 
las naciones comarcanas en el mismo tiempo, todos los ritos 
i ceremonias se alteran con opiniones nuevas i estravagantes 
Dentro de Espana Jlorece el consejo ; fuera, las armas. 

Sosegadas las guerras domesticas, i echados los Moros de 
Espana,* han peregrinado por gran parte del mundo con for- 
taleza increible. Los cuerpos so?i, por naturaleza, sufridores 
de trabajos i de hambre ; virtudes con que han vencido todas 
las dificultades que han sido en ocasiones mui grandes por 
mar i por tierra. Verdad es, que en nuestra edad se ablandan 
los naturales, i enfiaquecen con la abundancia de deleites i 
con el aparejo que hai de todo gusto i regalo de todas mane- 
ras, en comida i en vestido. El trato i comunicacion de las 
otras naciones que acuden a la fama de nuestras riquezas i 
traen mercaderias que son a proposito para enjiaquecer los 
naturales con su regalo i blandura, son ocasion de este dano. 
Con esto, debilitadas las fuerzas i estragadas 331 con las cos- 

tumbres estranjeras, muchos viven desenfrenados, sin 

poner fin ni tasa, ni a la lujuria, ni a los gastos, ni a los 
arreos i galas. 

Juan de Mariana. 

329 Construct en ninguna nacion el valor i doctrina tiene la carrera mas 
abierta i patente. 

330 p ara adelantarse^ the same as para que se adelante, or para que 
uno adelante, 'for advancement.' 

* Ellos, 'they,' referring to los Espanoles, understood. 

331 Debilitadas las fuerzas i estragadas, 'the energy of the people 
being weakened and exhausted.' 

8 



86 NARRATIONS t 

SiTIO I PRODUCTION DE LA ISLA DE CElLAft; 

Es Ceilan una de las mas raras islas del orbe i la mas f ertiL 
Yace frontera del Cabo Comorin, poblada i cultivada con 
magnificencia. JYacen en ella todas las plantas conocidas en 
todas las otras partes de la tierra. RieganW 32 diversos rios, 
i fuentes purisimas con escelentes propiedades, de aguas de- 
leitosas i medicinales^ entre las cuales nacen otras* de betun 
liquido, mas denso que nuestro aceite; i alguna| de puro 
balsamo. Volcanes de perpetuas llamas, que arrojan entre 
las asperezas de la montaiia losas de azufre, i alii mismo 333 
altas arboledas, en cuyas ramas se suelen ver jeneros de aves 
de cuantas vuelan en las otras partes del mundo. 

Munda de elefantes tan nobles, que les reconocen supe- 
rioridad los demas,J puestos en su presencia. Por su instinto 
en los de esta isla, se puede afirmar lo que Aristoteles, Plu-< 
tarco, Ateneo, Eliano, Plinio, i otros que trataron de la histo- 
ria natural, testifican^ que, ora sea por conocimiento 6 por 
habito, tienen sociedad con 334 el injenio, sentidos i aun con la 
prudencia de los hombres.§ Aquel honor|| de no quererse 
embarcar, si entienden que son llevados para servir a prin- 
cipes en tierras peregrinas; i que obedecen, si les juran que 
les volverdn a su patria. Aflijirse de 335 palabras espanto- 
sas; guardar 335 cierta especie de relijion, reconociendo al sol 

332 Rieganla, 'it is watered by, 5 in similar cases it is better to use the 
passive verb in English. 

* Fuentes, f Fuente, understood. 
, 333 Alii mismo, 'in that same place.' 

% Construct que los demas les reconocen superioridad. 

334 Tienen sociedad con, 'they partake of.' 

§ In this and in the next instance, asombra, or marancilla, or es admi- 
rable, is understood. 

|| Que tienen, understood. 

ZZb Aquel, understood. Aquel aflijirse de, 'their being grieved or 
afflicted by;' aquel guardar, 'their keeping.' 



NARRATIONS. 87 

i a la luna. Tienen memoria de lo que aprenden, i segun Jilio 
nos persuade, podemos creer que lloran las noches su servi- 
dumbre con angustiosas murmuraciones ; i si en medio del 
llanto sobreviene alguna persona, moderan los jemidos con 
vergonzoso movimiento ; i en efecto parece que sienten el 
agravio de su suerte. 

En esta tierra les toco el cargar i descargar los navios, 
donde el peso del comercio,* armas, metales, bastimentos, i 
cualquiera otra materia del trato, penden de"j* sus colmillos, 6 
les oprimen laj cerviz. De mejor gana sustentan 336 armada 
sobre sus espaldas la jente de guerra, i grandes castillos edifi- 
cados en ellas. Sirven a los Chingalas, no como en Roma 
en los espectaculos, sino en las batallas, como solian% a los 
Cartajineses. 

Bartolome Leonardo de Arjensola. 

TRES ACCIONES FORMAN LA HIST6RIA DE AMERICA. 

Los hechos de Cristobal Colon en su admirable navega- 
cion, i en las primeras empresas de aquel nuevo mundo; lo 
que obro Hernan Cortes con el consejo i con las armas, en la 
conquista de Nueva Esparia, cuyas vastas rejiones duran to- 
davia en la incertidumbre de sus terminos ; 337 i lo que se debib 
a Francisco Pizarro, i trabajdron los que le sucedieron en 
sojuzgar aquel dilatad'isimo imperio de la America Meridional, 
teatro de varias trajedias i estraordinarias novedades, son tres 
argumentos de historias grandes, compuestas de aquellas 

* El peso del comercio, 'the weight of commercial commodities.' 
f Penden de, 'hangs on,' 'is carried by.' 
% Les oprimen la, 'presses on their.' 

336 De mejor gana sustentan, 'they prefer to bear.' 

§ Servir, understood; solian servir, 'were wont to serve,' 'they were 
wont to be used by.' 

337 Cuyas vastas rejiones duran todavia en la incertidumbre de sus ter- 
minos, 'the limits or boundaries of whose vast regions are yet unknown.' 



88 NARRATIONS. 

ilustres hazanas, i admirables accidentes de ambas fortunas, 333 

que dan materia digna a los anales, agradable alimento a la 

memoria, i utiles ejemplos al entendimiento i al valor de los 

hombres. 

Antonio de Solis. 

MUERTE DE MAJISCATZIN. 

Sintib Hernan Cortes su muerte como perdida incapaz de 
consuelo ; 339 aunque le hacia mas falta 340 como amigo que como 
director de sus intentos, por hallarse ya introducido en la 
voluntad 341 i respeto de toda la republica. Pero el cielo, 
que al parecer cuidaba de animarle para que no desistiese * le 
socorrio entonces con un suceso favorable,! que mitigo su 
tristeza, i puso de mejor condicion sus esperanzas. 

Resolvio otro dia Cortes entrar de luto en la ciudad; pre- 
vtnose de ropas negras, que vistieron sobre las armas el i sus 
capitanes, a cuyo efecto mando tefiir 342 algunas mantas de la 
tierra. 343 Hzzose la entrada, sin mas aparato que la buena 
ordenanza, i tin silencio artirlcioso en los soldados, que iba 
public ando 344 el duelo de su jeneral. Tuvo esta demostra- 
cion grande aplauso entre 345 los nobles i plebeyos de la 
ciudad, porque amaban todos al diiunto como padre de la* 

338 De ambas fortunas, 'of both good and bad fortune.' 

339 Incapaz de consuelo, 'for which he could find no consolation.' 

340 Aunque le hacia mas falta, 'though he missed more.' 

341 Por hallarse ya introducido en la voluntad, 'as he had already gained 
the good will.' 

* Para que no desistiese, 'that he might not desist,' (from entering the 
town of Flascala, to which Xicoteneal, who had just died, had invited 
him.) 

f Suceso favorable, 'favourable occurrence,' 'happy thought.' 

342 A cuyo efecto mando teiiir, 'for which purpose he ordered to 

be dyed/— Note 71, 190. 

343 De la tierra, 'domestic,' 'home manufactured.' 

344 Iba publicando, 'was proclaiming,' 'showed.' — Note 91. 

345 Tuvo grande aplauso entre, 'was very much applauded bv.' 



Narrations. 89 

patria. 1 aunque no se pone duda en el sentimiento 346 de 

Cortes, que se lamentaba muchas veces de su perdida, i tenia 

razon para sentirla.] se puede creer que vistio el luto con 

animo de ganar voluntaries, i que fue una esterioridad a dos 

luces 347 en que hizo cuanto pudo por su* dolor, sin olvidarse 

de hacer algo por el aura popular. 348 

Antonio de Solis* 

ENCUENTRO DE JIL BLAS CON CHINCHILLA. 

Luego que llegue a Madrid, estableci mi habitacion 349 en 
una posada, en donde, entre otras personas, vivia un capitan 
viejo, que, desde las estremidades de Castilla la Nueva, habia 
venido a la corte, para solicitar una pension que creia tenet 
bien merecida. Llamabase Don Anibal de Chinchilla; no 
sin espanto le vi la primera vez : era un hombre de sesenta 
aiios, de una estatura jigantesca i estraordinariamente flaco* 
Tenia unos bigotes espesos que subian, retorciendose por los 
dos lados, hasta las sienes ; ademas de que le faltaba 350 un 
brazo i una pierna, tenia tapado un ojo con un gran parche 
de tafetan verde, i casi todo su rostro Ueno de cicatrices. En 
el resto era como los otros. Por lo demas no le faltaba en^ 
tendimiento, i le sobraba gravedad. En cuanto a costumbres, 
era mui escrupuloso, i se picaba sobre todo en puntos de 
honra. 

Naturalmente nos interesamos por un hombre valiente 
cuando se le ve ajado : 351 le eshorte a que se mantuviera firme • 

346 No se puede dudar el sentimiento de Cortes, 'the sorrow manifested 
by Cortes cannot be doubted.' 

347 A dos luces, 'with two objects.' 

* Manifestar, 'to show,' understood. 

248 Por el aura popular, 'for the sake of popularity.' 

349 Estableci mi habitacion, 'I took lodgings.' 

350 Edemas de que le faltaba, 'besides his wanting.' 

351 Se le ve ajado, 'when we see him disfigured.' Here se, is the sub- 
ject of ve, and stands for 'one,' 'they,' 'we,' &c. — Grammar, Observa- 
tion 3, p. 165. 

8* 



90 NARRATIONS. 

me ofreci a ponerle de balde en limpio 352 sus memoriales; 
llegue hasta abrirle mi bolsillo, i le suplique que tomara lo 
que quisiera. Pero no era de aquellos que en semejantes 
ocasiones esperan pocas suplicas; al contrario, se manifesto 
mui delicado, i me did las gracias. 353 Despues de esto me 
dijo que por no mole star a nadie, se habia acostumbrado 
poco a poco a tni?ir con tanta sobriedad, que el menor ali- 
mento bastaba para su subsistencia, lo que era mui cierto. 
No se alimentaba de otra cosa que 354 cebollas i ajos, i asi solo 
tenia el pellejo i los huesos. Para no tener testigos de sus 
malas comidas, se encerraba en su cuarto a la hora de ellas. 

Jil Bias.* 

LA CASADA I LA RELIJIOSA. 

No digo yo que el casado 6 alguno 355 ha de carecer de ora- 
cion; 356 sino, digo la diferencia que ha de haber 357 entre las 
buenas relijiosa i casada. Porque, en aquella el orar es todo 
su oficio, en esta ha de ser medio el orar para que mejor 
cumpla su oficio. Aquella no quiso el marido, 338 i negb el 
mundo, i DESPiDiose de todos para conversar siempre i desem- 
barazadamente con Cristo; esta ha de tratar con Cristo para 

352 A ponerle de balde en limpio, 'to copy off gratis.' 
353 1 me did las grdcias, and he thanked me. The mere act of giving 
thanks, in Spanish, is expressive of answering in the negative. 

354 No se alimentaba de otra cosa, 'he lived only on.' 

* Jil Bias is the name of the book from which this and other pieces 
have been extracted. There hangs in regard to the authorship of this 
book a mystery which the severest investigation has not yet unravelled. 
Those who may be anxious to enter fully into this literary problem are 
referred to the North American Review, No. LVII. p. 278, and the 
works mentioned there. 

355 El casado 6 alguno, 'the married or any other person.' 

356 Ha de carecer de oracion, 'must, or is to be wanting in prayer.' — 
Note 12. 

357 Que ha de haber, 'there must,' 'there need be.' — Note 12. 

358 No quiso el marido, 'did not wish to take a husband.' 



Narrations. 91 

alcanzar del gracia i favor, con que acierte 359 a criar el hijo 
i a gobernar bien la casa, i a servir como es razon 360 al ma- 
rido. Aquella ha de vivir para orar contirmamente ; esta ha 
de orar para vivir como debe, Aquella aplace a Dios rega- 
landose con el; 361 esta le ha de servir trabajando en el 
gobierno de su casa por el. 

Mas considere vm. como reluce aqui la grandeza de la di- 
vina bondad, que se tiene por servido de nosotros con aquella 
mismo que es provecho nuestro. Porque, a la verdad, 
cuando no hubiera otra cosa que inclinara a la casada a 
hacer el deber 362 sino es la paz i sosiego i gran bien que en 
esta vida sacan i interesan las buenas 363 de serlo;* esto solo 
bastaba. Porque, sabida cosa es, que cuando la mujer asiste 
a su of icio, el marido la ama, i la familia anda en concierto, 36 ' 
i aprenden virtud los hijos, i la paz reina, i la hacienda crece, 
I como la luna llena, en las noches serenas se goza rodeada, 363 
i como acompanada, de clarisimas lumbres, las cuales todas 
parece que avivan sus luces en ella, 366 i que la miran i reve- 
rencian; asi la buenaf en su casa reina i resplandece, i con- 
vierte a si 367 juntamente los ojos i corazones de todos. 

Luis de Leon. 



359 Con que acierte, c by means of which she may succeed in.' 

360 Como es razon, 'as it is right she should.' 

361 Regaldndose con el, 'giving herself up entirely to him.' 

362 A hacer el deber, 'to perform her duty.' 

363 Sacan i interesan las buenas, 'the good wifes derive and receive.' 
* De serlo, 'of being so,' that is, of being good wifes. 

864 Anda en concierto, 'is well arranged,' 'well managed.' 

365 g e g 0za rodeada, 'delights in being surrounded.' 

366 Que avivan sus luces en ella, 'to make it shine more vividly with 
their own light.' 

f Casada, or esposa, 'wife,' understood. 
867 Convierte a si, 'attracts.' 



92 



NARRATIONS. 



EN QUE CONSISTE LA VERDADERA DICHA HUMANA. 

Tenemos los hombres 368 unas ideas mui erradas sobre nues- 
tra* felicidad; todosf jeneralmente la buscamos con la mayor 
ansia, dilijencia i desvelo, i mui pocos la cncontramos. Cree- 
mos hallarlsL en aquellas m ism as cosas, cuya instabilidad cono- 
ccmos; i siempre ciegos, siempre insensatos, nos dejamos 
arrastrar 360 infelizmente de las preocupaciones mundanas, sin 
poner la mira en lo que sabemos por esperiencia, que es lo 
mas solido i permanente. Todos estos son efectos de nuestra 
flaqueza, que se Usonjea con el vano esplendor de la vanidad 
i del orgullo; i ofuscados de aquella esterior brillantez que 
nos presenta, seguimos el ejemplo deplorable, i funesto de 
otros muchos que obcecados i alucinados de las mismas 
futiles ideas, kalian por fin 370 el fastidio, la inquietude el dis 
gusto, la molestia i la miseria en lo que crezan encontrar el 
reposo, la alegria, el gusto i la felicidad. 

Si el hombre reflecsionase con madurez, que no en las 
vanidades del mundo, ni en las riquezas que anhela la sedienta 
codicia.J sino en la tranquilidad de la conciencia i en la me- 
'diocridad estd la verdadera dicha; si considerase que no la 
satisfaccion de los sentidos, ni el saciar los apetitos, 371 produce 
el verdadero bien, sino el cultivo de la virtud i el cumplimi- 
ento de las obligaciones de su estado; se contentarza mas 
facilmente ; 372 viviria sin tantas 373 zozobras; no anhelaria 

s . 

368 Tenemos los hombres, 'men have.' 

* Nuestra, 'their ;' because the construction of the Spanish requires 
the verbs and pronouns to be in the first person. 
f Todos, 'we all.' 

369 Nos dejamos arrastrar, 'we allow ourselves to be carried away. 

370 Por fin, 'at last.' 

% Construct: que la sedienta codicia anhela, 'which greedy avarice pants 
after.' 

371 El saciar los apetitos, 'the satiety of the appetites.' 

372 Se coWentaria mas facilmente, 'would be more easily satisfied.' 
173 2fe is, plural of tanto-a, 'so many.' 



NARRATIONS. 93 

cargos pesados que no puede desempefiar ; abrazaria solo aquel 
estado, a que sus inclinaciones le llamasen; no fundaria el en- 
tusiasmo del honor en los titulos pomposos, ni en los brillantes 
distintivos, sino en obrar en todo como hombre de bien, 374 i al 
fin de esta corta i miserable vida, moriria sin aquellos te- 
mores que producen los vicios i delitos. 375 Pero por desgra- 
cia del jenero humano, 376 jeneralmente se tiene* por loco, fatuo 
6 estravagante cualquiera,* que, despreciando todo cuanto 
puede openerse 6 se opo?ie 377 a un recto modo de pensar i 
obrar, lo que puede precipitarle en un irremediable precipicio, 
lo que solo es apariencia i futilidad, i lo que es dafioso a su 
conciencia, sigue aquellas verdaderas macsimas, propias de 
una rilosofia cristiana, aprecia mas la virtud que todos los 
intereses mundanos, i solo anliela lo que sinceramente conoce 
le puede proporcionarf aquella felicidad i alegria inmutable, 
que no pueden quitar ni los hombres ni los siglos.J 

Son mui pocos los hombres que piensan de este modo, i 
por lo mismo 378 son muchos los que vituperan i censuran a 
los que lo hacen; siendo la mayor lastima, que incurren en el 

m Hombre de Men, 'honest man. 5 

375 Construct los vicios i delitos producen; the subject, as has been 
frequently repeated, is placed in Spanish very often after the verb. — 
See, again, Grammar, Observations, p. 140, R. XXII. p. 157. 

576 p or desgrdcia del jenero humano, 'unfortunately for mankind.' 

* The difficulty of translating this and the following sentences arises 
altogether from the fact, which it is impossible to repeat too often, that 
the verb in Spanish, is placed often before the subject. Se tiene, 'is 
held,' in this sentence precedes its subject cualquiera, 'any one.' Let 
the student construct cualquiera se tiene por loco, &c. 'any one is consi- 
dered foolish,' &c. and he will find no difficulty in translating the rest. 

377 Puede openerse, 6 se opone, 'can be, or is opposed.' Another im- 
portant consideration which the student must bear in mind is, that the 
reciprocal pronoun se, is used to form the passive voice. — See Grammar, 
Observations, § 2, p. 165. 

t Le puede proporcionar, 'can procure him.' 

J Construct ni los hombres ni los siglos pueden quitar. 

f 9 fpor lo mismo, 'and for this reason.' 



94 



NARRATIONS. 



mismo pernicioso error aun las personas que por su dignidad, 
caracter i talentos deberzan despreciar todo cuanto sirviese 
para inspirar en el corazon human o, ya de suyo 379 debil i 
corrompido, vanidad, orgullo, soberbia, i abandono de la vir- 
tud. Sin embargo de la corrupcion jeneral, no faltan cora- 
zones* que sean incontrastables e inaccesibles a eslas vergon- 
zosas pasiones, autorizadas por el mundo enganoso, que, ofus- 
cando a los hombres con sus* lisonjeros atractivos, les hacen 
creer que solo en ellos esta el verdadero bien, i les persuaden 
a que se considered 30 como inmortales. jQue ceguedad! 
jque ilusion! 

Garcia Malo. 

DESTIERRO DEL CONDE-DUQUE.f 

Diverttase algunas veces el conde, para variar sus ocupa- 
ciones, en cultivar su jardin. Estdbale yo an dia viendo en 
aquel inocente trabajo, i me dip en un tono serio i festivo; 
I " Que te parece, Jil Bias, no es un espectaculo tan estrano 
como divertido, el ver a un ministro desterrado de Madrid, 
hacer de jardinero en Loeches ?" u Senor," le respondz en el 
mismo tono, "me parece que estoi viendo a Dionisio Siracu- 
sano dando la lei en Sicilia, i ensefiando despues a leer i es- 
cribir a los nirios de Corinto." Sonriose un poco el amo, i 

379 De suyo, 'naturally,' 'by its own nature.' 

* No faltan corazones, 'hearts are not wanting. 

380 1 les persuaden a que se consideren, 'and persuade them to consider 
themselves.' One verb frequently governs another in the subjunctive 
in Spanish, when the infinitive is required in English. 

f The Count Duque. Gaspar Ibanez, Conde de Olivares, and Duque 
de San Lucar. He was born at Rome, in 1587, while his father was 
ambassador from Spain, at that court. He was a celebrated minister of 
Philip IV. He enjoyed for some time the entire confidence of the King, 
but was afterwards disgraced, and retired to Loeches. Here he bore his 
reverses with a philosophic spirit. But he was afterwards banished to 
Tono, became broken-hearted, and died 1643, in the 57th year of his age. 



NARRATIONS. 95 

mostro que no le desagradaba el cotejo. Toda la famllia 
estaba contentisima i admirada de ver al conde tan superior a 
su desgracia, rebosando de gozo en una vida tan diferente de 
la que habia tenido hasta alii, cuancio todos advertimos en el 
una repentina mudanza, que palpablemente iba creciendon i nos 
Ueno de grandisimo dolor. Vzmosla taciturno, pensativo, i 
como abismado en una profimclisinla melancolia. Abandono 
todo juego i pasatiempo, hut a de la jente i se vlostraba insen- 
sible a cuanto podiamos hacer i discurrlr para divertirle. 
Luego que acababa de Comer se cncerraba en su cuarto, de 
donde no salia hasta la noche. Parecionos que aquella tris- 
teza podia tener orijen en la memoria de la grandeza pasada, 
i en este concepto 381 procurdmos dejarle solo con el relijioso 
su confesor; pero su elocuencia tampoco pudo triunfar de la 
melancolia del duque, antes bien cada vez se descubria mayor. 

Jil Bias. 

HIST6RIA DE ESPANA. 

La peninsula, llamada Espana, solo estd contigua al conti- 
nente de Europa por el lado de Francia, de que la separan 
los montes Pirineos.* Es abundante en oro, plata, azogue, 
hierro, piedras, aguas minerales, ganados de escelentes cali- 
dades, i pescas tan abundantes como deliciosas. Esta feliz 
situacion la hizo objeto de la codicia de los Fenicios i otros 
pueblos. Los Cartajineses, parte por dolo, i parte por fuerza, 
se establecieron en ella- i los Romanos quisieron completar 
su poder i gloria con la conquista de Esparia; pero encontra- 
ron una resistencia, que parecib tan estraria como terrible a 
los soberbios dueiios de lo restante del mundo. 

Numancia, una sola ciudad, les costb catorce arios de sitio ; 
la perdida de tres ejercitos, i el desdoro de los mas famosos 
jenerales, hasta que reducidos los Numantinos a la precision 

38i I en es t e concepto, 'and, under this idea,' c and, therefore.' 
* Construct de que los montes Pirineos la separan. 



98 NARRATIONS. 

de capitular 6 morir, por la total ruina de la patria, incendi- 
aron sus casas, arrojaron sus mujeres, niiios, i ancianos en las 
llamas, i salieron a morir en el campo raso con las armas en 
la mano. El grande Escipion fue testigo de la ruina de Nu- 
mancia; pues no puede lla?narse propiamente* conquistadoi 
de la ciudad: siendoj de notar, que Luculo, encargado de 
levantar un ejercito para aquella espedicion, no hallo en la 
juventud Romana reclutas que Uevar, hasta que el mismo 
Escipion se alisto para animar\di.\ 

Si los Romanos conocieron el valor de los Espanoles como 
enemigos, tambien esperimentaron su virtud como aliados. 
Sagunto sufrib por ellos un sitio igual al de§ Numancia con- 
tra los Cartajineses, i desde entonces formaron los Romanos 
de los Espanoles el alto concepto que se ve en sus autores, 
oradores, historiadores, i poetas. Pero la fortuna de Roma, 
superior al valor humano, la hizo senora de Espaiia, como de 
lo restante del mundo, menos algunos montes de Cantabria, 
cuya total conquista no consta de la historia. 

Largas revoluciones, inu tiles de contarse en este paraje, 
trajeron del norte enjambres de naciones feroces, codiciosas i 
guerreras, que se establecieron en Esparia : pero, con las deli- 
cias de este clima, tan diferente del|| que habian dejado, caye- 
ron en tal grado de afeminacion i flojedad, que a su tiempo 382 
fueron esclavos de otros conquistadores, venidos del medio- 
dia. Huyeron los Godos Espanoles hasta los montes de una 
provincia, hoi llamada Asturias ; i apenas tuvieron tiempo de 
desechar el susto, llorar la perdida de sus casas, i ruina de su 
reino, cuando salieron mandados por Pelayo, uno de los 
mayores hombres que la naturaleza ha producido. 

* Hablando, f Digno, understood. 
X La, 'it,' referring to espedicion. 

§ Al de, 'to that of;' || Del, 'from that.'— Grammar, R. XXXVI. note 1, 
p.182. 
382 ^f su tiempo, 'in their turn.' 



NARRATIONS* 97 

Desde aqui se abre un teatro de guerras, que durdron eerca 
de ocho siglos. Varios reinos se lev ant ar on sobre la ruina 
de la monarquia Goda Espanola, destruyendo el reino que 
quertan edificar los Moros en el mismo terreno, regado con 
mas sangre Espaiiola, Romana, Cartajinesa, Goda, i Mora de 
cuanto se puede pondera?^ 83 con horror de la pluma que lo 
escriba, i de los ojos que lo vean escrito. Pero la poblacion 
de esta peninsula era tal, que despmes de tan largas guerras i 
tan sangrientas, aun se contaban 384 veinte millones de habi- 
tantes en ella. 

Incorpordronse tantas provincial i tan diferenies en dos 
coronas, la de Castilla i la de Aragon ; i ambas en el matri- 
monio de D. Fernando i Dona Isabel, principes que seran 
inmortales entre cnantos sepan lo que es gobierno. La reforma 
de abusos, aumento de ciencias, hurnillacion de los soberbios, 
amparo de la agricultura i otras operaciones semej antes, for- 
mdron esta monarquia. Ayudoles la naturaleza con un nu- 
mero increible de vasallos insignes en letras i armas, i se 
pudieron haber lisonjeado de dejar 8 ' a sus sucesores un 
imperio mayor i mas duradero, que el de 386 Roma antigua 
contando las Americas nuevamente descubiertas si hubieran 
logrado 387 dejar su corona a un heredero varon. 

Negoles el cielo este gozo a trueque de tantos como 388 les 
habia concedido, i su cetro paso a la casa de Austria, la cual 
gastb los tesoros, talentos i sangre de los Espaiioles en cosas 
ajenas de Esparia, por las continuas guerras, que asi en Ale- 
mania, como en Italia, tuvo que sostener Carlos Primero de 
Esparia, hasta que cansado de sus mismas prosperidades, 6 

383 Be cuanto se puede ponderar, 'than can be dwelt upon.' 
284 Aun se contaban, 'it yet contained.* 
383 De dejar , 'of having left.' 

386 Que el de, 'than that of.'— Grammar, R. XXXVI. note 1, p. 182. 

387 Si hubieran logrado, 'if they could have succeeded in.' 

388 A trueque ne tantos como, 'to counterbalance the many that' 

9 



98 NARRATIONS. 

tal vez conociendo con prudencia las vicisitudes de las cosas 
humanas, no quiso esponerse a sus reveses, i dejb el trono a 
su hijo D. Felipe II. 

Este principe, acusado por la emulacion, por ambicioso 389 i 
politico como su padre, pero menos afortunado, siguiendo los 
proyectos de Carlos, no pudo hollar los mismos sucesos aun 
a costa de 390 ejercitos, de armadas, i de caudales. Murib de- 
jando a su pueblo estenuado con las guerras; afeminado con 
el oro i plata de America; disminuido con la poblacion de un 
mundo nuevo; disgustado con tantas desgracias, i deseoso de 
descanso. Paso el cetro por las manos de tres principes 
menos aciivos para manejar tan grande monarquia ; i en la 
muerte de Carlos Segundo no era Espana sino el esqueleto de 
un jigante. 

Jose Cadalso. 



389 Este principe, acusado por la emulacion, por ambicioso, 'this prince, 
accused by his rivals of being ambitious.' 

390 jy pudo hollar los mismos sucesos aun a, costa de, 'could not be as 
successful even at the expense af.' 



DESCRIPTIONS. 



JUICIO FINAL. 

Piensa cuan terrible sera aquel dia, en el cual se avertgua- 
ran las causas de todos los hijos de A dan, i se concluiran los 
procesos de nuestras vidas, i se dard sentencia difmitiva de lo 
que para siempre ha de ser. Aquel dia abrazard en si los 
dias de todos los siglos, presentes, pasados, i venideros: 
porque en el dard el mundo cuenta de todos estos tiempos, i 
en el derramard Dios la ira i la sana que tiene recojida en 
todos los siglos. Pues que tan arrebatado saldrd entonces 
aquel tan caudaloso rio de la indignacion divina;* teniendo 
tantas acojidas de ira i saria, cuantos pecados se han hecho 
desde el principio del mundo. 

Considera las senales espantosas que precederdn este dia: 
porque, como dice el Salvador, antes que venga este dia, ha- 
bra senales en el sol i en la luna i en las estrellas, i rmalmente 
en todas las criaturas del cielo i de la tierra: porque todas 
ellas sentirdn su fin antes que fenezcan, i se estremecerdn i 
comenzardn a caer antes que caigan. Mas los hombres, 
^dice, que andardn secos i ahiiados de muerte, 391 oyendo los 
bramidos espantosos del mar, i viendo las grandes olas i tor- 
mentas que levantard: barruntando por esto las grandes 
calamidades i miserias que amenazan al mundo tan tenebrosas 
senales. I asi andardn atonitos i espantados, las caras araa- 

* Pues que tan arrebatado saldrd entonces aquel tan caudaloso rio de la 
indignacion divina, <for such will be the impetuosity with which, then, 
the large river of divine indignation will spring forth.' 

f El, referring to el Salvador, understood. 

391 Andardn secos i ahiiados de muerte, c will be as thin and emaciated 
as if thev were dead.' 



160 DESCRIPTIONS. 

rilJas i desfiguradas ; antes de la muerte,* muertos, i antes del 
juicio, sentenciados; midiendo los peligros con sus propios 
temores, i tan ocupados cada uno con el suyo, que no se 
acordard del ajeno aunque sea padre 6 hijo. Nadie habrd 
para nadie 1 * 92 porque nadie bastard para si solo 

Despues de esto considera cuan estrecha sera la cuenta 
que alii a cada uno se pedird. Pues que sentird entonces 
cada uno de los malos, cuando entre Dios 393 con el en este 
ecsamen i alia dentro de su conciencia, diga asi: "Ven aca 
hombre malo, <j que viste en mi. porque 394 asi me despreciaste 
i te pasaste al vando 395 de mi enemigo ? Yo te crie a mi 
imajen i semejanza, te di la lumbrede la fe, te hice cristiano, 

i te redimi con mi propia sangre Testigos son esta 

cruz i clavos que aqui parecen; testigos estas llagas de pies i 
manos, que en mi cuerpo queddron; testigos el cielo i la 
tierra delante quien padeci. Pues i que hiciste de esa anima 
tuya, que yo con mi sangre hice mia; en cuyo servicio em- 
pleaste la que yo compre tan caramente ?" 

;0 jeneracion loca i adultera! i porque quisiste mas servir 
a ese enemigo| tuyo con trabajo, que a mi, tu Redentor i 
Criador, con alegria? Llameos tantas veces, i no me respon- 
disteis; toque a vuestras puertasj i no despertasteis; estendi 
mis manos en la cruz, i no las mirdsteis. Menosprecidsteis 
mis consejos, i todas mis promesas i amenazas; pues decid 
ahora vosotros, anjeles, juzgad, vosotros jueces, entre mi i mi 

* '■Se sentiran,' or ( se hallardn como si fuesen, 'will feel or find them- 
selves,' understood. 

392 Nadie habrd para nadie, c no one will be able to serve another/ 

393 Cuando entre Dios, 'when God shall enter/ The subjunctive pre- 
sent is frequently used for the future in Spanish. 

394 Porque, as above, 'that.' 

305 Te pasaste al vando, 'thou wentest over to the band/ 
f A ese enemigo tuyo, 'that enemy of thine,' meaning 'the evil spirit/ 
{ Toque a vuestras puertas, 'I knocked at your doors ;' meaning, 'I 
touched your hearts/ 



DESCRIPTIONS. 



101 



vina: <que mas debut yo hacer por ella que lo que hice?" 

Pues i que responderdn aqui los malos, los burladores de las 

cosas divinas, los mofadores de la virtu d; los menosprecia- 

dores de la simplicidad, los que tuvieron mas cuenta con 396 

las leyes del mundo, que con las de Dios, los que a todas sus 

voces estuvieron sordos, a todas sus inspiraciones insensibles, 

a todos sus mandatos rebeldes, i a todos sus azotes i benefi* 

cios, ingratos i duros? 

Luis de Granada. 

MORxlDORES CELESTIALES, 

Despues de la escelencia del lugar, considera la nobieza 
de los moradores, cuyo numero, cuya santidad, cuyas rique- 
zas i hermosura, escede todo lo que se puede pensar. <Que 
cosa puede ser mas admirable ? Por cierto, cosa es esta, que 
si bien se considerase, bastaba para dejar atonitos a todos los 
hombres. I si cada uno de aquellos bienaventurados espi- 
ritus, aunque sea el menor de ellos, es mas hermoso de ver™ 7 
que todo este mundo visible; ;que sera el ver tan to numero 
de espiritus tan hermosos, i ver las perfecciones i oficios de 
cada uno de ellos ? Alii discurren los anjeles, ministran los 
arcanjeles, triunfan los principados, i aiegranse las potestades, 
ensefioreanse las dominaciones, resplandecen las virtudes, re- 
lampaguean los tronos, lucen los querubines, i arden los 
serafines, i todos cantan alabanzas a Dios. 

Pues si la compania i comunicacion de los buenos es tan 
dulce i amigable; ^que sera tralar alii con tantos buenos, 
hablar con los apostoles, conversar con los profetas, con los 
martires, con todos los escojidos ? I si tan grande gloria es 
gozar de la compaiiia de los buenos ; ; que sera gozar de la 
compania i presencia de aquel a quien alaban las estrellas de 

3% " Los que tuvieron mas cuenta con, 'those who paid more attention to. 5 
397 Mas hermoso de ver, 'more beautiful to the sight. 5 



102 DESCRIPTIONS, 

la manana, de cuya hermosura el sol i la lima se maravitlan, 
ante cuyo acatamiento se arrodillan los anjeles i todos aquel- 
los espiritus soberanos ? i Que sera ver aquel Bien Universal, 
en quien estdn todos los bienes ? i aquel mundo mayor, en 
quien est an todos los mundos ? i aquel que, siendo uno, es 
todas las cosas ? i siendo simplicisimo, abraza las perfecciones 
de todas ? 

Luis de Granada, 

LA INMENSIDAD DEL SEN OR. 

Todas las criaturas tienen Anitas i limitadas sus naturalezas 
i virtudes, porque* todas las criaste en numero, peso, i me- 
dida, i les hiciste sus rayas, 398 i seftalaste los limites de su 
jurisdiction. Mui activo es el fuego en calentar, i el sol en 
alumbrar, i mucho se esticnde su virtud; mas todavia reco- 
noccn estas criaturas sus fines, i tienen terminos que no 
puedcn pasar. Por esta causa puede la vista de nuestra 
anima llegdr de cabo a cabo, i comprehenderlas?" porque 
todas ellas estdn enccrradas, cada una dentro de su jurisdic- 
cion. Mas vos, senor, sois infinito: no hai cerco que os 
comprehends: no hai entendimiento que pueda lie gar hasta 
los ultimos terminos de vuestra substancia, porque no los 
teneis. Sois sob re todo jenero i sobre foda especie, i sobre 
toda naturaleza criada. Porque asi como 400 no reconoceis 
superior, asi 400 no teneis jurisdiccion determinada. 

A todo el mundo, que criasteis en tanta grandeza, puede 
dar vuelta por el mar oceano un hombre mortal : porque, 
aunque el sea mui grande, todavia es finita i limitada su gran- 
deza. Mas a vos, gran mar oceano, i quien podrd rodearf 

* Vos, Senor; 'thou, O Lord, 7 understood. 

398 Les hiciste sus rayas, 'didst set their boundaries.' 

399 Llegar de cabo d cabo, i comprehenderlas, 'may reach the extremi- 
ties of the limits they occupy, and view them all at once.' 

400 Asi como asi; 'as,' 'in the same manlier as so.' 



DESCRIPTIONS. 103 

Eterno sois en la duracion, infinito en la virtud, i supremo en 
la jurisdiccion. Ni vuestro ser comenzo en tiempo, ni se 
acaba en el mundo: sois ante todo tiempo, i mandais en el 
mundo, i fuera del mundo; porque llamais las cosas que no 
son como a las que son. Pues, siendo como sois, tan grande 
I quien os conocerd ? ; Quien conocer a la alteza de vuestra 
naturaleza, pues no puede conocer la bajeza de la suya? De 
esta misma anima con que vivimos, cuyos oficios i virtud 
cada hora esperiamentamos, no ha habido filosofo hasta hoi 
que haya podido conocer la manera de la esencia, por ser 
ella 401 hecha a vuestra imajen i semejanza. Siendo, pues, tal 
nuestra rudeza, ,; como podrd llegar a conocer* 02 aquella so- 
berana e incomprehensible substancia? 

Luis de Granada, 

MONTE DE LA VIRTUD. 

El monte escelso de la virtud esta formado al reves de 
todos los demas montes. En los montes materiales son ame- 
nas las faldas, i asperas las cumbres : asi como se va subien-* 
do 403 por ellos, se va disminuyendo la amenidad, i creciendo 
la aspereza. El monte de la virtud, tiene desabrida la falda, i 
graciosa la eminencia. El que qniere arribarle, a los prime- 
ros pasos no encuentra sino piedras, espinas, i abrojos: asi 
como se va adelantando el curso, 404 se ua disminuyendo la 
aspereza i se va descubriendo la amenrdad ; hasta que en fin, 
en la cumbre no se encuentran sino hermosas rlores, regala- 
das plantas, i cristalinas fuentes. 

El primer transito es sumamente trabajoso, i resbaladizo. 
Lldmanle al recien convertido, desde el mar del mundo, los 

4oi p or ser e n a hecha a, 'because it is made after.' 

402 Como podrd llegar a conocer, 'how will it ever know.' 

403 Asi como se va subiendo, 'as we are ascending.' — Note 294, 91. 

404 Asi como se va adelantando el curso, 'as we are advancing in our 
course.' 



104 DESCRIPTIONS. 

cantos de las sirenas.* Jlterranle por la parte del monte, los 
rujidos de los leones. Mir a con terneza la llanura del valle 
que dejo. Contempla con pavor el cerio de la montaiia a que 
aspira. Libre de la carcel del pecado, aim lleva en sus pa- 
siones las cadenas, cuya pesadumbre conspira con la arduidad 
del camino, para hacer tardo i congojoso el movimiento. 
Oye a las espaldas, 405 los blandos clamores de los 'deleites, 
que le dicen, como a Agustino: u $Es posible que nos aban- 
donesf $Es posible que te despidas* 06 i ausentes de nosotros 
para siempre? 

"No obstante camina aflijido un poco, tal vez intermmpi- 
endo el paso algun tropiezo. Ya va hallando menos aspera 
la senda : ya los clamores de las delicias terrenas hacen me- 
nos impresion, porque se oyen de mas lejos. 407 Asi lo esperi- 
mentaba el mismo Agustino. Melantando algunos pasosmas, 
ya se va descubriendo 409 algo llano el camino; aunque una u 
otra vez representa la costumbre antigua los gozados placeres, 
i la dificultad de vivir sin ellos, es tan languidamente, i con 

tanta tibieza, que no hace fuerza alguna. 

Jeronimo Feijoo. 

CARiCTER DE CHAVES, I SUS TERTULIANOS. 
Era la Marquesa de Chaves une viuda de treinta i cinco 
arlos; bella, alta, airosa i bien proporcionada. No tenia hijos, 
i gozaba diez mil ducados de renta. 409 Nunca vi a mujer 

* Construct desde el mar del mundo, los cantos de las sirenas lldmanle 
al recien convertido; meaning, that, he who begins to enter into the path 
of virtue, is dissuaded, at first, from following this course, by his animal 
passions. 

405 Oye a las espaldas, 'he hears behind his back.' 

406 Que te despidas, 'that you take leave of us.' 

407 Porque se oyen de mas lejos, 'because they are heard from a greater 
distance.' 

408 Ya se va descubriendo algo llano el camino, 'the road is becoming a 
little plainer.' 

409 Gozar ... . de renta, 'to enjoy a revenue of ;' as, gozaba 

diez mil ducados de renta, 'she enjoyed a revenue of ten thousand ducats.' 



DESCRIPTIONS. 105 

mas seria, ni que menos hablase. Con todo eso, era cele- 
brada en Madrid, i jeneralmente tenida por la dama de mayor 
talento. Lo que quiza contribuza mas que todo a esta univer 
sal reputacion, era la concurrencia a su casa de los primeros 
personajes de la Corte, asi en nobleza como en literatura: 
problema que yo no me atrevere a decidir* Solo dire que 
bastaba oir su nombre para formar concepto de un genio 
superior, i cu casa era llamada por escelencia: U E1 tribunal 
de las obras injeniosas." 

Con efecto, todos los dias se lezan en ella ya poemas dra- 
maticos, ya poesias liricas ; pero siempre sobre asuntos serios. 
La mejor comedia, el romance 6 la novela mas injeniosa, mas 
alegre i mas verosimilmente conducida, todo esto se miraba 
como una pueril i lijera produccion, que no merecia alabanza 
alguna. Por el contrario 410 la minima obra seria, una oda, un 
soneto, una egloga pasaba alii por el ultimo esfuerzo del 
injenio humano. Sucedza tal vez que el publico no se con- 
formaba con la decision del tribunal, antes bien silbaba las 
obras que habzan sido aplaudidas en aquel areopago. 

La Marquesa me hizo maestresala de su casa. Era incum- 
bencia de mi empleo preparar el cuarto de mi nueva ama 
para recibir las jentes, disponiendo taburetes para las damas, 
sillas para los caballeros, i cada cosa en su respectivo sitio; 
queddndome despues en la antesala, para anunciar e introducir 
a los que llegaban, Como todavia no los conocia yo; el 
primer dia, Molina, que era el ayo 6 maestro de pajes 411 me 
hizo compariia en la antesala para decirme el nombre de ellos 
que iban entrando; i al mismo tiempo me informaba breve* i 
graciosamente del caracter de cada uno 

* Meaning, whether it was her wealth or her visitors, which gave her 
the reputation of possessing great talents. 

410 p or e i contrario, 'on the contrary.' 

411 Maestro de pajes, 'first attendant.' 

] Instead of brevemente. — Grammar 8, p. 223. 



106 DESCRIPTIONS. 

En esto 412 vimos entrar a un hombre seco, mui grave, ceji- 
junto, i fhmcido. No le perdonb mi caritativo instructor. 
Este es ? me dijo* uno de aquellos entes serios i engarrotados, 
que quieren pasar por hombres grandes a favor de 413 algunas 
sentencias de Seneca, que saben de memoria, i pronuncian 
con recalcamiento i pomposidad, los cuales ecsaminados de 
cerca, 414 se descubren ser unos pobres mentecatos. 

Tras de este entro otro caballerito de buen porte; 415 pero 
de furioso aire a la Griega, 416 quiero decir de un hombre lleno 
i pagado de si mismo. Pregunte a Molina quien era, i me 
respondib que era un poeta dramatico, el cual habia compues- 
to cien mil versos que no le habian valido 417 cuatro cuartos ; 
pero que recientemente por solo seis renglones en prosa habia 
conseguido formarse una buena renta 

I Bravo! esclamb el maestro de pajes: ya entro en casa el 
Licenciado Campanai. A este se le oye mucho antes que se 
deje ver. 413 Es un solemnisimo tronera: comienza a charlar 
en voz alta i sonora desde la puerta de la calle, i no la deja 
hasta que vuelve a salir por ella. 

Con efecto, resonaba en toda la casa la voz del Licenciado 
Campanai, que en fin aparecib en la antesala con otro Bachil- 
ler amigo suyo, i prosiguib atro?iandonos a todos, sin cesar* 
en el tiempo que durb la academica visita. Este Licenciado, 
dije a Molina, parece hombre de injenio. Si, lo es, me re- 
spondio: tiene ocurrencias mui saladas; se esplica con gra- 
cia i agudeza; es mui diverticla su conversacion ; pero es un 

412 En esto, 'at this time,' 'at this juncture.' 

413 A favor de, 'by means of.' 

414 Ecsaminados de cerca, 'being closely examined.' 

415 De buen porte, 'of genteel carriage.' 

416 A la Griega. This is an elliptical sentence ; having the word moda, 
'fashion,' understood. A la Griega, should therefore be translated 'after 
the Greek manner,' or 'fashion.' 

417 No le habian valido, 'had not been worth to him.' 

418 Antes que se deje ver, 'before he appears. 



DESCRIPTIONS. 107 

hablador moles tisimo, i repite siempre sus dichos i cuentos. 
En suma para no estimar las cosas mas de lo que valen, estoi 
persuadido a que la mayor parte de su merito consiste en 
aquel aire comico i gracioso, con que sazona todo lo que dice; 
i asi no creo que le harm mucho honor una coleccion de sus 
agudezas i gracias, si se diese a luz. 

Fueron entrando despues otras personas, de todas las cuales 
me hizo Molina mui graciosas descripciones. 

Jil Bias. 

PRIMER SALIDA DE DON QUIJOTE. 

Apenas habia el rubicundo Apolo tendido por la faz de la 
ancha i espaciosa tierra, las doradas hebras de sus hermosos 
cabellos, i apenas los pequeiios i pintados pajarillos con sus 
arpadas lenguas habian saludado, con dulce meliflua harmo- 
nia, la venida de la rosada aurora, que dejando la blanda 
cama del celoso marido por las puertas i balcones del man- 
chego horizonte a los mortales se mostraba; cuando el fa- 
moso caballero Don Quijote de la Mancha, dejando las 
ociosas plumas, 419 subib su famoso caballo Rocinante, i co- 
menzo a caminar por el antiguo i conocido campo de Montiel ; 
i afiadib, diciendo: "Dichosa edad i siglo dichoso aquel en 
donde saldrdn a luz 420 las famosas hazanas mias, dignas de 
entallarse en bronce, esculpirse en marmoles, i pintarse en 
tablas para memoria en lo futuro."* 

Miguel de Cervantes. 

419 Ociosas plumas, 'downy bed.' 

420 En donde saldrdn d luz, 'in which will be published.' 

* Cervantes wrote this far-fetched description, as a delicate critique 
against those novel writers, who always begin their narrations in a 
bombastic manner. 



108 DESCRIPTIONS* 

RETRATO DE CRIS6STOMO.* 

Este cuerpo, senores, que con piaclosos ojos estais miran~ 
do, fue depositario de un alma en quien el cielo puso infinite 
parte de sus riquezas. Ese es el cuerpo de Crisostomo que 
fue unico en el injenio, solo en la cortesia, estremo en la 
jentileza, fenics en la amistad, magnirico sin tasa, grave sin 
presuncion, alegre sin bajeza; i finalmente, primero en todo 
lo que es ser bueno, i sin segundo en todo lo que es i fue 
desdichado. Quiso bien, fue aborrecido; adorb, fue desdi- 
chado : rogb a una fiera, importuno un marmol, corrib tras el 
viento, did voces a la soledad, sirvib a la ingratitud, de 
quien alcanzb por premio, ser despojo de la muerte en la 
mitad de la carrera de su vida. 

Miguel de Cervantes. 

EL FAMOSO LADRON MOMP6DIO. 

Parecia de cuarenta i cinco a cuarenta i seis anos, alto de 
cuerpo, 421 moreno de rostro, 422 cejijunto, barbinegro, i mui 
espeso,| los ojos hundidos. Venza en camisa, i por la aber- 
tura de delante descubrza un bosque; tanto era el vello que 
tenia en el pecho. Traza una capa de bayeta casi hasta los 
pies, en los cuales traza unos zapatos enchancletados. Cu- 
brzanle las piernas unos zaragiiellos de lienzo anchos i largos 
hasta los tobillos : el sombrero era de los de hampa, 423 cam- 
panudo de copa,J i tendido de falda:J atravesdbale un tahali 

f Crisostomo, is a personage who, in Don Quixote, (the work from 
which this piece is extracted,) is supposed to have sunk into an un- 
timely grave by the effects of disappointed love. 

421 Alto de cuerpo, 'of a high stature, 5 'tall.' — G. 

422 Moreno de rostro, c of a dark complexion.' — G. 

t Barbinegro i mui espeso, 'black and thick beard.' 

423 De los de hampa, 'of those worn by vagabonds.' 

X Campanudo de copa, 'bell-like in the crown;' i tendido de falda, 'and 
broad -brimmed.' 



DESCRIPTIONS. 109 

por espalda i pechos, a donde colgaba una espada, ancha i 
corta a modo de las del perrillo, 424 las manos eran cortas i 
pelosas, los dedos gordos, i las imas hembras i remachadas : 435 
las piernas no se le parecian; i2G pero los pies eran descomu- 
nales de anchos i juanetudos. En efecto el repre&entaba el 
mas rustico i disforme barbaro del mundo. 

Miguel de Cervantes. 

EDAD DE ORO, 

Die ho s a edad i siglos dichosos aquellos a quien los anti- 
guos pusieron nombre de dorados; i no porque en elios el 
oro, que en nuestra edad de hierro tanto se estima, se alcan- 
zase en aquella venturosa sin fatiga alguna, sino porque en- 
tonces los que en ella vivian ignoraban estas dos palabras de 
"tuyo i mio." Eran en aquella santa edad todas las cosas 
comunes :* a nadie le era necesario para alcanzar su ordina- 
rio sustento toinar otro trabajo, que alzar la mano, i alcanzarle 
de las robustas encinas que liberalmente les estaban convi- 
dando con su dulce i sazonado fruto. 

Les claras fuentes, i corrientes rios en magnifica abundancia 
sabrosas i transparentes aguas les ofreczan. En las quiebras 
de las penas, i en los huecos de los arboles, formaban su 
republica las solicitas i discretas abejas, ofreciendo a cual- 
quiera mano, sin interes alguno, la fertil cosecha de su dulci- 
simo trabajo. Los valientes alcornoques despedzan de si, sin 
otro artif icio que el de su cortesia, sus anchas i livianas cor- 
tezas con que se comenzaron a cubrir las casas sobre riisticas 
estacas sustentadas, no mas que para defensa de las inclemen- 
cias del cielo. 

Todo era paz entonces, todo amistad, todo concordia; aun 

424 A modo de las del perrillo, 'like a cutlass.' 

425 Unas hembras i rz/nachadas, 'flat and short nails.' 

436 No se le parecian, 'were so small that they could scarcely be seen.' 
* Construct en aquella santa edad todas las cosas eran comunes. 

10 



LlO DESCRIPTIONS. 

no se habia atrevido la pesada reja del corvo arado* a abrir 

ni visitar las entranas piadosas de nuestra primera madre, 427 

que ella sin ser forzada of recta, por todas las partes de su 

fertil i espacioso seno, lo que pudiese hartar, sustentar, i 

deleitar a los hijos que entonces la poseian. Entonces si 

que andaban las simples i hermosas zagalejas de valle en 

valle, i de otero en otero, en trenza i en cabello, 428 sin mas 

vestidos de aquellos que eran menester para cubrir honesta- 

mente lo que la honestidad quiere i lia querido siempre que 

se cubra. I no eran sus adornos de los que ahora se man, a 

quien 429 la purpura de Tiro, i la por tantos modos martirizada 

seda 430 encarecen, sino de algunas hojas de verdes lampazos i 

yedra entretejidas,f con lo que quiza iban tan pomposas i 

compuestas, como van ahora nuestras cortesanas con las raras 

i peregrinas invenciones que la curiosidad ociosa les ha 

mostrado. 

Entonces se decoraban los conceptos amorosos del alma 

simple i sencillamente, del mismo modo i manera que ella los 

concebza, sin buscar artiflcioso rodeo de palabras para enca- 

recerlos. No habta el fraude, el engano, ni la malicia mez- 

clandose con la verdad i llaneza. La justicia se estaba en sus 

propios terminos, sin que la osasen turbar ni ofender los del 

favor i los del interes,J que tanto ahora la menoscaban, turban 

i persiguen. 

Miguel de Cervantes. 

* Construct la pesada reja del corvo arado aun no se habia atrevido. 

427 Nuestra primera madre, 'our first mother,' meaning ( the earth.' 

428 En trenza i en cabello, 'with braided and dishevelled hair.' 

429 A quien, to which, referring to adornos. Now quien, 'whom,' refers 
only to persons. — Grammar, R. XXXVI. p. 173. 

430 / la por tantos modos martirizada seda encarecen, 'and the silk 
worked in so many ways renders more valuable.' 

f Construct entretejidas de verdes lampazos i yedra. 
\ Place los del favor i del interes, 'favourites and intriguers,' before 
osasen. 



DESCRIPTIONS. Ill 



LA JITANILLA PRECIOSA.* 



Parece que los jitanos i jitanas solamente nacieron en el 
mundo para ser ladrones; nacen de padres ladrones, i flnal- 
mente salen con ser ladrones corrientes i molientes a todo 
ruedo, 431 i la gana de hurtar, i el hurtar, son en ellos como 
accidentes inseparables que no se quitan sino con la muerte. 

Una, pues, de esta nacion, jitana vieja, que podia ser jubi- 
lada en la ciencia de Caco, 432 crib una muchacha en nombre 
de nieta suya, 433 a quien puso por nombre Preciosa, i a quien 
ensefib todas jitanerias i modos de embelecos i trazas de Awr- 
tar. Salib la tal Preciosa la mas unica bailadora que se 
hallaba en todo el jitanismo, i la mas hermosa i discreta que 
pudiera publicar la fama. 

Ni los soles ni los aires, ni todas las inclemencias del 
cielo, a quien mas que otras jentes estdn sujetos los jitanos, 
pudieron deslustrar su rostro, ni curtir sus manos ; i lo que es 
mas, que la crianza tosca en que se cridba, no descubria en 
ella sino ser nacida 434 de may ores prendas que de jitana, 
porque era en estremo cortes i bien razonada ; i con todo eso 
era algo desenvuelta pero no de modo que descubriese algun 
jenero de deshonestidad; antes con ser aguda era tan hones- 
ta, 435 que en su presencia ni osaba alguna jitana vieja ni 

* La Jitanilla Preciosa, 'the Precious Gypsy,' the name and principal 
character of a novel of Cervantes. 

431 Salen con ser ladrones corrientes i molientes & todo ruedo, 'become 
consummate thieves.' 

432 Que podia ser jubilada, 'who might he considered as emeritus pro 
fessor.' 

433 En nombre de nieta suya, 'passing her off as her niece.' 

434 No descubria en ella sino ser nacida de mayores prendas que de jita- 
na, 'only showed that she had been born with qualities superior to those 
of a gypsy.' 

435 Antes con ser aguda era tan honesta, 'although she was shrewd, she 
was so modest.' 



112 DESCRIPTIONS. 

moza cantar cantares lascivos, ni decir palabras no buenas. 
I flnalmente la abuela conocib el tesoro que en la nieta tenia, 
i asi determinb el aguila vieja sacar a volar el aguilucho 436 i 
ensefiarle a vivir por sus unas. 

Miguel de Cervantes. 

DON QUIJOTE A SANCHO DORMIDO. 

j"0 tu, bienaventurado sobre cuantos viven sobre la haz de 
la tierra, pues sin tcner envidia ni ser envidiado, duermes con 
sosegado espiritu, ni te persuigen encantadores, ni sobresaltan 
encantamientos ! Duermef* digo otra vez, i lo dire otras 
ciento, u sin que te tengan en continua vijilia, celos de tu 
dama, ni te desvelen pensamientos de pagar deudas que debas, 
ni de lo que has de hacer para comer otro dia, tu i tu pequeiia 
i angustiada familia. 437 

Ni la ambicion te inquieta, ni la pompa vana del mundo te 
fatlga; pues los limites de tus deseos no se estienden a mas 
que a pensar en tu jumento, que el* de tu persona sobre mis 
hombros se tiene puesto; contrapeso i carga, que puso la 
naturaleza i la costumbre a los senores. Duerme el criado, i 
esta velando el senor, pensando como le ha de sustentar, me- 
jorar i hacer mercedes. La congoja de ver que el cielo se 
hace de bronce 438 sin acudir a la tierra con el conveniente 

436 Sacar a volar el aguilucho, 'to draw the eaglet from the nest.' 

437 Construct : sin que celos de tu dama te tengan en continua vijilia, 
ni pensamientos de pagar deudas que debas, ni de lo que has de hacer para 
comer otro dia tit i tu pequeiia i angustiada familia te desvelen. The 
verb may, in Spanish, as it has been frequently repeated, precede or 
follow its subject. The difficulty in translating into English the above 
sentence, as well as many others with which the student has already 
met, arises only from the circumstance of the verb preceding its subject. 
See notes 9, 23, 32, 40, 44. 

* Cuidado, pensamiento, or some such word, understood. 

438 Se hace de bronce, idiomatic, 'becomes hard,' 'inflexible.' 



DESCRIPTIONS. 1 13 

rocio, no aflije al criado sino al serior, que ha de sustentar en 
la esterilidad i hambre al que 439 le sirvio en la fertilidad i 
abundancia. 

Miguel de Cervantes. 

SITUACION PASADA DE GALATEA.* 

Las selvas eran antes mis companeras, en cuya soledad 
muchas veees, convidada de la suave harmonia de los dulces 
pajarillos, despedza la voz a mil honestos cantares, 440 sin que 
en ellos mezclase 441 suspiros ni razones, que de enamorado 
pecho diesen indicio alguno. ;Ai! cuantas veces solo por 
contentarme a mi misma, por dar lugar al tiempo que se 
pasase, andaba de ribera en ribera, 442 de valle en valle, coji- 
endo aqui la blanca asucena, alii el cardeno lirio, aca la colo- 
rada rosa, aculla la olorosa clavellina, haciendo de todas 
suertes de odoriferas flores una tejida guirnalda con que ador* 
naba i recojia mis cabellos, i despues mirdndome en las 
claras i reposadas aguas de alguna fuente, quedaba tan gozosa 
de haberme visto, que no trocara mi contento por otro algu- 
no! 443 Pasaba yo mi vida tan alegre i sosegadamente, que 
no sabza que pedir mi deseo. 

Miguel de Cervantes* 

439 M que, 'him who.'— Note 33. 

* Galatea, the heroine of a novel of Cervantes, complains of her pre 
sent feelings compared with those when she was free from love. 

440 Despedia la voz a mil honestos cantares, <I raised my voice in a 
thousand chaste songs.' 

441 Sin que en ellos mezclase, 'without mixing in them.' 

442 De ribera en ribera, 'from bank to bank.' 

443 Por otro alguno, 'for any other.' 



io» 



114 



DESCRIPTIONS. 



LA POBREZA. 



* ; O pobreza, pobreza ! no se yo con que razon se movid 
aquel gran poeta Cordoves 444 a llamarte dadiva santa desagra- 
decida. Yo, aunque Moro, bien se por la comunicacion que 
he tenido con cristianos, que la santidad consiste en la caridad, 
humildad, fe, obediencia, i pobreza; pero con todo eso digo 
que ha de tener mucho de Dios 445 el que se viniere a conten- 
tar con ser pobre, si no es de aquel modo de pobreza 446 de 
quien dice uno de sus mayores santos : u Tened todas las co- 
sas como si no las tnvieseis" i a esto llaman pobreza de 
espiritu. 

Pero tu, segunda pobreza, que eres de la que yo hablo, 
I porque quieres estrellarte con 447 los hidalgos i bien nacidos 448 
mas que con la otra jente? Porque losf obligas a dar pan- 
talia, 449 a los zapatos, i a que los botones de sus ropillas unos 
sean de seda, otros de cerdas, i otros de vidrio ? <; Porque sus 
cuellos, por la mayor parte, han de ser siempre escarolados, i 
no abiertos con molde ? 450 

j Miserable del bien nacido, 451 que va dando pistos 452 a su 
honra comiendo mal i a puerta cerrada, haciendo hipocrita al 

* Exclamations of Benengeli, the supposed historian of Don Quixote, 
on seeing this hero in a pitiful plight. 

444 Cervantes alludes to Seneca, who was born in Spain, in a city of 
the province of Andalusia, called Cordova, from which is formed the 
patronimic noun, Cordoves, a native of Gordova. 

445 Que ha de tener mucho de Dios, 'must be very much of a God.' 

446 Si no es de aquel modo de pobreza, 'unless it be that kind of poverty.' 

447 Estrellarte con, 'to fall out with,' i. e. 'to fly away from.' 

448 Bien nacidos, 'high born.' 

t Los, them, referring to la otra jente, that is, 'poor people.' 

449 Dar pant alia, 'to bid farewell.' 

450 1 no abiertos con molde, 'and not widely open.' 

4,1 Miserable del bien nacido, 'unfortunate is the high-born man.' 

462 Que va dando pistos a, 'who is endeavouring to support.' 



DESCRIPTIONS, 115 

palillo de dientes 453 con que sale a la calle despues de no 
haber comido cosa que le obligue a Hmpiarselosl Miserable 
de aquel, 454 digo, que tiene la honra espantadiza, 455 i piensa 
que desde una legua se le descubre el remiendo del zapato, el 
trasudor del sombrero, la hilaza del herreruelo, i la hambre 
de su estomago. 

Miguel de Cervantes. 

FERNANDO REI DE ARAGON.* 

Tenia el injenio claro, el juicio grave i acertado, la condi- 
cion suave i cortes, i clemente con los que iban a negociar* 
Fue diestro para las cosas de la guerra, para el gobierno sin 
par : tan amigo de los negocios, que parecta con los trabajos 
descansaba. El cuerpo no| con deleites regalado, sino con 
el vestido honesto i comida templada, Jacostumbrado a pro- 

posito para sufrir* 56 trabajos La avaricia de que le 

tachan se puede escusar con la falta que tenia de dineros, i 
estar enajenadas las rentas reales. Al rigor i severidad en 
castigar, de que asi mismo le cargan, dieron ocasion los 
tiempos i las costumbres tan estragadas. 

Los escritores estranos le achaean de hombre astuto, i que 
a veces faltaba en la palabra 457 si le venia mas a cuento. 458 
No quiero tratar si esto fue verdad, si invencion en odio de 

453 Palillo de dientes, 'tooth-pick.' 

464 Miserable de aquel, 'unfortunate he,' 'wo to him.' 

455 Que tiene la honra espantadiza, 'who is afraid of his reputation.' 

* The celebrated Ferdinand of Aragon, who married Isabella of Gas 
tile, and both governed Spain, under the title of the Catholic Kings 
William H. Prescott, Esq. of Boston, has lately published the best 
history extant of these two distinguished sovereigns. 

f Estaba, % estaba, understood. 

456 JLcostumbrado a proposito d sufrir, 'was made purposely accustomed 
to endure.' 

467 Faltaba a su palabra, 'did not fulfil his word.' 

468 Si U venia mas d cuento, 'if it was more to his advantage.' 



DESCRIPTIONS, 

nuestra nacion : solo advierto, que la malicia de los homlres 
acostnmbra* 9 a las virtudes verdaderas poner nombre de los 
vicios que les son semejables ; como tambien al contrario, 
engaftan i son alabados los vicios que scmejan a las virtudes. 
Ademas que se acomodaba al tiempo, al lenguaje, al trato i 
manas que entonces se usaban. 

La ingratitud que con el se uso, acreccntb su gloria, i aun 
le preservb que en lo ultimo de su edad no tropezase, como 
sea cosa diricultosa i rara nave gar muchas veces sin padecer 
alguna borrasca. A muchos grandes personajes con el dis- 
curso del tiempo se les escurese la claridad i fama que primero 
gandron. El tiempo le cortb la vida : su nombre compelird 
con lo que el mundo durare. 460 Principe el mas serialado en 
valor, justicia i prudencia que en muchos siglos Espana tuvo. 
Tachas a nadie pueden faltar, 461 sea por la frajilidad propia, 
6 por malicia i envidia ajena, que combate principalmente los 
altos lugares. *Espejo, sin duda, por sus grandes virtudes, en 
que todos los principes de Espana se deben mirar. 

Juan de Mariana. 

DON ALVARO DE LUNA. 

De bajos principios subib & la cumbre de la buena an- 
danza ; 462 de ella le despeflb la ambicion. Tenia buenas 
partes naturales, condicion i costumbres no malas : si las 
faltas, si los vicios sobrepujasen, el suceso i el remate lo 
muestran. Era de injenio vivo i de juicio agudo, sus pala- 
bras concertadas i graciosas : usaba de donaires con que 
picaba, aunque era naturalmente algo impedido en la habla : 



459 Acostumbra poner, -is apt to give.' 

4eo Competird can lo que el mundo durare, 'will last as long as the wolrd.' 

461 Tachas d nddie pueden f altar, 'no one is free from blemishes.' 
* Es, 'he is,' referring to Prince i. e King Ferdinand. 

462 Buena, or bien andanza; an obsolete expression, meaning, 'good 
fortune.' 



DESCRIPTIONS. 117 

su astucia i disimulacion grandes ; el atrevimiento, soberbia i 
ambicion, no menores. Todas estas cosas* comenzdron desde 
sus primeros anos : con la edad se fueron aumentando. 
Allegbse el menosprecio que tema de los hombres, como 
enfermedad de poderosos. 

Dejdbase visitar con dificultad: mostrdbase aspero, en 
especial de media edad adelante : 463 fue en la colera mui des- 
enfrenado, ecsasperado con el odio de sus enemigos, i desapo- 
derado por los trabajos en que se vib: a manera de fiera que 
agarrochean en la leonera i despues la sueltan, no dejaba de 
hacer riza. 464 <: Que estragos no hizo con el deseo ardiente 
que tema de vengarse ? Con estas costumbres no es mara- 
villa que cayese; sino cosa vergonzosa que por tanto tiempo 

se conservase* Varon verdaderamente grande, i por la 

misma variedad de la fortuna maravilloso. 

Juan de Mariana. 

PEDRO EL CRUEL. 

Fue este un estrano ejemplo, para que en los siglos veni- 
derosf tuviesen que considerar, se admirasen, i temiesen; i 
supiese?i tambien que las maldades de los principes las castiga 
Dios, no solamente con el odio i mala voluntad con que 
mientras viven son aborrecidos, ni solo con la muerte, sino 
con la memoria de las historias, en que son eternamente afren- 
tados i aborrecidos por todos aquellos que las leen, i sus 
almas sin descanso serdn para siempre atormentadas. 

Luego que murib el Rei D. Alonso su padre, fue, como era 
razon, en los reales de Aljeciras, apellidado por rei, si bien no 
tenia mas de quince atlos i siete meses. Su edad no era a 
proposito para cuidados tan graves : su natural mostraba ca- 

* Cosas, 'things,' meaning 'qualities.' 

463 De media edad adelante, 'after his middle age.' 

464 No dejaba de hacer riza, 'he did not fail from committing havoc. 5 
\ Los hombres, 'men,' understood. 



118 



DESCRIPTIONS. 



pacidad de cualquier grandeza Veianse en el mues- 

tras de grandes virtudes, de osadia i consejo: su cuerpo no 
se rendia con el trabajo, ni el espiritu con ninguna dificultad 
podia ser vencido. Entre estas virtudes se vezan no menores 
vicios, que entonces asomaban, i con la edad fueron mayores: 
tener en poco 460 i menospreciar las jentes, decir palabras 
afrentosas, oir soberbiamente, dar audiencia con dificultad, no 
solamente a los estranos, sino a los mismos de su casa. 

Estos vicios se mostraban en su tierna edad : con el tiempo 
se les juntaron la avaricia, la disolucion en la lujuria, i la as- 

pereza de su condicion i costumbres No faltaron 

perversos hombres que conquistaban la tierna edad i voluntad 
del rei con un pesimo jenero de servicio, que era proponerle 
todas las maneras de torpes entretenimientos, i ayudarle a 
conseguir sus deseos deshonestos, sin ningun respeto de lo 
honesto ni miedo de los hombres. En grandisimo perjuicio 
de la republica granjeaban el favor i privanza del rei. En el 
palacio todo era deshonestidad ; fuera de el todo crueldad, a 
la cual todos los demas vicios reconocian i daban ventaja. 

Juan de Mariana. 

PARALELO ENTRE LA PAZ I LA GUERRA. 

Hermosura llamb Dios a la paz por Isaias, diciendo que 
en ella, como sobre rlores, reposaria su pueblo. Aun las 
cosas que carecen de sentido, se rogocijan con la paz. jQue 
fertiles i alegres se ven los campos que ella cultiva! jque 
hermosas las ciudades, pintadas, i ricas con su sosiego ! i al 
contrario j que abrasadas las tierras por donde pasa la guerra ! 
Apenas se conocen hoi en sus cadaveres las ciudades i cas- 
tillos de Alemania. Tinta en sangre mira Borgoiia la verde 
cabellera de su altiva frente, rasgadas sus antes vistosas faldas, 
quedando espantada de si misma. 

4G5 Tener en poco, 'to disregard,' 'to pay little attention to.' 



DESCRIPTIONS. 119 

Ningun enemigo mayor de la naturaleza que la guerra: 
quien fue autor de lo criado, lo fue de la paz : con ella se 
abraza la justicia. Son medrosas las leyes, i se retiran i 
callan cuando ven las armas. Por esto dijo Mario, escusan- 
dose de haber cometido en la guerra algunas cosas contra las 
leyes de la patria: que no las habia oido con el ruido de las 
armas. En la guerra, no es menos infelicidad, como dijo 
Tacito, de los buenos, malar, que ser muertos. 

Diego Saavedra Fajardo 



SPEECHES AND ADDRESSES. 



RAZONAMIENTO DE BaUCIO CAPETO.* 

De animo cobarde i sin brio es llorar las desgracias i mi- 
serias, i fuera de las lagrimas, no poner ningun remedio a la 
desventura i trabajos. Por ventura <; no nos acordaremos que 
somos varones, i tomadas luego las armas, vengaremos las in- 
jurias recibidas? No sera dificultoso echar de toda la pro- 
vincia unos pocos ladrones, si los que en numero, esfuerzo i 
causa les hacemos ventaja, 466 juntamos con esto la concordia 
de los animos. Para esto hagamos presente i gracia 467 de las 
quejas particulares, que unos contra otros tenemos, a la patria 
comun; porque las enemistades particulares no sean parte 
para impedimos 46S el camino de la verdadera gloria. Demas 
de esto, no debeis pensar que en vengar nuestros agravios se 
ofenden Dios i la relijion, que es el velo de que ellos se cu- 
bren. Ca el cielo, no suele favorecer a la maldad; i es mas 
justo persuadirse acudira a los que padecen injustamente; 
ni hai para que temer la felicidad i buena andanza de que 
tanto tiempo gozan nuestros enemigos. Antes debeis pensar* 
que Dios acostumbra dar mayor felicidad, i sufrir mas tiempo 
sin castigo, aquellos de quien pretende tomar mas entera ven- 

* Speech which Mariana supposes Bducio Capeto, king or chieftain 
of the Turdatanians, an aboriginal tribe that inhabited the southern sea- 
coast of Spain, to have delivered when the Phoenicians invaded thai 
country. 

466 Les hacemos ventaja, 'are their superiors.' 

467 Hagamos presente i gracia de, a la patria comun, 'let us for- 
get and think of nothing but our common country.' 

468 No sean parte para impedirnos, 'may not be the means of prevent- 
ing us from following.' 



SPEECHES AND ADDRESSES. 



121 



ganza, i en quien quiere hacer mayor castigo, para que slentan 
mas la mudanza i miseria en que caeru 

juaia de Mariana. 

VENECIA LIBRE, 1 VENECIA ESCLAVA. 

i Cuantas reflecsiones se agolpan a la mente del viajero al 
contemplar 469 el silencio, la sole dad, la degradacion que reman 
hoi en aquel sitio, morada antes de la opulencia, de la aetivi- 
dad, del poder maritimo, de las artes, i de los plaeeres ! \ Que 
espantosa transformacion ! Cuando Venecia daba leyes a los 
monarcas de Europa, cuando encadenaba al Oriente,* i hacza 
tributaries de su comercio a todos los pueblos del mundo,* 
los archiduques de Austria, apenas fguraban entre la turba 
de principes que dividzan la Alemania. Sus pueblos estaban 
envueltos en la barbarie, i la embriaguez, cuando en Venecia 
Jloreczan injenios de primer orden. 

Las prendas primitivas de estos dos pueblos conservan 
parte de su vigor orijinal; los Venecianos son vivos, inteli* 
jentes, injeniosos, fecundos en imajenes graciosas, apasio- 
nados por las artes ; los Austriacos tetricos, flecmaticos, inca^ 
paces| de aquellas emociones vehementes que tantas grandes 
acciones han producido; el despotism o los enibruteee, la 
severa disciplina militar los degrada, la supersticion los con- 
dena al error i a la ignorancia. I sin embargo 470 Venecia no 
es mas que 471 un cuartel de Austriacos ; i la reina del Adri- 
atico es esclava de un gabinete opresor i enemigo de las luces. 

Jose Joaquin de Mora. 

469 Al contemplar, 'on contemplating.' 

* Construct : i hacia a todos los pueblos tributdrios de su comercio. 
f The singular is incapaz. — See Grammar, exceptions 2d, p, 42. 

470 J sin embargo, 'and yet. 3 

471 No es mas que, 'is nothing but.' 



11 



122 SPEECHES AXD ADDRESSES. 



RAZONAMIENTO DE DON PELAYO.* 

Conviene usar de presteza i de valor para que los que tene~ 
tnos la justicia de nuestra parte, sobrepujemos a los eontrarios 
en el esfuerzo. Con corazones atrevidos avivemos la espe- 
ranza de rrcobrar la libertad, i enjendrernosl* en los animos 
do nuestros Herman os. El ejereito de los enemigos derra- 
roado por muchas partes, i la fuerza de su campo esta emba- 
•azada en Francia, Acudamos^ pues, con esfuerzo i corazon : 
que esta es buena ocasion para pel car por la antigua gloria de 
la guerra, por los al tares i relijion, por los hijos, mujeresy 
parientes, i aliados que tstan puestos en una indigna i gravi- 
siina servidumbre. Pesada cosa es rclatar sus ultrajes, nues- 
tras miserias i peligros, i cosa mui vana encarecerlos con 
palabras, derramar Lagrimas, despedlr suspiros. Lo que 
hace al caso e& n aplicar algun remedio a la enfermedad, dar 
muestra de vuestra nobleza, i acordaros que sois nacidos de la 
nobilisima sangre de los Godos. 

La prosperidad i regalos nos ejiflaquecieron, e hicieron caer 
en tantos males ; las adversidades i trabajos nos avivan i nos 
despiertan. ; O grande i entranable dolor, fortuna trabajosa i 
aspera, que vosotros mismos seais despojados de vuestras 
vidas i haciendas ! todo lo cual es forzoso que padezcan los 
vencidos. ^Poneis la confianza en la fortaleza i aspereza de 
esta comarca ? A los cobardes i ociosos ninguna cosa puede 
asegurar; i cuando los enemigos no nos acometiesen £ como 
podrd esta tierra, esteril i menguada de todo, sustentar tanta 
jente como se ha recojido a estas montanas ? El pequefio 
numero de nuestros soldados os hace dudar; pero debeis 

* When Pelagus, Pelayo, wished to rouse the natives of Asturias 
against the Saracens, he is supposed by Mariana to have addressed them 
with the above speech. 

f Acudamos, 'to arms,' 'on.' 

* 72 Lo que hace al caso, c what is to the point is,' 'what we must do i9 ■ 



SPEECHES AND ADDRESSES. 123 

acordaros de los tiempos pasados i de los trances variables 
de las guerras, por donde podeis entender que no vencen los 
muchos, sino los esforzados. Estoi determinado con vuestra 
ayuda, de acometer esta empresa i peligro, bien que mui 
grande ; por el bien comun, mui de buena gana ; i en lanto 
que yo viviere mostrarme enemigo, no mas a estos barbaros, 
que a cualquiera de los nuestros que rehusare tomar las armas 
i ayudamos en esta guerra sagrada, i no se determinare de 
veneer 6 morir antes de sufrir vida tan miserable, tan estrema 
afrenta i desventura. La grandeza de los castigos hard en- 
tender a los cobardes que no son los enemigos 473 los que 

mas deben temerse* 

Juan de Mariana, 

PINTURA DE LA INQUISICIOINL* 

Senor, nada he pronunciado delante del congreso que no 
sea publico, no solo a la nacion sino a toda la Europa. Debo 
repetir que he sido mui contenido i moderado en la pintura 
que hice de este odioso i horrible tribunal, que, desde su es- 
tablecimiento en Castilla, comenzb a desenfrenarse i escederse 
en golpes de arbitrariedad, crueldad i despotismo, como 
consta del" 174 breve del Santo Padre, Sicsto IV, i de otros monu- 
mentos historieos, que no necesito reproducir* ^Dejiendarilo 

473 No son los enemigos, 'it is not the enemy.' — Grammar, § 6, p. 188. 
* In the year 1811, the Inquisition was abolished in Spain by the 

Cortes, or National Congress. Before the final passage of the bill to 
that effect, the question of the continuance or abolition of that tribunal, 
was discussed with all the ardour, eloquence, knowledge, argument, and 
facts, which the best and wisest minds of Spain possessed, or could 
produce. Ruiz Padron, a Clergyman of great intellectual endowments, 
and moral purity, was one of the great champions against the Inquisi- 
tion. The above piece is an extract of the end of one of his Speeches 
on the occasion. 

474 Como consta del, 'as appears by the.' 

f Construct sus patronos i protectores defiendanlo como quieran. 



124 SPEECHES Ai\D ADDRESSES. 

como quieran sus patronos i protectores ; mas* insult an des- 
caradamente a la human id ad cuantof nos lo pint an duke, 
suave, compasivo, caritativo, ilustrado, justo, piadoso. <; Que 
lenguaje es este, sen or ? Yo cntro en los magniiicos palacios 
de la inquisieion, me acerco a las puertas de bronce de sus 
horribles i hediondos calabozos, tiro los pesados i asperos 
cerrojos, deseicndo i me paro a media escalera. 475 Un aire 
fetido i corrompido entorpcce mis sentidos, pensamientos 
lugubres afiijen mi espiritu, tristes i lamentables gritos despc- 
dazan mi corazon. Alii vco a un sacerdote del Seiior pade- 
clendo por una atroz calumnia en la mansion del crimen ; 
aqui a un pobre anciano, ciudadano honrado i virtuoso, por 
una intriga domestica ; aculla a una infeliz joven, 476 que 

acaso no tcndria mas delito que su hermosura i su pudor 

Aqui enmudezco, porque un nudo en la garganta no me per- 
mite articular; porque la debilidad de mi pecho no me deja 477 
proseguir. Las jeneraciones futuras se llenardn de 478 espanto 
i admiracion. La historia confirmard algun dia lo que he 
dicho, descubrird lo que oculto, publicard io que callo* 
i Que tarda, pues, 479 en libertar a la nacion de un estableci- 
miento tan monstruoso ? 

Ruiz Padron. 



* Mas, the more ;' f ciianto, 'the more.' 

475 A media escalera, 'half-stairs/ 'half-way in the stairs/ 

476 Aculla, a una infeliz joven, 'there, an unfortunate young woman/ 
Joven, being a substantive of the masculine and feminine gender, the 
article or the adjective alone agreeing with it, can determine in what 
gender it is used in a sentence. — See Grammar, § 5, p. 38. 

477 No me deja, 'precludes me from/ c does not allow me to.' 

478 Se llenardn de, 'will be filled with. 5 — See Grammar, Observations* 
§ 2, p. 169. 

479 Que tarda,.pues, 'why do you delay, thenP 



SPEECHES AND ADDRESSES. 125 

&SHORTACION DE OPAS* A DON PELAYO. 

Cuanta haya sido la gloria de nuestra nacion ni tu la 
ignoraS) ni hai para que 480 relatarla. al presente. Por grande 
parte del mundo estendimos nuestras armas : a los Romanos, 
senores del mundo. quitamos a Espaiia : sujetamos i vencimos 
con nuestro esfuerzo naciones fieras i barbaras, pero ultima- 
men te hemos sido vencidos por los Moros; i para ejemplo de 
la inconstancia de la felicidad humana, de la bien andanza, 
donde poco antes nos hallabamos, hemos caido en grandes i 
estremos trabajos. Si cuando nuestras fuerzas las teniamos 
enteras, no fmmos bastantes a resistir ;por ventura, 481 ahora 
que estdn por el suelo, 482 pensamos prevalecer? <Por ven- 
tura esa cueva, en que pocos a manera de ladrones estais en- 
cerrados, i como fieras cercados de redes, sera parte para 
libraros de 483 un ejercito que es de no menos que sesenta mil 
hombres ? Los pecados, sin duda, de toda Espaiia con que 
tenemos irritado a Dios, que aun no parece esta harto de 
nuestra sangre. os ciegan los ojos para que no veais lo que os 
conviene* 

Juan de Mariana, 

RAZONAMIENTO DE MONTEZUMAf A CORTES, 

Antes que me dels la embajada, ilustre Capitan i valerosos 
estranjeros del principe grande que os envia; debeis vosotros. 



* Opas; a traitor, who, having passed to the service of the Moors, is 
anxious to induce Pelagus and his soldiers, at that time shut up in a 
cave called the Covadonga, to follow his vile example. 
480 Ni hai para que, 'nor is it necessary to.' 
48i p or ventura, 'perchance ;' used as above, 'shall we,' 

482 p or e i sue i 0i on the floor, i. e. 'dispersed,' 'routed.' 

483 Sera parte para libraros de, 'will be a sufficient protection from.' 
f Montezuma, the last king of the Mexican Indians, is supposed, by 

Solis, to have addressed in this manner, Cortes, the conqueror of that 
people. 

n* 



126 



SPEECHES AND ADDRESSES. 



i debo yo, desestimar i poner en olvido lo que ha divulgado h 
fama de nuestras personas i costumbres, introduciendo en 
nuestros oidos aquellos vanos rumores que van delante de la 
verdad, i suelen obscurecerla, deelinando en lisonja 6 vituperio. 
En algunas partes os habrdn dicho de mi, que soi uno de los 
Dioses inmortales, levantando hasta los cielos mi poder i mi 
naturaleza; en otras, que se desvela en mis opulencias la 
fortuna, 484 que son de oro las paredes i los ladrillos de mis* 
palacios, i que no caben en la tierra mis tesoros ; i en otras y 
que soi tirano, cruel, i soberbio, que aborrezco la justicia, i 
que no conozco la piedad. 

Pero los unos i los otros os han engaiiado con igual enca- 
recimiento ; i para que no imajineis que soi alguno, 486 6 co- 
nozcais el desvario de los que asi me imajinan^ esta propor- 
cion de mi cuerpo (i desnudo parte del brazo) desengaftara 
vuestros ojos de que hablais con un hombre mortal, de la 
misma especie, pero mas noble i mas poderoso que los demas 
hombres. Mis riquezas no niego que son grandes; pero las 
hace mayores la ecsajeracion de mis vasallos, 

Esta casa que habitais es uno de mis palacios : mirad esas" 
paredes hechas de piedra i cal, materia vil que debe al arte su 
estimacion, i colejid de uno i otro, el mismo engaiio i el 
mismo encarecimiento que os hubieren dicho de mis tiranias 5 
suspendiendo el juicio, hasta que os entereis de mi razon,* i 
despreciando ese lenguaje de mis rebeldes, hasta que veais si 
es castigof lo que llaman infelicidad, i si pueden acusarle sin 
dejar de merecerle. 48& 

484 Que se desvela en mis opulencias la fortuna, «that fortune sreems 
anxious for the preservation and increase of my opulence.' 

485 Alguno, any,' that is, 'neither a God nor a tyrant.' 
* De mi razon, 'reasons,' 'facts in my favour.' 

f Si es castigo, 'whether it is not condign punishment.' 

486 / si pueden acusarle sin dejar de merecerle, 'and whether they car* 
blame it (the punishment) without deserving it.' 



SPEECHES A#D ADDRESSES. 127 

No de otra suerte 487 han llegado a nuestros oidos varios 
informes de vuestra naturaleza i operaciones. Algunos han 
dicho que sois deidades, que os obedecen las fieras, que mane- 
jais los rayosy i mandais en los elementos ; i otros, que sois 
facinerosos, iraeundos, soberbios, que os dejais dominar de 
los vicios, i que venis con una sed insaciable del oro que 
produce nuestra tierra, Pero yo veo que sois hombres de la 
inisma composicion i masa que los demas, aunque os diferen- 
cian de nosotros* algunos accidentes de los que suele influir 
el temperamento de la tierra 488 en los mortales. 

Antonio de Solis. 

EA2T0NAMIENT0 DE CARLOMAGNO.f 

Cuan fea cosa sea que las armas Francesas, mui senaladas 
por sus triunfos i trof eos, sean vencidas por los pueblos men- 
digos de Espana, envilecidos por la larga servidumbre * 7 
aunque yo lo calle, la misma cosa lo declara. El nombre de 
nuestro imperio, la fuerza de vuestros pechos os debe animar, 
tRcordaos de vuestras grandes hazanas, de vuestra nobleza, de 
la honra de vuestros antepasados ; ij los que, vencidas taritas 
provincias, disteis leyes a gran parte del mundo, tened por 
cosa mas grave que la misma muerte, dejaros veneer de 489 
jente desarmada i vil, que a manera de ladrones no se atrevi- 
eron a pelear en campo raso. La estrechura de los lugares 
en que estamos^ no da lugar para huir, ni serta justo poner la 
esperanza en los pies, los que teneis las armas en las manos. 

487 No de otra suerte, not in any other manner, i. e. 'in the same way/ 
'likewise.' 

* Place, os diferencian de nosotros, at the end of the sentence. 

488 Construct : el temperamento de la tierra suele influir, 'the climate 
of a country is apt to produce.' 

f Charlemagne is supposed, by Mariana, to have thus addressed his 
soldiers before the famous battle, at Roncesvalles, with the Spaniards. 
% Vosotros, 'ye,* understood. 

489 Dejaros veneer de, 'to let yourselves be conquered,' 






128 SPEECHES AND ADDRESSES* 

Los enemigos por la pobreza, miseria, i maltratamiento esfdn 
flacos i sin fuerzas: el ejercito se ha juntado de Moros cris* 
tianos que no concuerdan en nada, antes se diferencian en 
costumbres, leyes, estatutos, i relijion. Vos tenets un mismo 
corazon, una voluntad i necesidad de pelear por la vida, por 
la patria, por nuestra gloria. 

Juan de Mariana. 

1NVOCACION AL TODOPODEROSO. 

jO Dios del tiempo i de la eternidad! Tu eres el solo 
que ecsiste por si mismo. Tu eres el unico que es grande i 
escelente por su propia naturaleza. Tu eres la fuente incor- 
ruptible, de donde se deriva todo lo bueno, verdadero i util • 
el manantial inagotable de lo que merece ser deseado en la 
tierra i en el cielo. jCon que placer, con que delicia mi 
alma te reconoce, te admira i adora, como la unica sabiduria 
que regla sus movimientos, como el solo fanal que ilumina 
mis tinieblas ; mostrandome el ultimo destino de mi ecsisten- 
cia i ensefldndome el uso de los bienes i males de esta vida! 
;0 Dios mio! eterno i soberano principio de todas las inteli- 
jencias; ;que consuelo siente mi corazon cuando prostrado 
ante el trono de tu inmensa Majestad feconoce el divino seno 
de que ha salido, i cuando consider a que presto volverd a 
unirse con el, sumerjiendose en el insondable pielago de 
tus esplendores i de tu gloria. 

I Que, mi Dios, yo sere eterno como tu ? ^ Tu eres la me* 
dida interminable de mi duracion, i el modelo de mi ecsisten- 
cia? <No es delirio de mi orgullo, que yo naci destinado a 
vivir contigo aun despues de la ruina de los imperios, de la 
destruccion de las grand ezas, de la aniquilacion de las pa- 
siones, de la estincion de los astros, i cuando ya toda esta 
maquina visible haya vuelto a entrar en la noche tenebrosa 
de destruccion? $Es verdad que a pesar de todas las vicisi- 
tudes con que tu providencia puede probar mi vida, si me 



SPEECHES AND ADDRESSES. 129 

mantengo constante en amarte i servirte me vere irrevocable- 
mente incorporado en la sociedad de tu reino i de tu gloria f 
jQue pensamiento! ;Que esperanza! ^Donde estas, horn- 
bre, cuando no estds contigo mismo, cuando buscas otra glo- 
ria que tu propia grandeza? <;Que puedes encontrar fuera de 
ti que valga mas de lo que puedes serf <;De que te aprove- 
cha esa inquietud de tu imajmaeion, esa turbacion de pensa- 
mientos, esa infatigable variedad de deseos ? £ Que puede 
ganar tu corazon con todo ese estruendo de tu orgullo? 
I Que esperas hollar en esos espacios en que corres siempre 
vago i nunca satisfecho? Si quieres ser feliz, busca a tu 
Dios, que nunca estd lejos de ti. Toda la natural eza te le 
muestra. Toda ella canta su santo nombre. Pero tu no la 
escuchas; porque el tumulto de tus pasiones te ensordece* 
Desciende a tu corazon; alii habita; i alii te hablard con 
mas intimidad. Pero tu no quieres oirle; porque siempre 
andas huyendo de ti mismo. 

Los incesantes dones que recibes te indican la mano de 
donde vienen. Esa vida en que le desconoces te prueba su 
amor, pues que te la conserva. Tu duermes tranquilo, recli- 
nado en su seno paternal ; pero, olvidando la mano protectors 
que te sosjiem, te entregas a los delirios de suerios engaiiosos 
que te halagan con falsas ilusiones. Una flor te inter esa] la 
amenidad de un campo te complace; todo lo injenioso te 
admira; todo lo hermoso te agrada; i tu atento i curios o y 
todo lo reconoces; todo lo ecsaminas: lo unico que se te 
esconde es el gran poder que ha sabido criarXo, Parece que 
la misma hermosura de los objetos es velo que te encubre la 
mano que los hizo; porque, detenido en el embeleso con que 
los gozas, te olvidas de su autor, La luz que debta alum- 
brarte, es la que mas te ciega* Fijas los ojos en los benefi- 
eios, i nunca los lev ant as para reconocer al bienhechor- 
Deplorable mortal ! Tu no ves mas que fantasmas ; i sola 
la verdad te parece ilusion, 

Pablo Olavides- 



130 SPEECHES AND ADDRESSES. 



LA MUERTE. 



;0 muerte ! ;cuan amarga es tu memoria al que no pane 
su esperanza sino en los tesoros i placeres ! Por mas que se 
haga sordo, 490 la importunidad de tu voz austera, de tu grito 
terrible, penetra hasta su corazon, i le hace estremecer en 
medio de tus delincuentes. No da un paso sin ver los 
espantosos atributos de tu violencia destructora; sin hollar 
las victimas con que cubres el globo i que la justicia divina 
enfrega a tu insaciable sana. 

Dime, mortal, i no oyes algunas veces esos taiiidos melan- 
colicos que desde las torres de los templos se esparcen en los 
aires, i cuya severa majestad domina sobre el trafago confuso 
del ruido i los negocios de los hombres ? jAi amigo ! si los 
oyes, no te distraigas del horror saludable que producen. 
Ellos se hacen entender con acentos eficaces, i hablan con 
estilo poderoso al alma que conserva todavia un resto de su 
primitiva elevacion. Su impresion de terror i tristeza en un 
corazon que aun no estd muerto, es un indicio de que puede 
volver a la virtud ; es el crepusculo de la relijion, que quiere 
amanecer i derramar en el todas sus luces. 

Pablo Olavides. 

PODER DEL DESEO DE GL6RIA. 

El deseo de alcanzar fama es activo en gran manera. 
^Quien piensas tu que arrojb a Horacio del puente abajo, 
armado de todas armas, en la profundidad del Tibre ? i Quien 
abrasb el brazo i la mano a Mucio ? i Quien impeJio a 
Curcio a lanzarse en la profunda sima ardiente que aparecib 
en la milad de Roma ? i Quien contra todos los agueros, que 
en contra se le habian mostrado, hizo pasar el Rubicon a 
Cesar? I con ejemplos mas modernos, ^ quien barreno los 

490 p Gr mas q Ue se haga sordo, 'how deaf soever he may become.' — See 
Grammar, p. 225. 



SPEECHES AND ADDRESSES. 131 

navios i dejo en seco, aislados los valerosos Espafioles, guiados 
por el cortesisimo Cortes en el Nuevo Mundo ? Todas estas 
i otras grandes i diferentes hazanas, son, fueron i seran, obras 
de la fama que los mortales desean, como premio i parte de 
la inmortalidad que sus famosos hechos merecen* 

Puesto que 491 los cristianos catolicos, i andantes caballeros, 
mas habemos de atender* 92 a la gloria de los siglos venideros, 
que es eterna en las rejiones etereas i celestes, que a la vanidad 
de la fama, que en este presente i acabable siglo se alcanza; 
asi, 6 Sancho, que nuestras obras no han de salir del limite 492 
que nos tiene puesto 494 la relijion cristiana que profesamos; 
hemos de matar en los jigantes a la soberbia, 495 a la envidia 
en 496 la jenerosidad i buen pecho, a la ira en el reposado con- 
linente i quietud del animo, a la gula i al sueiio en el poco 
comer que comemos, i en el mucho velar que velamos, a la 
lujuria i lascivia, en la leal tad que guardamos a las que hemos 
hecho senoras de nuestros pensamientos, a la pereza, con 
andar por todas partes del mundo, buscando ocasiones que 
nos puedan hacer i hagan, sobre cristianos, famosos caballeros. 

Cervantes. 



491 Puesto que, 'since. 5 

492 Mas habemos de atender, 'we must attend more/ 

493 Nuestras obras no han de salir del limite, 'our actions must not go 
beyond the limits.' 

494 Que nos tiene puesto, 'which are prescribed to us by.' 

495 Hemos de matar en los jigantes a la soberbia, 'we must destroy pride 
in the giants.' The preposition a is sometimes required by an active 
verb. — See Grammar, R. LIV. note 3, p. 214. 

496 A la envidia en, 'envy through the medium,' 'by.' 



ALLEGORIES AND FICTIONS. 



HISTORIADORES CLASICOS ANTlGUOS. 

Este que comma con pasos graves i circunspectos, es 
Tucidides, a quien la emulacion a la gloria de Herodoto puso 
la pluma en la mano para escribir sentenciosamente las guer- 
ras del Peloponeso. 

Aquel de prof undo semblante es Polibio, que en cuarenta 
libros cscribio las (listerias Romanas, de las cuales solamente 
han quedado cinco, a que perdonb la injuria de los tiempos ; 
pero no la malicia de Sebastian Maccio, que ignorantemente le 
?naltrataba sin consider ar que es tan docto, que ensefia mas 
que rejiere. 

El que con la toga lisa i liana, i con libre desenvoltura 497 le 
sigue, en cuya frente est a delineado un animo candido i pru- 
dente, libre de la servidumbre de la lisonja, es Plutarco, tan 
versado en las artes politicas i militares, que, como dijo Bo- 
dino, puede ser arbitro en ellos. 

El otro de suave i apacible rostro, que con ojos amorosos i 
dulces, atrae a si los aniinos, es Jenofonte, a quien Diojenes 
Laercio llamb u Musa Atica," i otros con mas propiedad 
"Abeja Atica." 

Este, vestido sucintamente, 498 pero con gran policia i ele- 
gancia, es Cayo Salustio, grande enemigo de Ciceron, en 
quien la brevedad comprehende cuanto pudiera dilatar la 
elocuencia. 

Aquel de las cejas caidas i nariz aguileiia, con antojos de 
larga vista, 499 desenfado i cortesano, cuyos pasos cortos ganan 

497 Libre desenvoltura, 'with easy folds.' 

498 Vestido siicintamente, 'plainly dressed.' 

499 Antojo de larga vista, 'spy-glass.' 



ALLEGORIES AND FICTIONS. 133 

mas tierra que los demas, es Cornelio Tacito, tan estimado 
del emperador Claudio, que mandb se pusiese su retrato en 
todas las librerias, i que diez veces al ano se escribiesen sus 
libros. 

Bepara en la serena frente, i en los eminentes labios de 
este, que parecen destilan miel, i nota bien el ornato de sus 
vestidos, sembrado de varias flores, porque es Tito Livio, de 
no menos gloria a los Romanos que la grandeza de su 
imperio. 

El que con la espada en la una mano, i la pluma en la 
otra se te ofrece delante, que no menos atemoriza en lo feroz 
a los enemigos, que con la elegancia a los que quieren imi- 
tarle, es Julio Cesar, ultimo esfuerzo de la naturaleza en el 
valor, en el injenio, i juicio* 

Diego Saavedra Fajardo. 

ENCUENTRO DE UN ARGOS MORAL.* 

Prosiguiendo su camino descubrieron un hombre mui otro 
de cuantos habzan topado hasta aqui; pues se estaba haciendo 
ojos para notarlos* 00 que ya es poco el ver. bQ>l Fuese acer- 
cando, i ellos advirtlendo que realmente venza todo rebutido 
de ojos de pies a cabeza, todos suyos, i mui despiertos. 
; Que gran miron, dijo Andrenio ! No sino prodijio de aten- 
ciones, 502 respondib Critilo. Si el es hombre, no es de estos 

* Critilo and Egenius, are represented in a moral tale, to be in search 
of their companion Andrenius, whom they had lost, while they were at 
court. On looking for him, they are supposed to meet a person full of 
eyes, whom the author of the novel calls a moral Argus. This per- 
sonage is introduced to show how important it is to be cautious, consi- 
derate, prudent in this world ; that is, how necessary it is for us to see, 
or think deeply and maturely before we act. 

500 Se estaba haciendo ojos para notarlos, i he was making eyes for him- 
self to look at them.' 

501 Que ya es poco el ver, 'for people do not see much now-a-days.' 
602 y ^ n0 prodyio de atenciones, 'else prodigiously attentive/ 

12 



134 ALLEGORIES AND FICTIONS* 

tiempos: i si lo es, 503 no es marido, ni aun pastor, ni trae 
cetro, ni cayado. 

Mas i si serta 504 Argos ? Pero no, que ese fue del tiempo 
antiguo; i no se hallan ya semejantes desvelos. Antes si, 505 
respondio el mismo, que* estamos en tiempos quef es menes 
ter abrir el ojo i aun no basta, sino andar con cien ojos 
Prometoos que para poder vivir, es menester armarse un 
hombre de pies a cabeza, no de ojetes, sino do ojazos mui 
dispiertos para descubrir tanta falsedad i mentira: ojos en los 
manos, para ver lo que dan i mucho mas lo que toman: ojos 
en los brazos, para no abarcar mucho i apretar poco: 506 ojos 
en la misma lengua, para mirar muchas veces lo que se ha de 
decir: ojos en el pecho, 507 para ver en que le ha de tener: 
ojos en el corazon, atendiendo a quien le lira i le hace tiro: 508 
ojos en los mismos ojos, para mirar como miran: ojos, imas 
ojos i reojos. 

"<Que hara" respondio Critilo, " quien no tiene sino dos, i 
estos nunca bien abiertos i mirando aninadamente con dos 
nirias ? <; No nos venderiais, que ya nadie da, un par de esos 
que os sobran. jQue es sobrar!" 509 dijo Argos, "de mirar 
nunca hai harto, 510 ademas de que no hai precio para ellos, 

803 I silo es, 'and if it be so;' that is, 'of these times or age.' 

604 1 Si seria Argos ? 'might he not be Argus ?' 

605 Antes si, 'on the contrary.' 

* Que, here means 'for,' 'because/ f Here que is used for 'when.' 
Que, has so many meanings, that, to translate it properly into English, 
is not unfrequently very difficult. 

506 There is a proverb in the Spanish language which runs thus, quien 
mucho abarca poco aprieta, 'he that embraces much, seizes little, i. e. all 
covet, all lose. 

507 P echo, means 'breast;' as well as 'courage;' therefore, ojos en el 
pecho para ver en que le ha detener, 'eyes in the breast, that we may see 
on what occasions we should be courageous.' 

508 Atendiendo a quien le tira i le hace tiro, paying attention to whom it 
injures, or by whom it is injured. 

509 / Que es sobrar! 'what do you mean, by being able to spare!' 

110 De mirar nunca hai harto, *it is impossible to look too much.' 



ALLEGORIES AND FICTIONS. 135 

solo uno, i ese es un ojo de la cara." 511 "Pues <;Que ganaria 
yo en eso," replied Critilo ? "Mucho," respondib Argos, el 
mirar con ojos ajenos, que es una gran ventaja, sin pasion i 
sin engaiio, que es el verdadero mirar. 

Baltasar Gracian. 

REINO DE LA INMORT ALIDAD.* 

Jlsistia a la puerta un tan ecsacto cuan absoluto portero, 
cerrando i abriendo a quien juzgaba digno de la inmortali- 
dad; sin su aprobacion no habia que entrar pretendiente. 1 
es de adveriir que no podia aqui nada el soborno, que es 
cosa bien rara ; no habia que meterle en la mano el doblon, 
porque el no era de dos caras. 512 Nada valia el coecho, 
nada alcanzaba el favor, tan poderoso en otras partes. No 
escuchaba interseciones, ni se obraba con el bajo manga, 513 
que no la tenia ancha, 514 antes de una legua conocia a todo 
hombre. No se ahorraba con nadie, jamas hizo cosa con es- 
crupulo; no condescendia, ni con senores, ni con principes, 
ni con reyes, i, lo que es mas, ni con validos. 

511 Solo uno, i ese es el ojo de la cara, 'only for one, and this is the eye 
of the face ;' meaning, that Argus could only dispose of the eye of his 
face, because, as his interior emotions appeared in it, and these emotions 
could be discovered by any one who would pay attention to them, the 
eye which thus exposed his feelings to others, could be at their mercy, 
or sold to them. 

* A moral fiction, in which immortality is represented as a temple, 
guarded by Merit, who admitted into it the deserving only. 

512 Porque el no era de dos caras, 'because the porter had not two 
faces,' i. e. 'because he did not change sides,' was not changeable. 

513 Ni se obraba con el bajo manga, 'nor could they act with him in a 
concealed manner.' 

514 Que no la tenia ancha, 'because he was very sagacious,' 'acute.' It 
will be observed that the author plays here with the word manga, 
'sleeve.' Gracian is fond of punning; and he is frequently felicitous in 
it. These extracts are given to initiate the student into an acquain- 
tance with the style of the seventeenth century, when double entendres 
and ingenious conceits were much in use. 



136 ALLEGORIES AND FICTIONS. 

Eii prueba de esto, llegb en aquella misma ocasion un grave 
personaje, no ya pidiendo, sino mandando que le abriesen las 
puertas tan de par en par como al mismo Conde de Fuentes. 
Miroselo el severo alcaide, i a la prim era ojeada conocib que 
no la merecia; i respondioie que no habia lugar. 515 "^Corao 
no," replied el, "habiendo sido yo el famoso, el mayor, el 
macsimo?" Pregunto* quien le habia dado aquellos re- 
nombres. Respondio que sus amigos. Riolo mucho, i dijo, 
"mas valiera que vuestros enemigos.f Quita alia, 516 que 
vents descaminado." 

"<Que portero es este tan inecsorable, i rijido," pregunto 
Andrenio? U A fe que no es a la moda inconquistable a los 
doblones." Este, le dijof 17 es el mismo Merito en persona 
hecho i derecho. 518 O jgran snjeto! Ahora digo que no me 
espanto, trabajo hemos de tener en la entrada. 

Llegaban unos i otros a pretenderi^ en el reino de la 
inmortalidad, i pedianles las patentes, iirmadas del constante 
trabajo, rubricadas del heroico valor, selladas de la virtud. 
"Esta letra," le dijo a uno, 519 "es de mujer, si, si, i que mala, 
aunque de linda mano, quita alia. jQue asquerosa fama! 
Esta otra no viene iirmada, que aun para ello le dolio el brazo 
a la poltroneria; a ambar huele este papel, mas valiera a 
polvora." 

"Mirad, senor, que todos mis antepasados estdn dentro i 
en gran puesto," decia uno vanamente confiado; "i asi yo 
tengo derecho para entrar alia." Mejor dijerais 520 obligacion 

615 Que no habia lugar, 'that there was no admittance.'' 

* El portero, understood. 

f Os los hubieren dado, 'had given them to you,' is understood 

516 Quita alia, 'away!' 

517 Le dijo, 'he was answered.' 

518 Hecho i derecho, an idiomatic expression, to denote that the person 
or thing we speak of, is the very self same we mean. 

X Pretenderla, 'to ask it,' i. e. admittance. 

519 Le dijo a uno, 'said he to one,' i. e. 'said Merit to a new comer.' 
620 Mejor dijerais, 'you should rather say.' 



ALLEGORIES AND FICTIONS. 137 

i obligaciones, i por lo tanto debierais haber cumplido con 
ellas, i obrado de modo que no os quedarais fuera. Entended 
que aca no se vive de ajenos blasones sino de hazanas pro* 
pias i mui singulares. ",;Como se puede sufrirf* decta un 
rei, " que quien es senor de tanto mundo se maleara; 62i que 
un gran principe de muchos estados i dictados no tenga un 
rincon en el reino de la Fama." "No hai aca rincones," le 
respondieron, "ninguno estd arrinconado.' 5522 Mordzanse^ 
en llegando a esta ocasion, las manos algunos grandes se- 
nores al verse escluidos del reino de la FAMA; i que eran 
admitidos algunos soldados de fortuna; un Julian Romero, 
un Villamayor,i un capitan Calderon, honrado de los mismos 
enemigos. 

Baltasar Gracian. 



621 Se maleara, 'should fail in getting in.' 

622 Arrinconado, 'put in a corner,' 'unnoticed.' 



1ST 



POETRY. 



QUEJAS DE NEMOROSO. 6 * 3 

Como al partir b24 del sol la sombra crece, 

I en cayendo su rayo, se levanta 

La negra oscuridad que el mundo cubre: 

De do 525 viene el temor que nos espanta, 

I la medrosa forma en que se ofrece 

Aquello que la noche nos encubre, 

Hasta que el sol descubre 

Su luz pura i hermosa : 

Tal es la tenebrosa 

Noche de tu partirf 26 en que he quedado 

De sombra i de temor atormentado, 

Hasta que muerte el tiempo determine, 

Que a ver el deseado 

Sol de tu clara vista me encamine. 

Cual suele el ruisenor con triste canto 
Quejarse, entre las hojas escondido, 
Del duro labrador, que cautamente 
Le despojo su caro i dulce nido 
De los tiernos hijuelos, entre tan to 
Que 527 del amado ramo estaba ausente ; 
I aquel dolor que siente. 
Con diferencia tanta 



523 Nem&roso is a personage in an eclogue composed of himself, Salu- 
cius, and a Poet. The above mournful strain is excited by the death 
of Nemoroso's lover. 

584 Al partir, f at the setting.' 

625 De do, 'whence. 5 

526 De tupartir, { of thy death : 5 alluding to his lover 

627 Entre tcunto que, 'whilst.' 



POfiTRV, 139 

Por la dulce garganta 

Despide, iasu canto el aire suenfy 

I la callada noche no refrena 

Su lamentable oficio i sus querellas^ 

Trayendo de su pena 

Al cielo por testigo i las estrellas. 

De esta manera, snelto yo la rienda 528 
A mi dolor, i asi me quejo en vano 
De la dureza de la muerte airada. 
Ella en mi corazon metio la mano 
I de alii me llevo 529 mi dulce prenda. 
Que aquel era su nido i su morada. 

Garcilaso de la Vega. 

LA SOLEDADf 

Fen, dulce soledad, i al alma mia 

Libra del mar h orris on o, ajitado 

Del mundo corrompido ; 

I benigna la paz i la alegria 

Vuelve al doliente corazon, llagado : 

Fen, levanta mi espiritu abatido. 

El venero crecido 

Modera, de las lagrimas que lloro? 30 

I a tus quietas mansiones me transporta. 

Tu favor celestial humilde imploro: 

Fen, a un triste conforta, 

Sublime soledad, i libre sea 

Del confuso tropel que me rode a. 

I Ai ! £ porque asi ajitarse el hombre insano ; 
I viendo ya a los pies \ 6 ciego ! abierto 

528 Suelto yo la rienda, «I give vent.' 

629 1 de alii me llevo, 'and therefrom took away.' 

M0 Que Uoro, 'which I shed.' 



140 



POETRY. 



El sepulcro, gozarte ? 
Pon, pon freno a la risa, polvo vano, 
I en tan vulgar, culpable desconcierto 
Entra en tu corazon a contemplarte. 
i Que ves para gloriarte ? 

< Que ue.s dentro de ti ? Vuelve los ojos 
A tus miseros dias ; de tus gustos 

La flor huyo, quedaron los abrojos 

Como castigos justos : 

I las fugaces horas se volaron. . . . 

< Que poder laniard las que pasaron ? 

Tu, augusta soledad, al alma llenas 

De otra sublime luz, tu la separas 

Del placer pestilente ; 

I mientras en silencio la enajenas, 

A la virtud el animo preparas, 

I a la verdad inclinas transparente 

Del cielo fuljente 

Hacienda que nos abra b3X el hondo abismo 

Do esconde sus tesoros celestiales. 

El hombre iluminado ve en si mismo 

Las seiias inmortales, 

Merced a tu favor, de su grandeza, 

Del mundo vil hollando la bajeza. 

La mente sin los lazos que detienen 
Preso su hidalgo ardor, en raudo vuelo 
Las vagas nubes pasa, 
Llegando a do su trono alzado lienen 
Al inmenso Hacedor los altos cielos ; 
I a su divina norma se compasa: 

531 Construct : I inclinas d la verdad transparente del cielo fuljente ha- 
cienda que nos abra, 'and thou inducest transparent truth of refulgent 
heaven to open to us.' 



POETRY. 141 



De su lumbre sin tasa 
Gozosa se alimenta i satisface. 533 
El fuego celestial con que* se atreve 
A las grand es empresas ; cuanto hace 
Bueno el hombre lo debe, 

soledad, a tu silencio augusto, 
Donde Dios habla i se descubre al justo. 

Mas los hombres que ilusos no perciben 
Su misteriosa voz, cuyos oidos 
A la verdad cerrados, 

1 al error son patentes, asi viven 
Del mundo en el estrepito metidos, 
dial en galera miseros forzados :f 
Siervos aherrojados 

Al antojo liviano i las pasiones 
Sorprehende\os de subito la muerte. 
El sabio, solo el sabio, las prisiones 
Rompe con mano fuerte : 
Intrepido de todo se retira; 
I de la play a la borrasca mira. 



Juan Meiendez \ aides. 

LAS FLORES. 

Naced, vistosas flores, 
Ornad el suelo, que llorb desnudo 
So el cetro helado del Invierno rudo, 
Con los vivos colores, 

532 Construct : Gozosa se alimenta i satisface de su lumbre sin tasa, 'the 
mind, joyful, feeds on and enjoys its immense light, 5 i. e. the light issuing 
from the Maker's throne. 

* El hombre, understood. 

f Construct : asi viven metidos en el estrepito del mundo, cual en galera 
miseros forzados, they live in the noise of the world, like wretches iu 
the galleys 



142 POETRY. 

En que matiza vuestro fresco seno 
Rica naturaleza. 
Ya rie Mayo, i cefiro sereno 
Con deliciosos besos, solicita 
Vuestra sin par belleza; 
I el rudo broche a los capullos quila. 
Pareced, pareced, ; 6 del verano 
Hijas i la alma Flora! 
I al nacarado llanto de la Aurora 
Abrid el caliz virjinal. Ya siento, 
Ya siento en vuestro aroma soberano, 
Divinas flores, empapado el viento; 533 
I aspira la nariz i el pecho alienta 534 
Los ambares que el prado les presenta 
Do quiera liberal. 535 jOh! jque infinita 
Profusion de colores 
La embebecida vista solicita! 
jQue majia! jque primores 
De subido matiz, que anhela en vano 
Al lienzo trasladar pincel liviano ! 536 
Con el arte natura 
A formaros en una concurrieron, 
Galanas flores, 537 i a la par os dieron 
Sus gracias i hermosuras. 
Mas jah! que acaso un dia 
Jlcaba tan pomposa lozania, 
Imajen cierta de la suerte humana; 

533 Construct : ya siento, divinas flores, el viento empapado en vuestro 
aroma soberano, I feel, divine flowers, the wind full of your delightful 
fragrance. 

534 Construct : / la nariz aspira i el pecho alienta. 

535 Do quiera liberal, 'everywhere with great liberality,' or 'liberally.' 
Note 187. 

536 Construct : que pincel liviano en vano anhela trasladar al lienzo. 

537 Construct : galanas flores, natura con el arte concurrieron en una a 
formaros. 



POETRY, 143 

Empero mas dichosas. 

Si os roba, flores, el ferviente Estio, 

Mayo os levanta del sepulcro umbrioj 

I a brillar otra vez naceis hermosas. 

Asi, j o jazmin ! tu nieve 

Ya a lucir torna, aunque en espacio breve ? 

Entre el verde agradable de tus ramas; 533 

I con tu olor subido 

Parece que amoroso 

A las zagalas que te corten, clamas. 

Para enlazar sus sienes venturoso. 

Mientras el clavel en purpura tenido 

En el flecsible vastago se mece; 

1 oficioso desvelo a la belleza, 

A Flora i al Amor un trono ofrece 

En su globo encendido, 

Hasta que trasladado 

A algun pecho nevado, 

Mustio sobre el desmaya la cabeza 

I el cerco encoje de su pompa hojosa. 

I la humilde violeta, vergonzosa, 

Por los valles perdida 

Su modesta beldad cela encojida. 

Mas el ambar fragrante 

Que le roba fugaz mil vueltas dando 

El aura susurrante, 

En el sus vagas alas empapando, 

Descubre fiel do esconde su belleza. 

*Orgulloso levanta la cabeza 

I la vista arrebota 

Entre el vulgo de flores olorosas 

El tulipan, honor de los verjeles;* 

538 Construct : tu nieve, aunque en espdcio breve, ya torna d lucir entre 
el verde agradable de tus ramas. 

* Before orgulloso, place el tulipan, honor de los verjeles. 



144 POETRY. 

I en galas emulando a los claveles, 
Con fajas mil vistosas 
De su viva escarlata 
Recama la riquisima librea.* 
Pero j ah ! que en mano avara le escasea 
' Cruda Flora su encienso delicioso; 

I solo asi a la vista luce hermoso. 
No tu, 539 azucena virjinal, vestida 
Del manto de inocencia en nieve pura 
I el caliz de oro fino recamado; 
No tii, que en el aroma mas preciado 
Baiiando tu hermosura, 
A par los ojos i el sentido encanlas 
De los toques mecida 
De mil lindos Amores, 
Que vivaces codician tus favores, 
jO como entre sus brazos te levantas! 
\ Como brilla del Sol al rayo ardiente 
Tu corona esplendente! 540 
i I cual en torno carinosas vuelan 
Cien mariposas, i en besarte anhelan* 
Tuyo, tuyo serza, 
O azucena el imperio 541 sin la rosa, 
De Flora honor, delicia del verano, 
Que, en fugaz plazo de belleza breve,f 
Su caliz aire al apuntar el dia;J 

* Construct : recama la librea de su viva escarlata. 

539 No tii, 'not thou,' that is, 'it is not so in regard to thee.' 

540 Construct : como tu corona esplendente hilla al rayo del sol ardiente. 

541 El imperio, that is, 'the empire of/ 'the superiority over all the 
flowers. 5 

f Que, en fugaz plazo de belleza breve, 'which, during a flying term 
of short beauty/ i. e. 'which, in a display of beauty, though of short 
duration.' 

X M apuntar el dia, 'on the day peeping out/ i. e. 'at day-break/ 



145 



I en purpura baiiada, el soberano 

CJerco levanta de la frente hermosa, 

Su aljofar nacarado el Alba Uueve 

En su seno clivino :* 

Febo la enciende con benigna llama, 

I le did Citerea 542 

Su sangre celestial, cuando aflijida 

Del bello Adonis la espirante vida, 

Que en debil voz la llama, 

Quiso acorrer.f i del fatal espino 

Ofendida joh dolor! la planta bella 

De purpura lino la infeliz huella. 

Codtcialdi Cupido 

Entre las flores por la mas preciada^ 

I la nupcial guirnalda que cifiera 

A su Psiquis amada 

De rosas fue de su pensil de Gnido, 

I el talamo feliz tambien de rosa 

Donde triunfo i gozb, cuando abrasado 

En su llama dichosa 

Tierno esclamo en sus brazos desmayado . 

Hoi, bella Psiquis, por la vez primera 

Siento que el Dios de las delicias era. 

jO reina de las flores! 

; Gloria del mayo! jventuroso fruto 

Del llanto de la Aurora! 



* Construct : el alba Uueve en su divino seno, su aljofar nacarado, 'the 
dawn sheds on its divine bosom, its pearl-coloured dew drops. 5 

642 This passage refers to the account given in ancient mythology 
about a thistle sticking into the veins of Cythera's foot, when, being 
called by Adonis, who was sick, she ran to nurse him. To enhance the 
colour of the rose, the poet here says, that Venus, on being pricked, 
gave that flower the blood which issued from her foot. 

f Construct: cuando (ella) aflijida quiso acorrer la espirante ytda del 
bello Adonis, que en debil voz la llama. 

13 



146 POETRY. 

Salve jrosa divina! 

Salve; i ve, llega a mi jentil pastora 

A rendirle el tributo 

De tus suaves odores ; 

I humilde a su beldad la frente inclina. 

Salve [divina rosa! 

Salve; i deja que viendote en su* pecho 

Morar ufana, i por su nieve pura 

Tus frescas hojas derramar segura, 

Loco envtdie tu suerte venturosa, 

I anhele en ti trocado 

Sobre elf morir en ambares deshecho, 

J Me aspirard su labio regalado. 

Juan Melendez Valdes. 



* Su, referring to pastora. 

t El, referring to pecho. 

\ A»i de esia manera, understood. 



VOCABULARY. 



ABBREVIATIONS. 



art. article. 

s. singular. 

p. person plural. 

m. masculine. 

/. feminine. 

sm. substantive masculine 

*/. substantive feminine. 

sub. substantive. 

eollec. collective. 

dim. diminutive. 

prop, proper. 

a. adjective. 

part, participle. 

abs. absolute. 

adjec. adjectified.* 

substan. substantified.f 

pron. pronoun. 

per. personal. 

pos. possessive. 

rel. relative. 

indef. indefinite. 

ad. adverb. 



prep, preposition 
conj. conjunction 
inter, interjection- 
inf. infinitive. 
md. indicative. 
imp. imperative. 
subj. subjunctive. 
ger. gerund. 
pres. present. 
impf. imperfect. 
pret. preterite. 
fat. future. 
con. conditional. 

1, 2, or 3. first, second, or third per- 
son. 
v. verb. 

va. verb active. 
vn. verb neuter. 
vr. verb reflective. 
aux. auxiliary. 
impers. impersonal. 



F. from. 

Those adjectives which terminate in, o, an, or on, are made feminine 
by the changing of o into a; and by the addition of a, to those that end 
in an or on. The rest never change from, masculine to feminine; as> 
bueno-a, haragan-a, poltron-a. 

The plural of words is formed in Spanish by the addition of s to those 
which end in a vowel, and es to those that end in a consonant, or ac- 
cented vowel; as, lifrro-s, amor-es, alholi-es. 

Those ending in z, change the z into ces, as almirez, a mortar, ahm- 
reces, mortars. 

Those ending in i, change it into yes, as rei, king; reyes, kings. 



* Used as adjectives. 



t Used as substantives. 



VOCABULARY, 



A. 



A, prep, to, in, at, for, under, on. 

A, or Ah, inter, ah, alas. 

A lo lejos, ad. far off, at a dis- 
tance. 

Abajo, ad. under, underneath, be- 
low, downwards. 

Abalanzando, F. Abalanzar, ger. 
rushing against. 

Abalanzar, inf. va. to rush against, 
to counterpoise, to weigh. 

Abandonado-a, a. and part, aban- 
doned, profligate, left, desponded. 

Abandonais, F. Abandonar, ind. 
pres. 2p. ye, or you abandon. 

Abandonar, inf. pres. va. to aban- 
don, to desert, to despair. 

Abandonas, F. Abandonar, ind. pres. 
2s. thou abandonest 

Abandones, F. Abandonar, subj. 
pres. 2s. thou mayest abandon. 

Abandono, sm. abandonment, dere- 
liction. 

Abandono, F. Abandonar, ind. pres. 
Is. abandon. 

Abandono, F .Abandonar, lad. pret. 
3s. abandoned. 

Abarcar, inf. va. to clasp, to em- 
brace, to contain, to undertake. 

Abasto, sm. supply, abundance, 
store; purveyorship. 

Abate, F. Abatir, ind. pres. 3s. 
overthrows. 

Abatir, inf. va. to overthrow, to 
stoop; vn. to be depressed 
13* 



Abatido-a, a. dejected, depressed, 
mean, base. 

Abatimiento, sm. depression; de- 
struction, overthrow. 

Abeja, sf a bee. 

Abertura, sf aperture, way, com- 
mencement. 

Abismado, a. plunged, immersed. 

Abierto-a, F. Abrir, a. and part 
open, free, sincere ; opened. 

Abierto, part. abs. being opened. 

Abismado, part, and a. plunged, 
sunk into ; depressed. 

Abismo, sm. abyss, hell. 

Ablandan, (se) ind. pres. Sp. they 
soften ; become softened. 

Ablandar. inf. va. to soften, to miti- 
gate, to sooth, to assuage. 

Abono, sm. favour, security, ma- 
nure, receipt. 

Aborrecedor-a, s. a detester, (he 
who dislikes, or hates.) 

Aborrecido. F. Aborrecer, part, ha- 
ted, disliked, abhorred. 

Abordara, F. Abordar, ind. fat. 3s. 
will land. 

Abordara, F. Abordar, subj. imp. 1 
or 3s. could, or might board. 

Aborrece, F. Aborrecer, ind. pr^ 
3s. abhors. 

Aborrecer, inf. va. to despise, to 
abhor, to detest, to hate. 

Aborrec'an, F. Aborrecer, ind. imp. 
Sp. they hated. 

14.9 



Aborrezcamos, F. Aborrecer, subj. 

pres. \p. may hate. 
Aborrezeo, F. Aborrecer, ind. pres. 

Is. I abhor. 
Abra, F.' Abrir, subj. pres. 1 or Ss. 

may open. 
A bra, F. Abr'r, imp. pres. 2s. open 

thou. 
Abrasado-a, F. Abrasar, part, adjec. 

burned, parched, dissipated. 
Abraza, F. Abrazar, imp. 2s. em- 
brace thou. 
Abrazaba, F. Abrazar, ind. imp. 1 

or 3s. embraced. 
Abrazando, F. Abrazar, ger. em- 
bracing. 
Abrazar, inf. va. to embrace, to 

avail one's self, to hug. 
Abrazara, or Abrazaria, F. Abrazar, 

subj. impf 1 or 3s. would or should 

embrace . 
Abrazo, F. Abrazar, ind. pres. Is. 

I embrace. 
Abrazo, F. Abrasar, ind. pret Ss. he 

burned, 
Abre, F. Abrir, ind. pres. 3s. opens. 
Abrevaba, F. Abrevar, ind. imp. Ss. 

watered. 
Abria, F. Abrir, impf pres. 2p. ye, 

or you opened. 
Abriendo, F. Abrir, ger. opening, 

or beginning. 
Abriesen, F. Abrir, subj. S impf. 1 

or Sp. should open. 
Abriste, F. Abrir, ind. pret. 2s. thou 

openedst. 
Abrio, F. Abrir, ind. pret. Ss. opens. 
Abraza, F. Abrazar, ind. pres. 3s. 

embraces. 
Abrir, inf. va. to open, to com- 
mence, to communicate. 
Abrojo, sin. bramble, briar, thorn. 
Abrumado-a, F. Abrumar, part. abs. 

crushed, overwhelmed, teased. 
Absoluto-a, a. absolute, tyrannical, 

independent. 



ACA 

Abstinencia, sf. abstinence, for- 

bearance. 
Abuela, sf grandmother; abuelo, 

sm. grandfather. 
Abultar, inf. va. to increase, to en- 
large, to augment in size. 
Abultar, inf. vn. to be bulky, to be 

large. 
Abunda, F. Abundar, inf. pres. Ss 

abounds, 
Abundar, inf. pres. vn. to abound, 

to. have plenty. 
Abundaneia, sf. abundance, plenty. 
Aburre, F. Aburrir, ind. pres. Ss. is 

irksome. 
Abundante, a. abundant, plentiful, 

generous. 
Abuso, sm. abuse, slander, ill-use. 
Aca, ad. here, in this place. 
Acaba, F. Acabar, ind. pres. Ss. 

terminates. 
Acababa, F. Acabar, ind. impf. 1 or 

3s. terminated. 
Acabable, a. finishable, (what can 

be terminated or concluded.) 
Acabado-a, a. terminated; sunk, 

consumed, filled. 
Acabando, F. Acabar, ger. con- 
cluding, finishing, having termi- 
nated. 
Acabar, inf. va. to terminate, to 

conclude, to finish, to harass. 
Acabar, inf. vn. to terminate in, to 

die, to expire. 
Acabaran, F. Acabar, ind. fat. Sp. 

they will finish or end. 
Ac abas, F. Acabar, ind. pres. 2s. 

thou concludest. 
Acabasen, F. Acabar, subj. 3 impf. 

Sp. they should conclude. 
Acabe, F. Acabar, subj. pres. 1 or 

3s. may finish. 
Acabe, F. Acabar, imp. pres. Ss. let 

it, him or you terminate. 
Acabo, F. Acabar, ind. pres. Is, I 

conclude or end. 

150 



ACE 



ACQ 



Academico-a, s. academician, or a 
member of an academy. 

Academico-a, a. academic, (relating 
to an academy.) 

Acaecio, F. Acaecer, ind. pret. 3s. 
it there happened. 

Acarrear, inf. pres. va. to bring on, 
to occasion. 

Acaso, sm. chance, casualty, adven- 
ture. 

Acaso, ad. perhaps, by accident, by 
chance. 

Ac atari, F, JLcatar, ind. Sp. they 
respect. 

Acatar, inf. va. to respect, to revere, 
to behold, to inspect. 

Acataron, F. Acatar, ind. pret. Sp. 
they respected. 

Acatamiento, sin. presence ; respect 
acknowledgment, attention. 

Aceite, sm. oil. 

Accidente, sm. accident, peculiar- 
ity; chance, occurrence. 

Accion, sf action, act, share. 

Acento, sm. accent, voice, lamenta- 
tion. 

Acelerar, inf. va. to accelerate, to 
hasten, to despatch. 

Aceptar, inf. pres. va. to accept, to 
admit. 

Acepto, F. Aceptar, ind. pret. 3s. he 
accepted. 

Acercaba, (se) F. Acer car, ind. 
impf. 1 or 3s. it, he, or she drew, 
came near. 

Acercan, F. Acer car, ind. pres. Sp. 
they draw near. 

Acercando, F. Acer car, ger. ap- 
proaching, drawing near. 

Acercar, inf. pres. va. to draw near, 
to approach. 

Acerco, F. Acer car se. ind. pres. Is. 
approach. 

Aeero, sm. steel, sword. 

Acertado-a, a. fit, prOper 3 success- 
ful ; rightly hit. 



Achaean, F. Achacar, ind. pres. Sp 
they impute, say that he was. 

Achacar, inf. pres. va. to impute, to 
ascribe. 

Acierto, sm. success ; luck. 

Aclamacion, sf. acclamation, joy, 
cheering. 

Acojida, sf. stream; reception, asy- 
lum. 

Acometer, %nf. va. to attack, to as- 
sault, to undertake, to tempt. 

Acometieron, ind. pret. Sp. they at- 
tacked; undertook. 

Acometiesen, F. Acometer, subj. 3 
impf Sp. should attack. 

Acomodaba, ind. impf 1 or 3s. was 
suitable, accommodated. 

Acompanado-a, a. accompanied, at- 
tended. 

Acompanado, F. Acompanar, part. 
accompanied, attended. 

Acompanar, imp. va. to accompany, 
to escort. 

Aconsejar, inf. va. to advise, to 
counsel; to take advice. 

Aconsejasen, F. Aconsejar, subj. 
impf Sp. they should advise. 

Acordaos, F. Acorddrse, imp. 2p* 
remember ye. 

Acordar, inf. va. to remind, to de- 
termine, to deliberate. 

Acordar, inf. vn. to agree, to re- 
member, to recollect. 

Acordara, F. Acordar, subj. impf 1 
or 3s. would, or should remem- 
ber. 

Acordar emos, F. Acordar, ind. fat. 
\p. we shall agree. 

Acorrer, inf. pres. vn. to save, to 
succour, to repair. 

Acordaran, F. Acordar, subj. 1 
impf Sp. they would remember. 

Acorres, F. Acorrer, ind. pres. 2s. 
thou hast recourse. 

Acostumbra, F. Acodumbrar, ind. 
pres. 3s. is in the habit. 

151 



ADE 



AD6 



A?ortase, F. Acortar, subj. imp. 3s. 
he should shorten or abridge. 

Acostumbrado-a, part. a. accus- 
tomed, used to, inured, habitu- 
ated. 

Acostumbrar, inf. va. to accustom, 
to inure ; vn. to be wont. 

Acrecentado, F. Acrecentar^ part. 
increased, augmented. 

Acrecento, F. Acrecentar, ind. pret. 
3s. he increased. 

Acreedor, sm. creditor, meritorious 
person. 

Activo-a, a. active, diligent. 

Acto, sm. act, event, fact; en el 
ado, at this moment. 

Actual, adj. actual, present. 

Acudamos, F. Acudir, subj. pres. \p. 
let us, or we way repair. 

Acuden, F. Acudir,, ind. pres, Zp. 
they repair. * 

Acudio, F. Acudir, md. pres. 3s. it, 
he, or she repaired. 

Acudir, inf. pres. vn. to succour, to 
repair, to apply. 

Acudira, F. Acudir, ind. fid. 3s. 
shall or will assist. 

Acuerda, F. Acordar, subj. pres. 1 
or 3s. she may remind. 

Acuerdo, sm. decree, opinion, ad- 
vice, consent. 

Aculla, ad. there, in that place, 
yonder. 

Acusaba, F. Acusar, ind. impf. 1 or 
3s. accused. 

Acusado-a, a. accused, charged; 
being accused. 

Acusar, inf. pres. va. to accuse, to 
acknowledge, to charge. 

Adan, sm. Adam, the first man 
created. 

Adarga, sfi shield, target. 

Adelantar, inf. vn. to advance, to 
progress, to improve. 

Adelantando, F. Adelantar, ger. ad- 
vancing, improving. 



Adelante, ad. higher up, farther off ; 

henceforward. 
Adelante, inter, go on, proceed, 

come on. 
Ademas, or Ademas de que, prep 

besides, independently of. 
Adios, ad adieu, farewell, good 

Adivinar, inf. pres. va. to foretell, 
to guess, to divine, to unriddle. 

Admirable, a. admirable, astonish- , 
ing, great. 

Admiracion, sf. admiration, wonder, 
surprise. 

Admirado-a, part. a. astonished, 
surprised, part, admired. 

Admirar, inf. va. to admire, to ex- 
cite admiration. 

Admirasen, F. Admirar, subj. 3 
impf Sp. they should admire. 

Admiro, F. Admirar, ind. Is. I ad- 
mire. 

Admitido, F. Admitir, part, ad 
mitted, received, acknowledged. 

Admitio, F. Admitir, ind. pret. 3*. 
it, he, or she admitted. 

Admitir, inf. va. to admit, to re- 
ceive, to accept, to permit. 

Adonde, ad. and pron. where, in, to 
which. 

Adonis, sm. Adonis, a fabulous god. 

Adora, F. Adorar, ind. pres. 3s. 
worships, adores. 

Adorar, inf. pres. va. to adore, to 
worship, to reverence, to revere 

Adormido-a, Adormir, part, calmed, 
lulled. 

Adormecido-a, a. drowsy, nodding, 
benumbed, torpid. 

Aclornaba, F. Adornar, ind. impf. 1 
or 3s. ornamented. 

Adornado-a, part. a. ornamented, 
beautified, embellished. 

Adornado, F. Adornar, part, adorn- 
ed, embellished. 

152 



ADV 



AFR 



A.d6rno, sm. ornament, decoration, 
furniture. 

Adoro, F. Adorar, ind. pret. 3s. he 
adored. 

Adoro, F. Jldorar, ind. pres. Is. I 
adore. 

Adriatico, sm. Adriatic Sea, or 
Gulf of Venice. 

Adquerir, inf. va. to acquire, to at- 
tain, to obtain. 

Adquiero, F. Adquerir, ind. pres. Is. 
I acquire. 

Adriano, sm. Adrianus, the 15th 
emperor of Rome. 

Adulacion, sf. adulation, flattery. 

Adulador, sm. flatterer. 

Adultero, sub. adulterer ; Adulter a, 
adulteress. 

Adulto, sm. adult. 

Adversidad, sf. misfortune, adver- 
sity, calamity. 

Adverso-a, a. adverse, afflictive, 
opposite. 

Advertencia, sf. discretion, pru- 
dence. 

Adverti, F. Advertir, ind. pret. Is. 
I noticed. 

Adverti d, F. Advertir, imp. pi-es. 
°2p. observe ye, or you. 

Advertido-a, a. cautious, conside- 
rate, prudent. 

Advertimos, F. Advertir, ind. pres. 
or pret. 1 or Sp. observed. 

Advertir, inf. va. to caution, to take 
notice of, to advise. 

Adviertes, F. Advertir, ind. pres. 2s. 
thou observest. 

Advierte, F. Advertir, imp. pres. 2s. 
observe thou. 

Advierten, F. Advertir, ind. pres. 
3p. they observe. 

Advierto, F. Advertir, ind. pres. Is 
I observe. 

Advirtiendo, F. Advertir, ger. ob- 
serving, taking for granted. 



Advirtio, F. Advertir, ind. pret. 3s. 
observed. 

Afabilidad, sf affability, easy man- 
ners, freedom of action. 

Afan, sm. eagerness, vehemence, 
labour, effort. 

Afea, F. Afear, ind. pres. 3s. dis- 
figures. 

Afear, inf. va. to deform, to cen- 
sure, to disfigure. 

Afectadamente, ad. affectedly, with 
affected politeness. 

Afecto, sm. affection, love, pain. 

Afecto-a, a. affectionate, inclined, 
fond of. 

Afeminacion, sf effeminacy, soft- 
ness, delicacy, effemination. 

Afeminado-a,_par£. adjec. enervated, 
weak, effeminated. 

Afirma, F. Afirmar, ind pres. 3s. 
affirms, emboldens. 

Afirmar, inf. va. to affirm, to assure, 
to make fast. 

Aflije, F. Aflijir, ind. pres. 3s. 
grieves. 

Aflijia, F. Aflijir, ind. impf. 1 or 3s. 
afflicted, grieved. 

Aflijido, part, adjec. afflicted, 
grieved, tormented. 

Aflijido, F. Aflijir, pari, afflicted, 
tormented. 

Aflijio, F. Aflijir, ind. pret. 3s. af- 
flicted. 

AflijLr, inf. pres. va. to pain, to 
grieve, to afflict, to torment. 

Afortunado-a, a. fortunate, lucky, 
successful. 

Afrenta, sf. affront, insult, dis- 
honour, courage. 

Afrentado, part, adjec. affronted, 
insulted. 

Afrentoso-a, a. ignominious, insult- 
\ ing. 

Africa, sf. prop. Africa, one of the 
five great divisions of the globe 



.53 



AGU 



ALA 



Agarra, F. Agarrar, ind. 3s. he 

seizes, or grasps. 
Agarrar, inf. va. to seize, to grasp, 

to lay hold of, to obtain. 
Agarrochean, F. Agarrochear, ind. 

Sp. they pierce, goad. 
Agolpan, (se) F. Agolpar, ind. 

pres. 2p. crowd into. 
Agrada, F. Agradar, ind. pres. 3s. 

pleases, delights. 
Agradaba, F. Agradar, ind. impf. 1 

or 3s. pleased. 
Agradable, a. agreeable, pleasing. 
Agardar, inf. va. to please, to gratify, 

to render acceptable. 
Agradar, inf. pres. vn. to be pleased 

with. 
Agradecer, inf. va. to thank, to be 

obliged to, to recompense. 
Agradecemos, F. Agradecer, ind. 

pres. \p. we thank. 
Agradecimiento, sm. gratitude, 

gratefulness. 
Agrado, F. Agradar, ind. pres. Is. 

I please. 
Agrado, sm. affability, pleasing 

manners, will. 
Agravio, sm. offence, insult, oppres^ 

sion. 
Agricultura, sf agriculture, hus- 
bandry. 
Agrio-a, adj. sour, acrid, pungent. 
Agua, sf. water. 
Agudo-a, a. acute, sharp-pointed, 

dangerous. 
Agudeza, sf. cunning, witticism, 

jest. 
Agdardo, F. Aguardar, ind. pres. Is. 

I wait. 
Aguardar, inf. pres. va. to wait for, 

to expect, to grant time. 
Aguero, sm. augury, prognostica- 
tion, omen. 
Aguila, sf. eagle. 
Aguilucho, sm. eaglet, dim. of 

Aguila, eagle. 



Agustino, sm, Augustinian, monk 

of the order of St. Augustin. 
Aherrojado-a, part adjec. chained, 

fettered, shackled. 
Ahilado-a, part, adjec. emaciated, 

fainting, weak. 
Ahogado-a, a. stifled, drowned; s 

a drowned person. 
Ahogaremos, F. Ahogar, ind. Jut. 

\p. we shall, or will drown. 
Ahondaba, F. Ahondar, ind. impf 

1 or 3s. sounded. 
Ahora, ad. now, the present ; ahora 

Men, well, now. 
Ahorraba, F. Ahorrar, ind. imp. 3s. 

spared. 
Ahorro, see Aorro. 
Ai, inter, alas ! wo ! 
Airado, a. angry, wrathful. 
Aire, sm. air, grace, manner. 
Airoso-a, a. graceful, airy, genteel, 

successful. 
Aislado-a, a. insulated ; embarrass- 
ed; alone. 
Ajeno-a, pron. indef. foreign, 

strange, of another, of others. 
Ajado-a, a. disfigured, injured. 
Ajitar, inf. va. to agitate, to ruffle, 

to discuss, 
ijo, sm. garlick. 
Ajustado-a, a. and part, adjusted, 

settled, balanced. 
Al, contraction of a el, prep, and 

art. to the, in the, at the. 
Alabado-a, part, praised, hallowed, 

flattered. 
Alabanza, sf. praise, applause, re- 
joicing. 
Alabando, F. Alabar, ger. praising. 
Alaban, F. Alabar, ind. pres. Bp. 

praise. 
Alabar, inf. va. to praise, to hallow, 

to applaud, to commend. 
Alabes, F. Alabar, subj. pres. 2s 

thou mayest praise 

154 



ALE 



ALI 



Alargan, F. Alargar, ind. pres. Sp. 
they enlarge. 

Alargando, F. Alargar, ger. ex- 
tending, increasing, enlarging. 

Alargar, inf. va. to lengthen, to en- 
large, to extend, to protract. 

Alarido, sm. outcry, clamor. 

Alba, sf. dawn; surplice. 

Alborozado-a, part, exhilarated, 
merry, rejoiced, gladdened. 

Alcaide, sm. governor, keeper of a 
castle. 

Alcanza, F. Alcanzar, ind. pres, 3s. 
reaches, or obtains. 

Alcanzado, F. Alcanzar, part, ob- 
tained, acquired, reached. 

Alcanzan, F. Alcanzar, ind. pres. 
3p. they obtain. 

Alcanzar, inf. va. to reach, to ob- 
tain, to comprehend. 

Alcanzar, inf. vn. to suffice, to be 
sufficient, to reach. 

Alcanzo, F. Alcanzar, ind. pres. 2s. 
I reach, or comprehend. 

Alcanzo, F. Alcanzar, ind. pret. 3s. 
he obtained. 

Alcanzaba, F. Alcanzar, ind. impf. 
1 or 3s. reached. 

Alcornoque, sm. cork-tree. In 
Latin Quercus suber. 

Alcibiades, sm. Alcibiades, an an- 
cient personage, distinguished for 
his personal attractions, and ver- 
satility of genius. 

Aldea, sub. village, hamlet, country. 

Alegra, F. Alegrar, ind. pres. 3s. 
animates, gladdens. 

Alegraba, (se) ind. impf. 1 or 3s. 
rejoiced, was rejoiced at. 

Alegrar, inf. pres. va. to rejoice, to 
beautify, to make merry. 

Alegrar, inf. vr. to rejoice, to be- 
come merry. 

Alegre, a. cheerful, lively, con- 
tented. 

Alegria, sf. joy, mirth, merriment. 



Alegrisimo-a, a. sup. most merry? 
most contented, most rejoiced. 

Alemania, sf. Germany, a country 
in Europe. 

Alentar, inf. pres. vn. to breathe, to 
respire ; to encourage. 

Alerta, sm. watch- word, on the 
look out, watch. 

Alforja, sf. portmanteau, saddle- 
bags. 

Algo, indef. pron. something, some- 
what, a little. 

Algun, indef pron. some, some one. 

Alguno-a, pron. indef. some, some- 
body. 

Aljeciras, sub. Algeciras, a city in 
the South of Spain. 

Aljofar, sm. dew-drops, pearls. 

Alhaja, sf. jewel, ornament, furni- 
ture. 

Alhagueno-a, a. attractive, alluring, 
smiling, flattering. 

Alhajas, sp. furniture, jewels, pro 
perty. 

Aliado-a, a. allied, federated. 

Alianza, sf. alliance, coalition, con- 
vention. 

Alibeg, S771. Alibeg, a Moor of great 
integrity. 

Alienta, F. Alentar, ind. pres. 3s. 
breathes, encourages. 

Aliento, sm. breath, spirit, smell; 
encouragement. 

Alimentaba, F. Alimentar,ind. impf. 
1 or 3s. fed. 

Alimentaban, F. Alimentar, ind. 
impf. Bp. fed. 

Alimentar, inf. va. to maintain, to 
feed, to support. 

Alistar, inf. va. to enlist, to enrol, 
to prepare. 

Alisto, F. Alistar, ind. pres. Is. I 
enrol. 

Alisto, F. Alistar, ind. pret. 3s. he 
enlisted. 

155 



ALZ 



AME 



Alivian, F. Aliviar, ind. pres. 2p. 

they alleviate, 
Aliviar, inf. pres. va. to solace, to 

recreate ; to succour, to alleviate 
Aliviara, F. Aliviar, ind. fat. 3s. 

mitigate. 
Aliviare, F. Aliviar, ind. fat. Is. I 

shall or will mitigate. 
Alia, ad. there, in that place, yon 

der. 
Allanar, va. to overcome, to con- 
quer, to subdue. 
Allega, F. Allegar, ind. pres. 3s. 

approaches. 
Allegar, inf. va. to approach, to 

draw near, to unite, to collect. 
All ego, F. Allegar, ind. pres. Is. I 

approach. 
Allego, (se) F. Allegar, ind. pret. 

3s. came arrived to him. 
Alii, ad. there, that time; de alii, 

thence. 
Alma, sf soul, courage, spirit, life, 

mind, disposition. 
Alredor, sm. environ, circuit; ad. 

around. 
Altera, F. Alterar, ind. pres. 2s. al- 
ters, or becomes disturbed. 
Alterar, inf. pres. va. to alter, to 

change, to become agitated. 
Alteraron, F. Alterar, ind. pret. Sp. 

they altered. 
Alteren, F. Alterar, subj. pres. Sp. 

may alter, become agitated. 
Alteza, sf. highness. 
Altlvo-a, a. haughty, proud; s. a 

haughty person. 
Alto, sm. height, summit; story (of 

a house.) 
Alto-a, a. high, tall, lofty. 
Aiucinado-a, part, deceived. 
Alumbrar, inf. pres. va. to light, to 

enlighten, to restore light. 
Alzado-a, a. elevated, raised, high, 

lifted up. 



Alzar, ind. pres. va. to raise up, to 
elevate, to erect. 

Alzo, F. Alzar, ind. pres. Is. I raise. 

Ama, sf mistress, tutoress, gover- 
ness. 

Ama, F. Amar, ind. pres. 3s. loves. 

Ama, F. Amar, imp. pres. 2s. love 
thou. 

Amaba, F. Amar, ind. impf. 1 or 3s. 
loved. 

Amable, a. amiable, lovely, affec- 
tionate. 

Amaban, F. Amar, ind. impf Sp. 
they loved. 

Amado-a, a. loved, beloved, es- 
teemed ; s. a lover. 

Amado, F. Amar, part, loved. 

Amanece, F. Amenecer, ind. pres. 
3s. it grows light. 

Amanecer, inf. pres. impers. to grow 
light; sub. day-break. 

Aman, F. Amar, ind. pres. Sp. they 
love. 

Amaneciera, F. Amanecer, ind. impf. 
3s. might, could grow light. 

Amaneciese, F. Amenecer, subj 
impf. 3s. should grow light. 

Amar, inf. pres. va. to love, to re- 
gard with affection, to like. 

Amara, F. Amar, subj. impf. 1 or 
3s. would, should love. 

Amare, F. Amar, subj. fat. 1 or 3s. 
I, should, may love. 

Amargo-a, a. bitter, sour. 

Amarillo-a, yellow, sallow. 

Ambar, sm. amber. 

Ambicion, sm. ambition, honour, 
covetousness. 

Ambos-as, indefpron. both, one and 
the other. 

Amemos, F. Amar, imp. pres. lp. 
let us love. 

Amemos, F. Amar, subj. pres. lp. 
we may love. 

Amenaza, F. Amenazar, ind. pi'es 
3s. threatens. 

156 



AND 



ANT 



Amenazaba, F. Amenazar, ind. 

impf. 1 or 3s. threatened. 
Amenazador-a, a. threatening, me- 
nacing. 
Amenazan, F. Amenazar, ind. pres, 

3p. they threaten. 
Amenazar, inf. va. to threaten, to 

menace. 
Ameno-a, a. agreeable, romantic, 

pleasant, florid. 
Ami da, sf. Amida, the name of an 

idol in Japan. 
Amida, sm. Amida, a person who 

worships Amida. 
Amigo-a, s. friend; a. friendly. 
Amintas, sm. Amintas, a personage 

in the anecdotes of Corpas. 
Amistad, sm. friendship, amity. 
Amo, sm. master, owner, protector 
Amor, sm. love, esteem, affection, 

Cupid. 
Amoroso-a, a. affectionate, loving 
Amparo, sm. protection, favour, re- 
fuge, asylum. 
Anca, sf. back; paunch, croup; a 

las ancas, behind. 
Ancho-a, a. broad, wide. 
Anciano, s. old man; anciana, old 

woman. 
Anciano-a, a. ancient, old, anti 

quated. 
Anda, F. Andar, ind. pres. 3s. goes, 

or walks. 
Anda, F. Andar, imper. 2s. go, or 

walk thou. 
Andaba, F. Andar, ind. impf. 1 or 

3s. went, walked. 
Andaban, F. Andar, ind. impf Sp. 

they went. 
Andado, F. Andar, part, gone, 

walked, marched. 
Andais, F. Andar, ind. pres. 2p. 

you, or ye go. 
Andan, F. Andar, ind. pres. 3p. they 

go, or walk. 
Andante, a. errant, wandering 
14 



Andanza, sf fortune, luck; event 

Andar, inf. va. to walk, to go, to 
march, to behave, to move. 

Andaran, F. Andar, ind. Jut. 3p. 
they will go, 

Andas, F. Andar, ind. pres. 2s. thou 
goest. 

Andre nio, sub. prop. m. Andrenius,, 
a man's name. 

Anduvieron, F. Andar, ind. pre,, 
3p. they walked. 

Anduvo, F. Andar, ind. pret. 3s. 
went. 

Anega, F. Anegar, ind. pres. 3s. he 
drowns. 

Angustia, sf grief, affliction, an- 
guish. 

Angustiado-a, a. painful; distressed. 

Angustioso-a, a. distressful, piteous. 

Anhela, F. Anhelar, ind. pres. 3s. 
desires. 

Anhelar, inf. pres. vn. to wish ea- 
gerly, to be ambitious of. 

Anhelaria, F. Anhelar, subj. impf 
3s. would desire. 

Anibal, sm. prop. Annibal, an an- 
cient Carthagenian chief of great 
renown. 

Animal, sm. animal, beast. 

Animal, a. beastly, brutish, cruel. 

Animo, sm. soul, courage, mind; 
con animo, for the purpose. 

Aniiiadamente, ad. childishly, in a 
childish manner. 

Aniquilacion, sf. annihilation, de- 
struction, devastation. 

Anjel, sm. angel. 

Anochecer, vn. to grow dark; s. 
sun-set. 

Ansia, sf anxiety. 

Ante, prep, before (previous to.) 

Ante, a. before (in the presence of.) 

Antecedente, sf antecedent, prece- 
dent. 

Antepasado, sm. forefather, ances- 
tor, progenitor. 

157 



APA 



APO 



Antequera, sub. prop. f Antequera, 
a town in Andalusia, Spain. 

Anteriormente, adv. anteriorly, be 
fore. 

Antes, antes de, antes que, prep. 
before. 

Antes, antes bien, ad. rather, on the 
contrary. 

Antesala, sf. antechamber. 

Antiguainente, ad. formerly, an- 
ciently, in ancient times. 

Antiguo-a, a. ancient, antiquated, 
old. 

Antojase, F. Antojar, subj. impf. 3s. 
he should desire. 

Antojo, sm. desire, longing. 

Antojos, sm. spectacles, eye-flaps. 

Antonio, sub. prop. m. Anthony, a 
man's name. 

Anunciaba, F. Anunciar, ind. impf. 
1 or 3s. announced. 

Anunciaban, F. Anunciar, ind. impf. 
Sp. they announced. 

Anuncio, sm. presage, foreboding, 
omen. 

Anzuelo, sm. fish-hook, allurement ; 
a keen, sharp person. 

Anade, F. Anadir, ind. pres. 3s. 
adds. 

Anadase, F. Anadirse, impf. pres. 
3s. let it be added. 

Anadio, F. Anadir, ind. pret. 3s. 
added. 

Anadir, inf. pres. va. to add, to sub- 
join, to increase, to exaggerate. 

Ano, sm. a year, a twelvemonth. 

Aorro, sm. parsimony, saving, spar- 
ingness. 

Apacibilidad, sf. affability, mildness, 
sweetness of temper. 

Apacible, a. pleasant, mild, agreea- 
ble. 

Aparato, sm. pomp, ostentation, 
eclat. 

Aparecer, inf. pres. vn. to appear, 
to rise, to peep, to break out. 



Aparecieron, F. Aparecer, ind. pret. 
Sp. they appeared. 

Aparecio, F. Aparecer, ind. pret. 3s. 
appeared. 

Aparejo, sm. preparation, apparatus . 

Apasionado-a, adj. fond of. 

Aparta, F. Apartar, ind. pres. 3s. 
separates. 

Apartar, inf. va. and n. to remove, 
to separate from, to withdraw. 

Apear, inf. pres. va. to alight, to 
measure lands, to prop, to dis- 
suade, to remove difficulties. 

Apellidado-a, part, adjec. called, 
named, surnamed. 

Apenas, ad. scarcely, no sooner. 

Apeo, F. Apear, ind pres. Is. I 
alight. 

Apeo, F. Apear, ind. pres. 3s. it 
alighted. 

Apercibio, F. Apercibir, ind. pret. 
3s. prepared, received. 

Apercibir, inf. pres. vn. to get ready, 
to provide, to receive. 

Apercibo, F. Apercibir, ind. pres. 
Is. I prepare, receive. 

Apestado, F. Apestar, part, infected 
with the plague. 

Apetito, sm. appetite, desire, anx- 
iety, wish. 

Aplaca, F. Aplacar, ind, pres. 3s. 
pacifies. 

Aplacar, inf. pres. va. to appease, 
to pacify, to mitigate. 

Aplacer, inf. va. to please, to satisfy, 
to consent. 

Aplauso, sm. applause, approbation. 

Aplica, F. Aplicar, ind. pret. 3s. 
applies. 

Aplicacion, sf. turn, direction ; ap- 
plication. 

Aplicar, inf. pres. va. to apply, to 
attribute, to study, to direct. 

Apoderado-a, a. empowered; part. 
taken possession. 

158 



APU 



ARE 



Apoderar, inf. vr. to take posses- 
sion of, to possess one's self. 
Apolo, sub. prop. m. Apollo, a fa- 
bulous deity. 
Apostol, sm. apostle, missionary. 
Aprecio, sm. value; appraisement, 

esteem. 
Aprecia, F. Apreciar, ind. pres. 3s. 

values, prefers. 
Aprenden, F. Aprender, hid. pres. 

Sp. they learn. 
Aprender, inf. pres. va. to learn, to 

acquire a knowledge. 
Aprendian, F. Aprender, ind. impf. 

3p. they were learning. 
A.prendiese, F. Aprender, subj. impf. 

1 or 3s. should learn. 
Apresuraba, F. Apresurar, ind, impf. 

1 or 3s. hastened. 
Apresuramos, F. Apresurar, ind. 

pret. \p. we hastened. 
Apresurar, inf. va. to accelerate, to 

hasten ; vr. to be in a hurry. 
Apretar, inf. pres. va. to tighten, to 

press, to afflict, to urge. 
Apriesa, ad. swiftly, promptly, in 

haste, in a hurry. 
Aprieto, sm. crowd, predicament, 

conflict, difficulty. 
Aprieta, F. Apretar, ind. pres. 3s. 

presses. 
Aprieta, F. Apretar, imp. pres. 2s. 

press thou, or make it tighter. 
Aprovecha, F. Aprovechar, ind. 

pres. 3s. improves. 
Aprovechandose, F. Aprovechar, 

ger. taking advantage. 
Aprovechar, inf. vn. to advance, to 

progress, to improve. 
Aprovechar, (se) inf. pres. vr. to 

take advantage, to avail one's 

self. 
Aprovechemos, subj. pres. \p. we 

may, or let us avail ourselves. 
Apuntar, va. to peep out; s. 

peeping. 



Apurado-a, F. Apurar, part, ex- 
hausted. 

Apurando, F. Apurar, ger. purify- 
ing, finding out, exhausting. 

Apurar, inf. pres. va. to exhaust, to 
purify, to investigate. 

Aquel-lla, pron. dem. n. or o. that; 
that one, the former. 

Aquel-lla, pron. per. n. or o. he. 
she ; him, her. 

Aquello-a, pron. dem. neut. o. or n. 
that, that thing, that which. 

Aqui, adv. here, in this place; this 
time; 

Arado, siii. a plough. 

Aragon, sub. prop. m. Arragon, a 
province of Spain. 

Arbitrariedad, sf arbitrariness, ty- 
ranny. 

Arbitrio, sm. recourse, free-will, 
means ; umpire. 

Arbitro, a. despotic, arbitrary. 

Arbol, sm. tree, mast. 

Arboleda, sf. grove. 

Arbustito, sm. small shrub, dim. of 
arbusto. 

Arcanjel, sm. archangel. 

Arcano, sm. secret, arcanum. 

Arco, sm. arch, vault. 

Archiduque, sm. archduque. 

Arden, F. Arder, ind. pres. Sp. they 
burn. 

Arder, inf. vn. to burn, to be agi- 
tated by any passion. 

Ardia, F. Arder, ind. impf. 1 or 3s. 
burned. 

Ardiente, a. hot, boiling, ardent, 
passionate. 

Ardor, sm. ardor, enthusiasm, 
warmth, vehemency. 

Ardiiidad, sm. difficulty, perplexity. 

Arena, sf. sand. 

Arenga, sf. speech, oration, ha- 
rangue. 

Areopago, sm. Areopagus. 

159 



ARR 



ASC 



Argos, sub. prop. m. Argus, a my 

thological personage, supposed to 

have a hundred eyes. 
Argumento, sm. proof, argument, 

matter, occurrence. 
Aristio, sub. prop. m. Aristio, a so- 
phist of Athens, and also a man's 

name. 
Aristoteles, sub. prop. m. Aristotle, 

a great ancient philosopher. 
Arjel, sub. prop. m. Algiers, the 

name of the capitol of one of the 

Barhary states, in N. Africa. It 

now belongs to France. 
Arjensola, (Bartolome Leonardo 

de) sm.prop. Arjensola, a classic 

prose and poetic writer of Spain. 

Born in Barbastro, Arragon, in 

1564, died 1631. 
Arma, sf. arm, weapon. 
Armaba, F. Armar, ind. impf. 1 or 

3s. armed. 
Armado-a, part. a. armed. 
Armar, inf. pres. va. to arise, to set 

up, to prepare one's self, to arm. 
Armonia, sf. harmony. 
Aroma, sf. odour, aromatic flower, 

all sorts of gums, or balsams. 
Arpado-a, a. forked, toothed ; harp- 

tongued. 
Arqueando, F. Arquear, ger. arch- 
ing. 
Arquitectura, sf. architecture, or 

the art of building. 
Arrancaba, F. Arrancar, ind. imp. 

3s. he snatched. 
Arrancar, inf. pres. va. to pluck, to 

draw, to pull off. 
Arrebata, F. Arrebatar, ind. pres. 

Bs. he carries away. 
Arrebatado-a, part, snatched, seized, 

wrested, led away. 
Arrebatar, inf. va. to snatch, to 

wrest, to be led away. 
Arrebato, F. Arrebatar, ind. pret. 

3s. snatched. 



Arrebatoso, a. impetuous; ad. im- 
petuously. 

Arreglado, adj. regulated ; well ba- 
lanced, well organized. 

Arreglar, inf. va. to regulate, to or- 
ganize, to reduce to order. 

Arreo, sm. dress, ornament. 

Arriba, ad. above, more than ; up- 
wards, uppermost. 

Arribar, inf. pres. vn. to arrive, to 
reach, to harbour in distress. 

Arrinconado-a, part. a. placed in a 
corner, withdrawn from office. 

Arrodilla, F. Arrodillar, ind. pres. 
3s. kneels down. 

Arrodillar, inf. vr. to kneel down, 
to bend one's knee before. 

Arroja, F. Arrqjar, ind. pres. 3s 
throws. 

Arrojan, F. Arrqjar, ind. pres. 3p 
they throw. 

Arrojar, inf. va. to throw, to dart, 
to shoot, to turn away. 

Arrojaron, F. Arrojar, ind. pret. Bp 
they threw. 

Arrojo, F. Arrojar, ind. pres. Is. 1 
throw. 

Arrojo, F. Arrojar, ind. pret. Bs. 
hurled, launched, threw. 

Arroyo, sm. rivulet, creek, stream. 

Arte, sm. s. art, science. 

Artes, sf. p. arts. 

Articula, F. Articular, ind. pres. Bs. 
it, he, or she articulates. 

Articulado-a, part, adjec. articu- 
lated, uttered, mentioned, pro- 
nounced. 

Articular, inf. pres. va. to articulate, 
to utter, to speak, to pronounce 

Artiiicioso-a, a. artificial, skilful, 
cunning, artful. 

Asalto, sm. assault, sudden passion ; 
por asalto, by storm. 

Ascargorta, sm. prop. Ascargorta, a 
living Spanish writer of some 
celebrity. 

160 



AST 



ATR 



Asco, sm. loathsomeness, annoyance. 
Asegura, F. Asegurar, ind. pres. 3s. 

it, he, or she assures. 
Asegurado-a, part, adjec. secured, 

insured, safe, sheltered, bailed, 
Asegurar, inf. pres. va. to assure, 

to insure, to bail, to warrant, to 

guarantee. 
Aseguro, F. Asegurar, ind. pret. 3s. 

it, he, or she secured. 
Asesino, sm. assassin, murderer. 
Asi, ad. thus, in this manner. 
Asi. or asi que, conj. thus, being so, 

therefore, consequently. 
Asiendo, F. Asir, ger. seizing. 
Asiento, sm. chair, seat, settlement. 
Asir, inf. pres. va. to grasp, to 

seize, to dispute, to contend. 
Asiste, ind. pres. 3s. performs, is 

present. 
Asistia, F. Asistir, ind. impf 3s. it, 

he, or she assisted. 
Asistir, inf. pres. vn. to assist, to 

be present, to live. 
Asolado-a, F. Asolar, part, deso- 
lated. 
Asoma, F. Asomar, ind. pres. 3s. it, 

he, or she appears. 
Asomaban, F. Asomar, ind. impf. 

Sp. they appeared. 
Asomar, inf. pres. vn. to peep, to 

appear, to rise. 
Asombro, sm. astonishment, dread ; 

ind. 3s. asombra, is astonished. 
Aspereza, sf rugged steep, rugged- 

ness. 
Aspero-a, a. harsh ; severe, rugged, 

grating. 
Aspira, F. Aspirar, ind. pres. 3s. it, 

he, or she aspires, inhales. 
Aspiran, F. Aspirar, ind. pres. Sp. 

they desire. 
Aspirar, inf. pres. vn. to aspire, in- 
spire, inhale, aim at. 
Asqueroso-a, a. loathsome, filthy. 
Astro, sm. planet, star, luminary. 

14* 



Astucia, sm. acuteness, slyness, 
cunningness, archness. 

Asturias, sub. prop.f. p. Asturias, a 
province in the north of Spain. 

Astuto-a, a. sly, acute, cunning, 
crafty ; s. a crafty person. 

Asunto, sm. affair, business, trans- 
action. 

Atajado, part. pas. intercepted, 
stopped ; having put an end. 

Atar, inf. va. to tie, to stop, to be 
embarrassed. 

Ataras, F. Atar, subj. 2 impf. 2s. 
wouldst or shouldst tie. 

Ataud, sm. coffin. 

Atemoriza, F. Atemorizar, ind. pres. 
3s. terrifies. 

Atemorizar, inf. va. to terrify, to 
frighten, to^ptrike with terror. 

Atencion, sf. attention, civility. 

Atender, inf. vn. to attend, to fix 
the mind, or wait for. 

Atendiendo, F. Atender, ger. consi- 
dering, attending. 

Ateneo, sub. prop. m. Athenaeus, 
Athenaeum. 

Atener, inf. pres. vr. to stand to, to 
stick, to adhere. 

Atengo, F. Atener, ind. pres. Is. I 
stick to. 

Atento-a, a. attentive, polite. 

Aterran, F. Aterrar, ind. pres. Sp. 
they frighten. 

Atico-a, sm. Attick, Greek, poig- 
nant, keen. 

Atizando, F. Atizar, ger. kindling, 
stirring. 

Atormenta, F. Atormentar, ind 
pres. 3s. torments. 

Atormentado-a, ¥. Atormentar, part, 
adjec. tormented. 

Atormentan, F. Atormentar, ind. 
pres. Sp. torture. 

Atormentar, inf. pres. va. to tor- 
ment, to rack, to torture. 

Atractivo, sm. attraction, charm 

161 



AUN 

Atrae, F. Atraer, ind. pres. 3s. at- 
tracts, allures, or charms. 

Atravesaba, F. Atravesar, ind. impf 
1 or 3s. crossed. 

Atravesando, F. Atravesar, ger. 
crossing, running through, pierc- 
ing. 

Atravesar, inf. va. to cross, to run 
through, to pierce. 

Atreve, F. Atrever, ind. pres. 3s. 
dares. 

Atrever, inf. vr. to dare, to be too 
bold, to venture. 

Atrevere, F. Atrever, ind. fat. Is. 
shall, or will dare. 

Atrevieron, F. Atrever, ind. pret. 
Sp. they durst. 

Atrevido-a, a. daring, bold. 

Atrevimiento, sm. bqj^ness, petu- 
lance, audacity. 

Atribuye, P. Atribuir, ind. pres. 3s. 
it, he, or she attributes. 

Atribuir, inf. va. to attribute, to as- 
cribe, to impute, to arrogate. 

Atronaba, F. Atronar, ind. impf 1 
or 3s. made a great noise. 

Atronando, F. Atronar, ger. stun- 
ning. 

Augustamente, ad. augustly, mag- 
nificently. 

Aumentaba, F. Aumentar, ind. impf 
1, 3s. increased, augmented. 

Aumentando, F. Aumentar, ger. 
augmenting, increasing. 

Audacia, sf audacity, boldness, 
courage. 

Audiencia, sm. audience, chamber, 
or court of oyer and terminer. 

Augusto, sub. prop. m. Augustus 
Csesar, the second emperor of 
Rome. 

Augusto-a, a. august, great. 

Aumento, sm. increase, enlarge- 
ment, augmentation. 

Aun, ad. yet, still; conj. notwith- 
standing. 



AVI 

Aunque, conj. though, when, if. 

Aura, sub. prop, f zephyrs. 

Aurora, sf the dawn. 

Ausencia, sf. absence, separation. 

Ausenta, F. Ausentar, ind. pres. 3s. 
absents* 

Ausentar, inf. vr. to absent one's 
self. 

Ausente, a. absent, separated. 

Ausentes, F. Ausentar, subj. pres. 
2s. thou mayest absent thyself. 

Ausiliar, sm. auxiliary, help, aid. 

Austero-a, a. austere, rigid, stern. 

Austriaco, s. and adj. Austrian, or 
a native of Austria. 

Autorizado-a, part, authorized, ap- 
proved. 

Autor, sm. author, inventor. 

Avanzar, inf. va. or n. to advance, 
to push forward, to charge. 

Avanzo, F. Avanzar, ind. pres. Is. 
I advance. 

Avaro-a, a. sparing, avaricious; s. 
a miser. 

Avenida, s. a rise, a sudden arrival; 
an overflow. 

A ventura, sf. adventure, event, oc- 
currence. 

Ave, sf. bird, fowl. 

Aventuroso-a, a. fortunate, lucky, 
successful. 

Avergonzar, inf. va. to make a- 
shamed, to put to the blush. 

Avergonzo, F. Avergonzar, ind. 
pret. 3s. put to the blush. 

Averigua, F. Averiguar, ind. pres. 
3s. ascertains. 

Averiguar, inf. va. to ascertain, to 
investigate, to find out. 

Averiguar an, F. Averiguar, ind. 
fut. Bp. will investigate. 

Avisado, part, and a. being inform- 
ed; discreet, prudent. 

Avivan, F. Avivar, ind. pres. 3p. 
they enliven. 

162 



BAN 



BAR 



Avivar, inf. va. to enliven, to en- 
courage, to heat, to inflame. 

Avivemos, F. Avivar, subj. pres. Ip. 
let us enliven ; may enliven. 

Ayer, ad. yesterday. 

Ayo, sm. tutor, governor. 

Ayuda, sf. help, assistance, aid ; 
ayuda de cdmara, valet. 

Ayudan, F. Ayudar, ind. pres. Sp. 
they help. 

Ayudando, F. Ayudar, ger. aiding, 
helping, assisting. 

Ayudar, inf. va. to aid, to help, to 
favour. 



Ayudaremos, F. Ayudar, ind. fut, 

\p. shall or will help. 
Ayudaron, F. Ayudar ; ind. pret. Sp. 

helped. 
Ayudo, F. Ayudar, ind. pres. Is. I 

help. 
Ayuno, sm. fast, abstinence. 
Ayuntamiento, sm. city council 

city hall. • 
Azote, sm,. scourge, calamity, lash 
Azogue, sm. quicksilver. 
Azucena, sf. white lily. 
Azufre, sm. brimstone, sulphur. 
Azulado-a, a. azure, blue. 






B 



Bachiller, sm. bachelor, a Bachelor 
of Arts. 

Bachiller, a. querulous, loquacious. 

Bailador-a, sm. male-dancer; sf. 
female-dancer. 

Bailar, inf. pres. vn. to dance, to 
move in a lively manner. 

Baile, sm. dance, ball. 

Baja, sub. prop. m. bashaw, a Turk- 
ish governor. 

Baja, F. Bajar, ind. pres. 3s. de- 
scends. 

Bajar, inf. pres. vn. to descend, to 
lessen, to diminish, to lower. 

Bajeza, sf. vileness, baseness. 

Bajo, sm. basement-story, base per- 
son ; a. low, common ; ad. under, 
beneath. 

Bajo, F. Bajar, ind. pret. 3s. came 
down. 

Balcon, sm. balcony. 

Balde, sm. bucket. 

Balde (de,) gratis, for nothing, also 
written, de valde. 

Balsamo, sm. balm. 

Baltasar, sm. prop. Balthasar, a 
man's christian name. 

Bando, sm. edict, order. 



Banado-a, part. adj. bathed, wet, 
drenched. 

Banando, F. Banar, ger. bathing, 
bedewing, or washing. 

Banar, inf. pres. va. to bathe, to 
immerse, to wash. 

Banaron, F. Banar, ind. pres. Sp, 
they bathed. 

Barbarie, sf. rusticity, incivility, 
roughness. • 

Barbaro-a, a. barbarous ; s. a bar- 
barian. 

Barbinegro, F. barba and negro, 
sm. black-bearded. 

Barca, sf vessel, boat. 

Barre, F. Barrer, ind. pres. 3s. he 
sweeps. 

Barrenar, inf. va. to sink, to bore, 
to pierce. 

Barreno, F. Barrenar, ind. pret. 3s. 
sunk. 

Barruntando, F. Barruntar, ger. 
conjecturing, foreseeing. 

Barruntar, inf. pres. va. to conjec- 
ture, to descry, to foresee. 

Bartolome, sub. prop. m. Bartholo- 
mew, a man's name. 

163 



BEN 



BLA 



Basta, F. Bastar, ind. pres. 3s. suf- 
fices, is enough, sufficient. 
Bastaba, F. Bastar, ind. impf. 1 or 

3s. sufficed, was sufficient. 
Bastante, ad. enough, sufficient. 
Bastantemente, ad. sufficiently, 

enough. 
Bastar, inf. pres. vn. to be enough, 

sufficient, to be n#more wanting. 
Bastara, F. Bastar, ind.fut. 3s. will 

suffice, be sufficient. 
Bastimento, sm. vessel; provisions. 
Baston, sm. cane, stall, stick. 
Batalla. sf. battle, fight, struggle. 
Batallon, sm. battalion, a division 

of infantry. 
Bate, F. Batir, ind. pres. 3s. beats, 

fights, coins. 
Batio, F. Batir, ind. pret. 3s. beat, 

fought, or coined. 
Baucio, sub. prop. m. Baucio, a 

man's name. 
Bay eta, sf. baize, common cloth. 
Beatifica, F. Beatificar, ind. pres. 

3s. beatifies. 
Beatificar, inf. va. to beatify. 
Beatitud, sf. beatitude, a title given 

to the Pope. 
Bebian, F. Bebcr, ind. impf 3p. 

were drinking, drank. 
Bebido-a, a. substan. drunk, a be- 
verage. 
Beleno, sm. hen-bane, an herb. 
Belico-a, a. warlike, military. 
Belle za, sf. beauty, decoration. 
Bellisimo-a, a. sup. most beautiful, 

most handsome. 
Bello-a, a. beautiful, handsome. 
Bendecir, inf. pres. va. to bless, to 

praise, to exalt, to consecrate. 
Bendice, F. Bendecir, ind. pres. 3s. 

blesses. 
Bendiciendo, F. Bendecir. ger. 

blessing. 
Bendijeron, F. Bendecir, ind. pret. 

2p. they blessed. 



Bendito-«i, a. holy, blessed. 

Bendigan, F. Bendecir, subj. pres. 
Bp. they may bless. 

Bend^go, F. Bendecir, ind. pres. Is. 
I bless. 

Bendijesen, F. Bendecir, subj. impf. 
'dp. they should bless. 

Beneficoncia, sf beneficence, good- 
ness, benevolence. 

Benef icio, sm. benefit, favour, cul- 
ture. 

Benefico, a. beneficent, kind, be- 
nevolent. 

Benevolencia, sf. benevolence, 
good- will, kindness. 

Benignisimo-a, a. most benign, 
most kind, most gracious. 

Benigno-a, a. benign, gracious, 
mild. 

Berlina, sf. landau, an open car- 
riage. 

Besan, F. Besar, ind. pres. Zp. they 
kiss. 

Besar, inf. pres. va. to kiss, to 
touch closely. 

Beso, F. Besar, ind. pres. Is. I 
kiss. 

Beso, F. Besar, ind. pret. 3s. kissed. 

Beso, sm. kiss. 

Betun, sm. bitumen, cement. 

Bien, ad. and a. well, good, very; 
de Men, honest, good; si Men, 
Men que, although. 

Bien, sm. good, blessing; well- 
being, property, estate. 

Bienaventurado-a, sub. a blessed, 
blissful. 

Bienaventurado-a, a. blessed. 

Bienhechor-a, sub. benefactor, bene- 
factress. 

Bigotes, sm. p. mustachoes. 

Bizarro-a, a. gallant, high-spirited, 
valiant. 

Blanco, a. white ; sm. end, aim. 

Blancura, sf. whiteness, a white 
spot on the eye. 

164 



BRE 



BUR 



Blando-a, a. soft, smooth, gentle. 

Blandura, sf. softness, delicacy. 

Bias, sub. prop. m. Bias, a man's 
name. 

Blasfemo-a, a. blasphemous. 

Blason, sm. blazon, laurel, glory. 

Blasones, sm. p. honour, glory, 
laurels ; armorial bearings. 

Boca, sf. mouth, opening, grate. 

Boda, sf. wedding, marriage. 

Bodega, sf. store-house, wine-vault. 

Bolsa, sf. pocket, purse, bag. 

Bolsillo, sm. purse, pocket. 

Bomba, sf. pump, bomb. 

Bondad, sf. goodness, kindness. 

Bonete, sm. bonnet, cap. 

Boote3, sub. prop. m. Bootes, a 
northern constellation. 

Borboton, sm. ebullition. 

Bordado-a, F. Bordar, a. s. em- 
broidery, embroidered. 

Borde, sm. brim, edge, bank, border. 

Borgona, sub. prop.f Burgundy, a 
province of France. 

Borra, F. Borrar, ind. pres. 3s. ef- 
faces or washes out. 

Borrar, inf. pres. va. to efface, to 
rub out ; to blot. 

Borrasca, sf. tempest, storm, danger. 

Borre, F. Borrar, ind. pret. Is. I 
effaced, or expunged. 

Bosque, sjn. wood, forest, wild. 

Bote, sm. boat ; canister. 

Botella, sf. bottle, glass vessel. 

Botica, sf. apothecary's shop. 

Boveda, sf. vault, cavern. 

Bracmanes, sub. p. m. Brahmins, 
the first caste or class among the 
Hindoos in India. 

Bramido, sm. shout, roaring, clash. 

Bravo, a. valiant, wild, angry. 

Bravo, inter, excellent, good. 

Brazo, sm. arm, (a part of the hu- 
man body.) 

Breve, a. short, brief. 

Breve, sm. apostolical brief, that is, 



a written message of the Pope 
addressed to magistrates, respect- 
ing matters of public concern. 

Brevedad, sf. brevity, conciseness, 
promptness. 

Breviario, sm. breviary, the book 
containing the daily service of 
the church of Rome. 

Brilla, F. Brillar, ind. pres. 3s 
shines. 

Brillan, F. Brillar, ind. pres. 3p 
they shine. 

Brillantemente, ad. brilliantly, ele- 
gantly, splendidly. 

Brillar, inf. pres. vn. to shine, to 
sparkle, to glitter. 

Brillo, F. Brillar, ind. pres. Is. I 
shine. 

Brio, S77i. spirit, force, courage. 

Brocado, sm. brocade. 

Broche, stti. clasp, hooks and eyes. 

Brillo, F. Brillar, ind. pret. 3s. 
shone. 

Bribon-a, sub. crafty person, rogue. 

Bronce, sm. bronze, brass, hard- 
hearted. 

Bruja, sf. a witch, spectre. 

Brutal, a. brutish, barbarous. 

Bruto-a, a. unpolished, rough ; s. a 
brute. 

Budeo, sub. prop. m. Budaeus, a 
writer of note. 

Buei, sm. ox, bullock. 

Buen, a. good; contract, ofbueno.— 
Grammar, R. XVIII. p. 148. 

Bueno-a, a. good, fine ; ad. well. 

Buhonero-a, sub. pedlar. 

Bullicioso-a, a. noisy, clamorous, 
turbulent, boisterous. 

Buque, sm. vessel. 

Burla, sf. ridicule, trick, fun, joke. 

Burla, F. Burlar, ind. pres. 3s. 
laughs at, or ridicules. 

Burlador, sm. wag, jester, scoffer. 

Burlar, inf. pres. va. to scoff, to 
laugh at, to disappoint. 

165 



CAD 

Busca, sf search, quest. 

Busca, F. Buscar, ind. pres. 3s. 

seeks, or selects. 
Buscaban, F. Buscar, ind. impf. 3p. 

they sought. 
Buscamos, F. Buscar, ind. pres. \p. 

we seek. 
Buscan, F. Buscar, ind. pres. 3p. 

thev seek, or choose. 



CAL 

Buscando, F. Buscar, ger. seeking. 
Buscar, inf. va. to seek, to search, 

to endeavour, to find out. 
Buscas, F. Buscar, ind. pres. 2s. 

thou seekest, or wishest. 
Busco, F. Buscar, ind. pres. Is. I 

seek. 
Busco, F. Buscar, ind. pret. 3s. 

sought. 



Ca, prep, because, for. It is obso 
lete now. 

Caballerito, sm. a young gentleman ; 
dim. of Caballero, gentleman. 

Caballeriza, sf. stable, and also the 
animals contained in it. 

Caballerizo, sf. hostler, head groom 
of a stable. 

Caballero, sm. knight, cavalier, gen 
tleman. 

Caballo, sm. horse ; horseman ; a 
caballo, on horseback. 

Caballera, sf. long hair, queue. 

Cabello, sm. hair. 

Caben, F. Caber, ind. pres. 3p. they 
can be contained. 

Caber, inf. pres. vn. to be contained 
or contain, to have room. 

Cabeza, sf head ; talents, a person, 
a commander. 

Cabia, F. Caber, ind. impf 3s. con- 
tained, could be contained. 

Cabida, sf place, entrance. 

Cabo, sm. end, termination, confine ; 
corporal, head-man. 

Cabra, sm. a goat. 

Cada, pron. indef. each, every, any. 

Cadalso, (Jose) sm. prop, a distin- 
guished Spanish poetic and prose 
writer of the last century. He 
is known by his Cartas Marrue- 
cas, or s Moorish Letters, 5 of which 
an edition, by Mr. Sales, has 



been published in this country; 

sub. prop. m. Cadalso. 
Cadalso, sm. scaffold, gibbet. 
Cadaver, sm. corpse, a dead body. 
Cadena, sf. chain, concatenation, 

series. 
Cae, F. Caer, ind. pres. 3s. falls, is 

caught. 
Caen, F. Caer, ind. pres. 3p. they 

fall. 
Caer, inf. vn. to fall, to become 

due, to be caught. 
Caiado, sm. See Cayado. 
Caida, sf fall, descent, overthrow. 
Caido, F. Caer, pari, fallen, being 

overthrown. 
Caigan, F. Caer, imp. pres. 3p. let 

them fall. 
Caigan, F. Caer, subj. pres. 3p. they 

may fall. 
Caigo, F. Caer, ind. pres. Is. I fall. 
Cal, sf. lime. 

Calabozo, sm. dungeon, prison. 
Calamidad, sf calamity, misfortune, 

devastation. 
Calderon, sub. prop. m. Calderon, 

one of the greatest, if not the 

greatest dramatic writer, that 

Spain has produced. Born at 

Madrid, in 1601 ; died 1687. 
Calentar, inf. pres. va. to warm, to 

heat, to urge, to press forward. 
Calesa, sf. calash, carriage, coach. 
166 



CAM 



CAR 



Calidad, sf. quality, term, 

Caliz, sf. chalice, cup of affliction, 

calix. 
Calla, F. Collar \ ind. pres. 3s. keeps 

silence. 
Calla, F. Callar, ind. pres. 2s. be 

thou silent. 
Callad, F. Callar, imp. 2p. be si- 
lent. 
Callado, F. Callar, part, concealed, 

hushed ; taciturn. 
Callan, F. Callar, ind. pres. 3p. they 

keep silence. 
Callar, inf. pres. vn. to keep silence, 

to conceal, to abate. 
Callaron, F. Callar, ind. pres. Sp. 

kept silence. 
Calle, F. Callar, imp. pres. 3s. let 

him be silent, or be you silent. 
Calle, F. Callar, subj. pres. 1 or 3s. 

may be silent. 
Calle, sf. street, road. 
Callo, F. Callar, ind. pres. Is. I do 

not say. 
Calor, sm. heat, warmth. 
Cama, sf. bed, couch. 
Camara, sf chamber, room, hall. 
Camarada, sf. comrade, companion. 
Camarin, sm. cabin, place behind 

an altar. 
Cambronera, sf. thorn, bramble, 

brier. 
Camina, F. Caminar, ind. pres. 3s. 

goes. 
Caminar, inf. pres. vn. to go, to 

walk, to travel. 
Camino, sm. road, way, path. 
Camisa, sf. shirt, linen ; en camisa, 

with coat and vest off. 
Campanal, sub. prop. m. Campanal, 

a personage in Gil Bias. 
Campanudo%, a. wide, puffed up, 

bell-like. 
Campana, sf. field, campaign. 
Campo, sm. country; field, camp, 

prairie. 



Cananea, sub. prop, f Canaan, or 
Judea, a country in Asia. 

Canciller, sm. chancellor. 

Candia, sub. prop. m. Candia, a 
Greek, eminent for his genero- 
sity. 

Candido-a, a. candid, frank, inge- 
nuous. 

Candor, sm. whiteness, candor. 

Canela, sf. cinnamon. 

Canoso-a, a. hoary, frosty. 

Cansado-a, part, substan. tiresome, 
fatigued, tired. 

Cansancio, sm. fatigue, weariness, 
lassitude. 

Canta, F. Cantar, ind. pres. 3s. 
sings. 

Canta, F. Cantar, imp. pres. 3s. 
sing thou. 

Cantabria, sub. prop, f Cantabria, 
or Biscay, a province of Spain. 

Cantado-a, F. Cantar, part. sung. 

Cantando, F. Cantar, ger. singing. 

Cantan, F. Cantar, ind. pres. Sp 
they sing. 

Cantar, sm. lay, song, tune. 

Cantar, inf. va. to sing. 

Cantares, sm. p. lays, songs. 

Cantaro, sm. pitcher. 

Cantidad, sf. quantity, sum. 

Canto, sm. lay, song, a glee. 

Capa, sf. cloak, mask, pretence. 

Capacidad, sf, capacity, talents, 
abilities. 

Capeto, sm. Capet, the celebrated 
Hugh Capet. 

Capitan, sm. captain, commander- 
in-chief, ringleader. 

Capacidad, sf. capacity, mind, ta- 
lents. 

Capaz, a. able, capable, skilful. 

Capitulo, sf. chapter, respect, 
charge. 

Capollo, sm. bud, gem, pod. 

Capiiz, sm. cloak, cover, cloud. 

Cara, sm. face, visage, countenance. 
167 



CAR 



CaU 



Caramente, a. dearly, bitterly, se- 
verely. 

Caracter, sm. character, disposition, 
letter. 

Caractericemos, subj. pres. \p. let 
us characterize. 

Caracterizar, inf. pres. va. to distin- 
guish, to characterize, to mark. 

Carcel, sf. jail, prison, dungeon. 

Cardenal, sm. Cardinal (a dignitary 
of the Catholic Church.) 

Cardeno-a, a. dark purple colour. 

Careceis, F. Carecer, ind. pres. 2p. 
ye, or you are in want of. 

Carecen, F. Carecer, ind. pres. Sp. 
they want. 

Carecer, ind. pres. vn. to want, to 
need, to be in want of. 

Careta, sf. mask, wire, cover. 

Carga, sf. burthen, load. 

Cargador, sm. freighter, he who 
loads any thing. 

Cargan, F. Car gar, ind. pres. Sp. 
they charge. 

Cargar, inf. pres. va. to load, charge, 
burthen. 

Cargo, sm. charge, trust, confidence, 
cargo, post, place. 

Caridad, sf. charity, kindness, alms. 

Carino, sm. fondness, tenderness, 
love, kindness. 

Carinoso-a, a. kind, affectionate, 
desirous. 

Caritativo-a, a. charitable, kind, 
good, friendly, benevolent. 

Carlo, sub. prop. m. Charles. 

Carlos, sub. prop. m. Charles. 

Carne, sf. flesh, meat. 

Carniceria, sf. carnage, havoc. 

Caro-a, a. dear; beloved. 

Carrera, sf field; race, course, ca- 
reer. 

Carreta, sf. cart, wagon. 

Carro, sm. wagon, chariot. 

Carroza, sf. coach, carriage, stage. 

Carta, sm. letter. 



Cartago, sm. prop. Carthage, a ce« 
lebrated city of Africa, which 
was destroyed by the Romans. 

Cartajines, sm. Carthaginian. 

Casa, sf. house, protection. 

Casado-a, a. married; sm. married 
man; sf. married woman, wife* 

Casamiento, sm. marriage, wedding, 
nuptials. 

Casiindo, or casandose con, F. Ca* 
sar, ger. marrying. 

Casar, or casarse con, inf. pres. va* 
to marry. 

Casco, sm. piece, cask, skull. 

Casi, ad. almost, very near. 

Casio, sub. prop. m. Cassius, a hero 
of antiquity. 

Caso, sm. case, event, fact; chance, 
circumstance. 

Caso, F. Casar, ind. pres. 3s. he 
married. 

Castiga, F. Castigar, ind. pres. 3s. 
it, he or she punishes. 

Castigar, inf. pres. va. to punish, to 
chastise. 

Castigase, F. Castigar, subj. 3 impf. 
1 or 3s. should punish. 

Castigasen. F. Castigar, subj. 3 
impf. Bp. they should punish. 

Cast! go, sm. punishment, chastise- 
ment. 

Castilla, sub. prop.f Castile, a pro- 
vince of Spain. 

Castillo, sm. castle, fortress, a forti- 
fied town. 

Casualidad, sf casualty, chance, 
unforeseen event. 

Catolico-a, a. universal, catholic ; 
s. a Catholic. 

Catorce, a. num. fourteen. 

Caudal, sm. treasure, property. 

Caudaloso-a, a. migllty, powerful 
(applied to rivers.) 

Caudillo, sm. ringleader, command- 
er, officer. 

Causa, sf. cause, reason, motive. 
168 



c£l 



CER 



Causante, sm. cause (he who, on C elan, F. Celar, ind. pres. Sp. they 

watch, or guard. 

Celar, inf. vn. and va. to watch, to 
preserve. 

Celebrado-a, a. celebrated, renown- 
ed. 

Celebro, sm. brain, sense, genius. 

Celeste, a. blue, azure, sky-colour 

Celestial, a. celestial, heavenly. 

Celo, sm. zeal, spl. celos, jealousy, 

Cenado, F. Cenar, part, supped. 

Cenando, F. Cenar, ger. supping. 

Cenar, inf. vn. and va. to sup, to 
sup on, to eat at supper, 

Centro, sm. centre. 

Ceniza, sf ashes, dust. 

Cenido-a, a. and part, circum- 
scribed, surrounded, limited, gir- 
dled, 

Cenidor, sm. belt, girdle. 

Cenit, sm. zenith, the highest de 
gree. 

Cenizas, sf. pi. ashes, 

Ceno, F, Cenar, ind. pres. Is. I eat 
at supper. 

Centincla, sf. sentinel, observer, 

Centro, sm. centre, middle, heart. 

Cenir, inf. va. to girdle, to sur- 
round, to environ, to contract. 

Ceno, sm. frown, supercilious as- 
pect. 

Cerca, ad. near, at hand; cerca de, 
near, nearly. 

Cerca, prep, concerning, with re- 
gard. 
Cercano, prep, near, approaching. 
Cerco, sm. circle, ring, circuit, 

siege. 
Cerda, sub. p. bristle. 
Ceremonia, sf ceremony, rite, 
Cerrado, a. shut, concealed. 
Cerrado, F. Ccrrar, part shut, con- 
cealed. 
Cerrojo, sm. bolt. 
Cervato, sm. a little or young deer. 



that which causes.) 
Causar, inf. pres. va. to cause, to 

occasion, to produce. 
Causo, F. Causar, ind. pres. Is. I 

cause. 
Causo, F. Causar, ind. pret. 3s. 

caused. 
Cautamente, ad. cautiously, 
Cautivo, sm. captive, slave. 
-Cautiverio, sm. captivity, bondage 
Caverna, sf. cavern, grotto. 
Cayado, sm. shepherd's hook, cro- 
sier. 
Cayendo, F. Caer, ger. falling, or 

tumbling. 
Cayeron, F. Caer, ind. pret Sp. 

they fell, they were caught. 
Cayese, F. Caer, subj. 2 imp. 1 or 

3s. should fall. 
Cayo, F. Caer, ind. pret. 3s. fell, 
Caza, sf. chase, hunting. 
Cecilio, sm. prop. Cecil, a man's 

christian name. 
Cebolla, sf. onion. 
Cedido, F. Ceder, part granted, 

ceded. 
Cedula, sf. ballot, ticket, card. 
Cedulilla, sf ticket, card, slip of 

paper ; dim. of cedula. 
Cefiro, sm. zephyr (soft winds.) 
Ceguera, or ceguedad, sf blindness, 

hallucination. 
Cegar, inf. va. to blind, to dazzle, 

to obscure, to hallucinate. 
Cegar, inf. vn. to become or grow 

blind. 
Ceilan, sub. prop.f Ceylon, a large 

island in the Indian sea. 
Cejas, sf. p. eyebrows. 
Cejijiinto, F. Ceja and Junto, sm. a 
person having the eye -brows 
united. 
Cela, F. Celar, ind. pres. watches, 
fulfils, conceals. 



15 



169 



CHI 



CIV 



Cervantes, (Miguel de) sub. prop, 
m. Cervantes, the greatest Span- 
ish novelist, and a very distin- 
guished dramatist. He is re- 
nowned over the world for his 
inimitable Don Quijote, or Don 
Quixote. Born in Alcali de He- 
nares, in 1547, died in 1616. 

Cerviz, sm. nape (the back part of 
the neck.) 

Cesar, sub. prop. m. Caesar, a title 
given to the first twelve Roman 
emperors. In this Spanish trans- 
lator, it generally means Julius 
Caesar, the greatest of all Roman 
generals. 

Cesar, inf. pres. vn. to cease, to ter- 
minate, to conclude. 

Ceso, F. Cesar, ind.pret. 3s. ceased, 
terminated. 

Cesped, sm. sod, or turf. 

Cetro, sm. sceptre, diadem. 

Chalupa, sf. cutter, sloop. 

Chance ando, F. Chancear, ger. jok- 
ing, jesting, beguiling. 

Chancear, inf. vn. to jest, to joke, 
to beguile. 

Chanza, sf. fun, joke, laughter. 

Charla, F. Charlar, ind. pres. 3s. 
talks or prattles. 

Charlar, inf. vn. to prattle, to talk, 
to babble. 

Charlas, F. Charlar, ind. pres. 2s. 
thou prattlest. 

Chaves, sxib. prop.f Chaves, a fe- 
male character in Gil Bias. 

Chico-a, a. small, little; s. child, 
little one, boy; sf girl. 

Chinchilla, sub. prop. m. Chinchilla, 
a fictitious character in Gil Bias. 

Chingala, sm. Cingalese, a native 
of Ceylon. 

Chiste, sm. witty saying, bon-mot, 
witticism, story. 

Chistoso, sub. a witty, jovial per- 
son. 



Chistoso-a, a. witty, graceful, jok- 
ing. 

Choza, sf. hut, cottage. 

Ciberia, sub. pi-op. f. Siberia, a 
country in Asia. 

Cicatriz, sf. cicatrix, scar. 

Ciceron, sub. prop. m. Cicero, the 
greatest of all Roman orators. 

Ciega, F. Cegar, ind. pres. 3s. daz- 
zles or blinds. 

Ciego-a, a. blind, hallucinated. 

Cielo, sm. heaven, celestial region. 

Cien, a. num. hundred. 

Ciencia, sf. science, art. 

Ciento, a. a hundred. 

Cierra, F. Cerrar, ind. pres. 3s. 
closes or shuts. 

Cierran, F. Cerrar, ind. pres. Sp. 
they enclose. 

Cierto-a, a. certain, being certain; 
por cierto, indeed. 

Cinco, a. num. five. 

Cincuenta, a. num. fifty. 

Cintura, sf. waist. 

Ciiien, F. Cenir, ind. pres. Sp. they 
surround, girdle. 

Cinera, F. Cenir, subj. impf. 1 or 
3s. would surround. 

Circular, inf. va. to circulate, to 
make known. 

Circunspecto-a, a. circumspect, 
prudent, cautious. 

Circunstancia, sf circumstance, oc- 
currence, event. 

Circunstante, sm. bystander, be- 
holder, spectator. 

Citado-a, part, appointed, quoted, 
cited, summoned. 

Citador, sm. citer, quoter. 

Citeria, sub. prop. Cythera, the 
Venus worshipped in the island 
of that name. 

Ciudadano, sm. citizen. 

Ciudad, sf. city, town. 

Civil, a. civil, intestine, polite. 

170 



COJ 



€OM 



Clamas, F. Clamor, ind. prel. 2s. 

thou callest, claimest. 
Clamor, sm. clamor, call, whisper. 
Clara, sub. prop./. Clara, a woman's 

name. 
Clarear, inf. vn. to dawn, to grow 

ught. 

Claridad, sf. clearness, light, per- 
spicuity. 
Claro-a, a. clear; frank. 
Clavel, sm. pink, (a plant, or a 

flower.) 
Clavellina, sf. pink, carnation (a 

flower. ) 
Clavo, sm. nail ; corn ; misery. 
Clemencia, sf. clemency, mercy. 
Clemente, sm. merciful, clement. 
Clima, sm. climate, clime, region. 
Cobarde, a. cowardly, timid. 
Cobijado-a, F. Cobijar, part, adjec. 

covered, sheltered. 
Cobran, F. Cobrar, ind. pres. Bp. 

they gain, acquire collect. 
Cobrar, inf. pres. va. to receive, to 

recover, to gain esteem. 
Cobraron, F. Cobrar, ind. pret. Sp. 

they received. 
Cobre, sm. copper, brass. 
Coche, sm. coach, barouche. 
Coehin, sub. prop. m. Cochin, a city 

in Hindostan, India. 
Codicia, sf. covetousness, cupidity, 

greediness. 
Codicia, F. Codiciar, ind. pres. 3s. 

covets. 
Codician, F. Codiciar, ind. pres. Sp. 

they covet. 
Codiciar, inf. va. to covet, to desire 

eagerly. 
Codieioso, ad. greedy, cautious, 

diligent. 
Coecho, sm. bribe, subornation. 
Cofre, sm. box, chest, coffer. 
Coje, F. Cojer, ind. pres. 3s. catches. 
Cojer, inf. va. to catch, to seize ; to 

occupy ; to gull. 



Cojida, sf asylum, protection, roof. 
Cojiendo, F. Cojer, ger. catching. 
Coleccion, sf. collection, assembly. 
Colector, sm. collector, tax-gatherer. 
Colejid, F. Colejir, imp. pres. 2p 

infer ye. 
Colejio, sm. college, seminary. 
Colejir, inf. pres. va. to infer, to 

deduce, to draw consequences 
Colera, sf anger, choler, bile. 
Colerico-a, a. choleric, passionate, 

easily provoked. 
Colgaba, F, Colgar, ind. impf. 3s. 

hung. 
Colgar, inf. va. to hang up, to sus- 
pend, to adorn ; to hang. 
Colin, sub. pr.p. m. Colin, the name 

of a fictitious character. 
Colina, sf. hill ; eminence. 
Collados, sm. p. hills. 
Colmillo, sm. grinder (back tooth,) 

tusk. 
Colmo, sf. Heap, summit 
Colocan, F. Colocar, ind. pres. Sp. 

they place. 
Colocar, inf. va. to place, to arrange, 

to order, to provide. 
Colon, sub. prop. m. Columbus, the 

immortal discoverer of America. 
Coloquio, sm. coloquy, conversation. 
Color, sm. colour, hue, pretext. 
Colorado-a, a. ruddy, scarlet colour, 

blushing. 
Columna, sm. column, support, 

prop. 
Comarca, sf. territory, district. 
Comarcano-a, a. neighbouring, near 

bordering upon. 
Combate, F. Combatir, ind. pres. 3s. 

fights ; s. a fight. 
Combatir, inf. va. and n. to fight; 

to attack, to combat. 
Comedia, sf. play, comedy. 
Comence, F. Comenzar, ind. pret. 

Is. I began. 
Comer, inf pres. va. to eat ; to dine 
171 



COM 



COM 



Comircio, sm. commerce, trade, 
intercourse. 

Comenzar, inf. va. or vn. to com- 
mence, to begin. 

Comenzaran, F. Comenzar, ind, fut 
Sp. they will begin. 

Comenzaron, F. Comenzar, ind. 
pret. Sj). they began. 

Comenzo, F. Comenzar, ind. pres. 
3s. began. 

Come ti do, F. Comeier, part* com- 
mitted, entrusted. 

Comida, sf. dinner, meal. 

Comido, F. Comer, part, dined, 
eaten. 

Comiendo, F. Comer, ger. eating. 

Comienza, F. Comenzar, ind. pres. 
3s. begins. 

Comisario, sm. eommissary, deputy. 

Comision, sf. commission^ trust, 
committee. 

Como, conj. as, how, , why; as it 
were, like, as well as. 

Comodidad, sf. commodity, advan- 
tage, comfort. 

Comorin, sm. prop. Comorin, a cape 
in Hindostan 

Companero-a, s. companion, part- 
ner, associate. 

Compania, sf, company, partner- 
ship. 

Compadecen, P, Compadecer, ind. 
pres. Bp. they pity. 

Compadecer, inf. pres. vr. to pity, 
to commiserate, to feel for. 

Comparacion, sf. comparison, rela 
tion. 

Comparado, F. Comparar> part. 
compared. 

Comparta, F. Compartir, subj. pres. 
1 or 3s. I may divide, share. 

Compartir. inf. pres. va» to arrange, 
to divide, to share. 



Compasa, (se) F. Compasar, ind*. 
pres. he adjures, accommodates^ 
adapts himself. 

Compasion, sf compassion, com- 
miseration, pity. 

Competente, a. competent, fit, fit 
for, adequate. 

Competir a, F. Competir, ind. fut.. 
3s. will rival, compete. 

Compitieron, F. Competir, ind. pret- 
Sp. they vied, rivalled,. 

Complice, F. Complacer, ind. pres* 
3s. he pleases. 

Complacencia, sf. complacency,, 
satisfaction, gratification. 

Completar, inf. pres. va. to com- 
plete, to consummate. 

Complice, sm. accomplice, asso- 
ciate, person concerned. 

Composicion, sf. composition, ad- 
justment. 

Comprado, F. Comprar, part- 
bought, betrayed. 

Compre, F. Comprar, ind. pret. 3s„ 
I bought. 

*Comprehenda, F. Comprehender? 
subj. pres. 1 or 3s. may compre- 
hend. 

*Comprehende, F. Comprehender* 
ind. pres. 3s. comprehends. 

*Comprehender, inf. va. to compre- 
hend, to understand. 

* Comprehension, sf comprehen- 
sion, understanding. 

Compuesto-a, a. composed, written*. 

Compuesto, F. Componer, part,. 
composed, written. 

Comun, sm. the people, the public ; 
a. common, vulgar. 

Comunica, F. Communicar, ind.. 
pres. 3s. communicates. 

Comunicacion, sf communication* 
intercourse. 



* These words are written also thus : comprenda x corner ende, comjrrender, come- 
prension«. 



CON 



CON 



Comunicar, inf va. to inform, to 
communicate. 

Con, prep, with, by, for ; con todo, 
yet, notwithstanding. 

C6ncavo-a, a. concave, hollow. 

Concebia, F. Concebir, ind. impf. 
1 or 3s, I conceived. 

Concebir, inf. vn. or Da, to con- 
ceive ; to think. 

Concede, F. Conceder, ind. pres. 8s. 
grants. 

Cone e den, F. Conceder \ ind. pres. 
Sp. they grant. 

Conceder, inf. va. to give, to grant 
to bestow, to allow. 

Concedido-a, F. Conceder, part. 
conceded, granted, bestowed. 

Concepto, sm. conception, thought, 
idea. 

Concertado, F-. Concertar, part, ad- 
justed, settled, turned. 

Concertando, F. Concertar', ger. 
agreeing. 

Concha, sm. shell, tortoise 

Concibe, F. Concebir, ind. pres. 3s. 
conceives. 

Conciencia, sf. conscience, know- 
ledge, 

Concierto, sm. concert, agreement, 
arrangement, harmony. 

Conciliando, F, Conciliar, ger. con- 
ciliating, composing. 

Conciliar, inf. pres. va. to reconcile 
(a person to his fate,) to conci- 
liate. 

Concito, pret. 3s. it, he or she ex- 
cited. 

Concluir, inf. va. to conclude* 

Concluiran, F, Concluir, ind. fut. 
Sp. they will conclude. 

Concordar, inf. pres, va. to agree, 
to concur, to accord, to harmo- 
nize. 

Concordia, sf. concord, tranquillity, 
peace, harmony. 

15* 



Concuerdan, F. Concordat, subj 
pres. Sp. they may agree. 

Concurrencia, sf frequentation, 
society, assembly, meeting, com- 
pany. 

Concurrieron, ind. pret. Sp. they 
attended, assisted. 

Concurrir, inf. pres. vn, to attend, 
to concur, to be possessed of, to 
meet 

Conciirso, sm. concourse, club, 
party, meeting, attendance. 

Concusion, sf. concussion, abuse of 
power, 

Conde (Jose Antonio,) sub. prop, 
Conde, the celebrated Spanish 
historian of The Domination of 
the Arabs in Spain, Unfortunate- 
ly for letters he died in 1820, be- 
fore the completion of his work^ 

Conde, sm. Count (a title of no- 
bility,) 

Condenacion, sf damnation, con* 
demnation. 

Condenado, sm. damned, con- 
demned. 

Condenado-a, F. Condenar, part, 
adjec. condemned, disapproved. 

Condenar, inf. pres. va. to condemn,, 
to be sentenced to, to damn. 

Condenaron, F. Condenar, ind. pret, 
Sp. they condemned. 

Condescend encia, sf condescend- 
ence, submission, yielding. 

Condescendia, F. Condescender, ind 
impf I or 3s. condescended. 

Condicion, sf. condition, situation, 
state ; temper, disposition. 

Condimento, sm. prudence, care, 
seasoning. 

Conducido-a, F. Conducir, part 
adjec. conducted, carried. 

Conducir, inf. va. to conduct, to 
superintend, to carry on. 

Conduzco, F. Conducir, ind. pres. 
Is. I carry on. 

173 



CON 



CON 



Conecsion, sf. connexion, relation, 

regard. 
Confesar, inf. va. to confess, to hear 

confession. 
Confese, F. Confesar, ind. prei. Is. 
I confessed. 

Confeso, F. Confesar, md. pret. 3s. 
confessed. 

Confesor, sm. confessor, owner. 

Confiado-a, part, and a. conceited ; 
relied ; confiding ; unsurprising. 

Confianza, sf confidence, boldness, 
assurance. 

Conflicto, sm. conflict, hazard, peri- 
lous situation. 

Conform aba, F. Conformar, ind. 
impf 3s. conformed to. 

Conforta, F. Confortar, ind. pres. 
3s. comforts, strengthens. 

Confortar, inf. va. to comfort, to 
strengthen, to console. 

Confundir, inf. va. to confound, to 
entangle, to perplex. 

Confuso-a, a. confused, confounded, 
perplexed. 

Congoja, sf. anguish, dismay, anx- 
iety of mind. 

Congojoso-a, a. afflictive, torment- 
ing, anxious. 

Conjurado-a, s. conspirator, accom- 
plice, traitor. 

Conjurado, F. Confiirar, part, con- 
jured, conspired, exorcised. 

Conjurando, F. Conjurar, ger. 
asking for, entreating. 

Conjuro, sm. conjurer, he that uses 
charms or incantations. 

Conrmgo, prep, and pron. with me. 
Grammar, R. XXVI. note 2, p. 
163. 

Conmiseracion, sf. commiseration, 
compassion, pity. 

Conmovtr, inf. va. to excite, to 
move, to disturb, to raise. 

Conmueve, (se) ind. pres, 3s. is 
moved, excited. 



Conoce, F. Conocer, ind. pres. 8s. 

knows. 
Conoce mos, F. Conocer, ind. pres, 

lp. know. 
Conocen, F. Conocer, ind. pres. Sp. 

they know. 
Conocer, inf. va. to know, to under- 
stand, to experience. 
Conocera, F. Conocer, md.fui. 3s. 
will know 

Conoces, F. Conocer, ind. pres. 2s. 
knowest. 

Conocia, F. Conocer, ind. impf I 
or 3s. knew. 

Conoeido-a, F. Conocer, part. 
known; s. an acquaintance. 

Conociendo, F. Conocer, ger. know- 
ing, being acquainted with. 

Conocieron, F. Conocer, ind. pret. 
3p. they knew. 

Conocimiento, sm. knowledge, 
learning, acquaintance, friend- 
ship. 

Conocio, F. Conocer, ind. pret. 3s. 
knew. 

Conozcais, F. Conocer, subj. pres, 
2p. you or ye may know. 

Conquista, sf. conquest, subjuga- 
tion. 

Conquistaban, F. Conquistar, ind, 
impf Sp. they conquered. 

Conquistador, sm. conqueror, victor. 

Consecuencia, sf. consequence, re- 
sult, inference. 

Conseguido, F. Conseguir, part 
obtained, accomplished, attained 

Conseguir, inf. va. to obtain, to 
succeed, to attain. 

Consejo, sm. advice, counsel, judg- 
ment, prudence. 

Consentimiento, sm. consent, con- 
nivance, permission. 

Conserva, F. Conservar, ind. pres, 
3s. preserves. 

Conservacion, sf. preservation. 

174 



CON 



CON 



Conservado, part, preserved., guard- 
ed, secured. 
Conservan, F. Conservar, ind. pres. 

Sp. preserve. 
Conservar, inf. va. to preserve, to 

guard ; to pickle. 
Considera, F. Consider -or, ind pres. 

3s. considers. 
Consideracion, sf. consideration, 

regard, contemplation. 
Considerando, F, Consider ar, ger. 

considering, thinking. 
Considerar, inf. va. to consider, to 

reflect, to think. 
Considerasen, F. Considerar, subj. 

imp. Sp. should consider. 
Consigan, F. Conseguir, subj. pres. 

Sp. they may obtain. 
Consigo, prep, and pron. with you, 

with himself, with themselves. 
Consiste, F. Consistir, ind. pres. 3s. 

consists. 
Consistfr, inf. vn. to consist, to be 

composed of, to be contained. 
Consolaba, F. Consolar, ind. impf 

1 or 3s. comforted. 
Consolaban, F. Consolar, ind. impf. 

Bp. they consoled. 
Consolacion, sf. solace, consolation, 

comfort. 
Consolad, F. Consolar, imp. pres. 

2p. comfort ye, or you. 
Consolado-a, a. consoled, solaced, 

comforted. 
Consolar, inf. va. to enable, to com- 
fort, to mitigate, to assuage. 
Consorte, sm. consort, partner, hus- 
band, or wife. 
Conspira, F. Conspirar, ind. pres. 

3s. he conspires. 
Conspiracion, sf conspiracy, plot, 

cabal. 
Conspirador, sm. conspirator. 
Conspirando, F. Conspirar ger. 

conspiring, plotting, soliciting. 



Conspirar, inf. vn. to conspire, to 

plot, to co-operate. 
Consta, ind. pret. 3s. appears from, 

is corroborated by. 
Constan, F. Constar, ind. pres. Sp, 

appear, are evident. 
Constancia, sf constancy, immuta- 
bility. 
Constante, sm. constant, firm, unal- 
terable person. 
Constante, a. constant, steady. 
Constar, inf. v. imp. to appear from, 

to be evident, corroborated. 
Construccion, sf. construction, 

sense. 
Consuelan, F. Consolar, ind. pres. 

Sp. they comfort. 
Consuelo, s>m. consolation, relier, 

comfort. 
Consulta, sf consultation, advice. 
Consume, F. Consumir, ind. pres. 

3s. consumes. 
Consumir, inf. va. to consume, to 

destroy, to waste, to fret. 
Contaban, F. Contar, ind. impf. Sp. 

they intended, or relied on. 
Contajio, sm. contagion, corruption. 
Contando, F. Contar, ger. trusting, 

or relying. 
Contar, inf. pres. va. to relate; to 

number ; to intend, to rely. 
Contempla, F. Contemplar, ind. 

pres. 3s. contemplates. 
Contemplaba, F. Contemplar, ind. 

impf. 1 or 3s. contemplated. 
Contemplar, inf. va. to contemplate. 
Contemplativo, a. sentimental, 

thoughtful. 
Contemplo, F. Contemplar, ind. 

pres. Is. I contemplate. 
Contender, inf. vn. to contend, to 

quarrel, to litigate, to discuss. 
Contendrian, F. Contender, subj. 

impf Sp. they would contend. 
Contener, inf. vn. to contain, to 

hold; to check one's self. 

175 



CON 



CON 



Contenido-a, adj. temperate. 

Contentamiento, sm. content, satis- 
faction. 

Contentar, inf. va. to satisfy, to 
gratify, to please. 

Contentisimo-a, a. super, most satis- 
fied, most content, most happy. 

Contento, sm. contentment, joy, 

Cont?nto-a, a. satisfied, content, 
cheerful. 

Contento, F. Contentar, ind. pres. 
Is. I satisfy. 

Contestar, inf. va. to reply, to an- 
swer, to confirm, to prove. 

Contesto, F. Contestar, ind. pres. 
Is. I reply. 

Contesto, F. Contestar, ind. pret. 
3s. replied. 

Contienen, F. Contener, ind. pres. 
8p. they contain. 

Contigo, prep, and pron, with thee, 
with thyself. 

Contiguo-a, a. contiguous, adjoin- 
ing. 

Continente, STTujcountenance, absti- 
nent person, the main. 

Continjente, sm. contingent, share; 
a. uncertain, fortuitous. 

Continuado, F. Continuar, part. 
continued, remained, protracted. 

Continuamente, ad. continually, al- 
ways, without intermission. 

Continual*, inf. vn. to continue, to 
last, to endure, 

Continuar, inf. va. to continue, to 
prosecute. 

Continuo, F. Continuar, ind. pres. 
Is. I continue. 

Continuo-a, a. continual, continu- 
ous. 

Conto, F. Contar, ind. pret. 3s. 
reckoned, counted. 

Contorno, sm. environ, outline. 

Contra, prep, against, contrary to. 

Contradecir, inf. vn. to contradict, 
to oppose, to repugn. 



Contradiction, sf. contradiction, re- 
sistance, opposition. 

Contradice, F. Contradecir, ind, 
pres. 3s. contradicts. 

Contrajese, F. Contraer, suhj. impf 
1 or 3s. he should contract. 

Contrapeso, sm. check, counter- 
balance. 

Contrapuesto, F. Contraponer, parU 
adjec. opposed; opposite. 

Contrario-a, s. opponent, enemy ; a. 
contrary, opposed. 

Contraticmpo, sm. misfortune, ca- 
lamity, disappointment. 

Contribuia, F. Contribuir, ind. impf 
1 or 3s. contributed. 

Contribuir, inf.va. to contribute, to 
pay one's share, to bear a part. 

Contristado-a, part, adjec. afflicted, 
melancholy, saddened. 

Conturba, (se) ind. pres. 3s. is agi- 
tated, awed. 

Conturbar, inf va, to disturb, to 
agitate, to disquiet. 

Convalecido-a, part, adjec. reco- 
vered, restored to health. 

Conveniente, a. convenient, useful, 
suitable, commodious. 

Convenir, inf. vn. to be convenient, 
fit, proper, or suitable. 

Convenir, inf pres. vn. to agree in 
opinion, to concur, to assemble. 

Conversacion, sf. conversacion, in- 
tercourse, familiarity, club. 

Conversar, inf. vn. to converse, talk. 

Convertido-a, a. converted, chang- 
ed, applied ; s. a convert. 

Convertir, inf. pres. va. to convert. 

Convida, F. Convidar, ind. pret. 3s. 
invites. 

Convidado-a, part, adjec. invited, 
allured ; s. guest. 

Convidando, F. Convidar, ger. in- 
viting, alluring. 

Convidar, inf. va. to invite, to al- 
lure, to excite desire. 

176 



C6R 



C6R 



Conviene, F. Convenir, ind. pres 

3s. is convenient, suitable. 
Convierte, F. Convertir, ind. 3s. 
converts. 

Convite, sm. invitation, feast. 

Convocando, F. Convocar, ger. con 
voking, assembling. 

Copa, sf. cup, goblet, wine-glass. 

Copia, sub. collec. f abundance, a 
great number. 

Copla, sf. stanza, particularly those 
which contain four lines only. 

Coraje, sm. valour, courage, forti- 
tude; anger, wrath. 

Corazon, sm. heart, spirit, will, soul 

C6rbo-a, a. crooked, arched, bent ; 
s. a hunch-backed. 

Corderuela, sf. small rope, dim. of 
Cuerda. 

Corderuelo-a, sub. lambkin* dim. of 
Cordero. 

Cordoban, sm. morocco, leather. 

Cordoves, sm. Cordovian, a native 
of Cordova, a city in Spain. 

Corinto, sub. prop. m. Corinth, an 
ancient city in Greece. 

Corinto-a, a. Corinthian, an order 
of architecture. 

Cornelio, sub. prop. m. Cornelius, a 
man's name. 

Coro, sm. choir, chorus. 

Corona, sf. crown ; end, summit. 

Coronaba, F. Coronar, ind. impf. 1 
or 3s. crowned. 

Coronaban, F. Coronar, ind. impf. 
3p. they crowned. 

Coronando, F. Coronar, ger* crown- 
ing. 

Corpas, (Cecilio de) sub. prop. m. 
Corpas, a translator of the very 
few pieces, that are not origi- 
nally Spanish, inserted in this 
work. His version from the 
French has so much the cast of 
originality, that we have placed 
his name under the few of his 



translated small stories we have 

selected. 
Corre, F. Correr, ind. pres. 3s. runs, 

or rolls. 
Correjir, inf. va. to correct, to a- 

mend, to get over one's follies. 
Correr, inf. va. to run, to pass, to be 

current, to ravage. 
Corres, F. Correr, ind. pres. 2s. thou 

runnest, or passest away. 
Corresponde, F. Corresponder, kid. 

pres. 3s. corresponds, belongs, 

appertains to. 
Correspondiente, sm. correspondent, 
Correspondiente, a. conformable, 

agreeable to. 
Corria, F. Correr, ind. impf 3s. ran. 
Corrido, a. abashed, ashamed; run, 

terminated. 
Corriendo, F. Correr, ger. running, 
Comente, a. current, running; in- 
stant. 
Corrija, F. Correjir, subj. pres. 3s. I 

may correct. 
Corrija, F. Correjir, imp. pres. 3s. 

let it, him, or her correct. 
Corrije, F. Correjir, ind. pres. 3s. 

corrects. 
Corrijen, F. Correjir, ind. pres. 3p. 

they correct. 
Corrijio, F. Correjir, ind. pret. 3s. 

corrected. 
Com Ho, sin. company, clan, club, 

party, assembly, circle. 
Corrio, F. Correr, ind. pret. 3s. ran. 
orrompen, F. Corromper, ind. pres. 

3p. they corrupt. 
Corromper, inf. va. to corrupt, to 

sully, to bribe. 
Corrompido-a, pari, adjec. corrupt- 
ed, seduced, bribed, suborned. 
Cortar, inf. va. to cut, to stop, to 

cut short. 
Corte, sf. court, capital ; ed^e. 
Cortea, F. Cortar, imp. pres. 3p. 

let them cut 

177 



CRE 



CRI 



Corten, F. Cortar, subj. pres. 3p. 
they may cut. 

Cortes, sub. prop. m. Cortes, the 
first conqueror of New Spain. 

Cortes, a. civil, courteous, polite. 

Cortes, sub. p.f. Cortes or Congress 
( the National Assembly of Spain. ) 

Cortes ano, sm. courtier. 

Cortesano-a, a. courtly, courteous, 
gentle, polite. 

Cortes i a, sub. prop. f. courtesy, 
bow, compliment, gift. 

Cortesisimo-a, a. superl. most cour- 
teous, most polite, most gentle. 

Corteza, sf. rind, peal, cover, bark. 

Cortinilla, sf. a small curtain, dim. 
of Cortina. 

Corto, F. Cortar, ind. pret. 3s. cut. 

C6rto-a, a. short, small, imperfect, 
bashful. 

C6rto-a, s. a bashful or timid per- 
son. 

Cosa. sf. thing, little consequence. 

Cosa de,p7'ep. about. 

Cosecha, sf. crops, harvest, collec- 
tion. 

Costa, sf. cost, coast. 

Costar, inf. pres. vn. to cost, to 
suffer loss, to be had at a price. 

Costaria, F. Costar, subj. impf. 3s. 
it would cost. 

Costo, F. Costar, md. pret. 3s. cost. 

Costuinbre, sm. custom, manners, 
habit. 

Cotejo, sm. comparison, parallel. 

Covarde, a. coward, cowardly, pu- 
sillanimous. This word should 
always be spelled cobarde. 

Coyunda, sf. yoke, rope, matrimo- 
nial union, tie. 

Crece, F. Crecer, ind. pres. 3s. 
grows. 

Crecen, F. Crecer, ind. pres. Bp. 
they grow. 

Crecer. inf. vn. to grow, to increase, 
to swell. 



Crecia, F. Crecer, ind. impf. 3s. 

grew. 
Crecian, F. Crecer, ind. impf. Sp. 

they grew. 
Crecido-a, adj. and part, grown, 

increased ; large. 
Creciendo, F. Crecer, ger. growing, 

getting up. 
Crecieron, F. Crecer, ind. pret. 3p. 

they grew. 
Crecio, F. Creer, ind. pret. 3s. 

grew. 
Credito, sm. credit, reputation, be- 
lief, note, esteem. 
Credulo, sm. a credulous person, 

simpleton. 
Credulo, a. credulous. 
Creemos, F. Creer, ind. pres. Ip. 

believe. 
Creen, F. Creer, ind. pres. 3p. 

they believe. 
Creencia, sf. belief, faith. 
Creer, inf. va. to believe, to credit, 

to think, to be persuaded. 
Crei, F. Creer, ind. pret. Is. I 

thought. 
Creia, F. Creer, ind. impf. 3s. he 

believed. 
Crei an, F. Creer, ind. pres. 3p. they 

believed. 
Creo, F. Creer, ind. pres. Is. I be- 
lieve, I think. 
Crepusculo, sf. twilight, crepuscule. 
Creyendo, F. Creer, ger. believing. 
Creyo, F. Creer, ind. pret. 1 or 3s. 

thought, believed. 
Criador, sm. creator; he that rears, 

or trains. 
Criaba, F. Criar, ind. impf. 3s. 

created. 
Criado-a, s. servant, domestic ; pari 

created. 
Crianza, sf. breeding, education, 

manners. 
Criar, inf. pres. va. to create, to 

produce, to nurse, to bring up. 
178 



CUA 



CUL 



Criaste, F. Criar, ind.pret. 2s. thou 
hast created. 

Criasteis, F. Criar, ind. pret. 2p. 
you have created. 

Criatura, sf creature. 

Crie, F. Criar, subj. pres. 1 or 3s. 
create. 

Crie, F. Criar, ind. pret. Is. I 
created, or brought up. 

Crimen, sm. crime, offence. 

Criminal, s. and a. criminal, culprit. 

Crio, F. Criar, ind. pres. Is. I 
create. 

Crio, F. Criar, ind. pret. 3s. brought 
up, created. 

Cristal, sm. crystal, fine glass. 

Cristalino-a, a. crystalline, limpid, 
transparent. 

Cristiano-a, a. christian ; s. a chris- 
tian. 

Cristo, sub. prop. m. Christ. 

Cristobal, sub. prop. m. Christopher, 
a man's name. 

Critilo, sub. prop. m. Critilius, a 
fictitious character in Gracian. 

Crudo-a, a. raw, uncooked, horrid. 

Cruel, a. cruel, barbarous, tyranni- 
cal. 

Crueldad, sf. cruelty, barbarous 
treatment, inhuman action. 

Cruz, sf. cross. 

Cuadra, sf. parlour, drawing-room ; 
courtyard. 

Cuaja, F. Cuajar, md. pres. 3s. 
coagulates, or freezes. 

Cuajar, inf. vn. to freeze ; to pro- 
duce the desired effect. 

Cual, (el, la, los or las) pron. rel. n. 
or o. that, which, who; conj. 
how. 

Cual, ad. like, as, in the manner 
that ; this one, that one. 

Cualesquiera, indef. pron. p. who- 
ever, they who, any, whatever. 

Cualquiera, pron. indef. whatever, 
whoever, he who. 



Cuan, ad. how, how much 
Cuando, ad. when, in case. 
Cuanto-a, a. as much as, as 

many as, all ; that which ; 

ad. how much ; the more. 
Cuanto, s. all that, every thing, 

every person that; en cuanto a. 

as for, in regard to. 
Cuarenta, a. num. forty. 
Cuartel, sm. barrack. 
Cuarto, sm. quarto, a copper coin, 

170 to a dollar, a rooni. 
Cuarto, a. num. fourth ; cuartos, s 

pi. money. 
Cuatro, a. num. four. 
Cubierta, sf. cover, pretence, deck 

of a vessel. 
Cubra, F. Cubrir, imp. pres. 3s. 

let him cover. 
Cubra, F. Cubrir, subj. pres. 3s. he 

may cover. 
Cubre, F. Cubrir, ind. pres. 3s. 

covers. 
Cubre, F. Cubrir, imp. pres. 2s. 

cover thou. 
Cubren, F. Cubrir, ind. pres. Sp. 

they cover. 
Cubrian, F. Cubrir, ind. impf. Sp. 

they covered. 
Cubrir, inf. va. to cover, to dissem- 
ble, to cloak, to mask. 
Cuchillo, sm. knife, dagger. 
Cuello, sm. neck, collar. 
Cuenta, sf. account, bill, narration. 
Cuenta, F. Contar, ind. pres. 3s. 

counts, relates, or relies on. 
Cuero, sm. hide, skin, leather. 
Cuerpo, sm. body, frame ; volume. 
Cuesto, F. Costar, ind. pret. Is. 

cost. 
Cueva, sf. cave, cavern, cavity, 

grotto. 
Cuidado, sm. care, anxiety, atten- 
tion. 
Cuidaremos, F. Cuidar, ind. fat. ~\p. 

we shall or will take care. 

179 



DE 



DEB 



Culpa, sf. blame, fault, offence. 

Culpable, sm. culpable, blameable 

Cultivado-a, F. Cidtivar, a. culti- 
vated, cultured. 

Cultivo, sm. cultivation ; practice. 

Culto, sm. religion, worship ; a 
wise, learned. 

Cuinbre, sf. summit, pinnacle 
crown. 

Cumpla, F. Cumplir, subj.pres. Bs 
may fulfil, accomplish. 

Cumplido-a, a. part, polished, civil, 
gifted, fulfilled. 

Cuna, sf. cradle, birth-place. 

Ciino, sm. mint. 



Cupido, sub. prop. m. Cupid, a fab- 
ulous deity. 

Cura, sf. a cure, healing. 

Cura, sm. curate, vicar. 

Curado-a, a. cured, healed. 

Curiosidad, sf. curiosity, rarity. 

Curioso-a, s. and a. a curious, 
strange. 

Curso, sm. course, way, direction. 

Curtir, inf. va. to imbrown, or burn 
by the sun, to tan leather. 

Cuyo-a, pron. rel. n. or o. whose, 
of which, of whom. 

Czar, sub. prop. m. Czar, the Em- 
peror of Russia. 



D 



Da, F. Bar, ind. pres. Bs. gives. 
Daba, F. Bar. ind. impf. 1 or 3s. 

gave, did give. 
Daban, F. Bar, ind. impf. Sp. they 

gave. 
Dadiva, sf. gift, grant, boon. 
Dado, F. Bar, part, given, granted; 

conj. dado que, provided. 
Dama, sf. lady, dame. 
Dan, F. Bar, ind. pres. Bp. they 

give. 
Dando, F. Bar, ger. giving. 
Dan an, F. Banar, ind. pres. Bp. 

they injure, hurt. 
Danar, inf. pres. va. to injure, to 

spoil, to hurt, to damage. 
Dano, sm. mischief, evil, injury. 
Daiioso-a, adj. hurtful, injurious. 
Dar, inf. pres. va. to give, to strike, 

to confer, to bestow. 
Dara, F. Bar, ind. fat. 3s. will give. 
Dare, F. Bar, ind. fut. Is. I shall 

or will give. 
Daria, F. Bar, suj. impf. 1 or 3s. 

would, should give. 
Das, F. Bar, ind. pres. 2s. thou 

givest. 



De, prep, of, in, from, at, with, to, 

off, by. 
De, F. Bar, subj.pres. 1 or 3s. may 

give. 
Debajo, prep, under, below. 
Deban, F. Beber, subj. pres. 3p. 

they must, should, or may owe. 
Debas, F. Beber, subj.pres. 2s. thou 

shouldst, or mayst owe. 
Debe, F. Beber, ind. pres. 3s. must, 

should; owe. 
Debemos, F. Beber, ind. pres. Bp. 

we ought, we must, we owe. 
Deben, F. Beber, ind. pres. Bp. 

must, ought, owe. 
Deber, sm. duty, obligation. 
Deber, inf. pres. v. aux. must, 

should; va. to owe, to be in- 
debted. 
Debes, F. Beber, ind. pres. 2s. thou 

oughtest, or owest. 
Debia, ind. impf. 1 or 3s. was to, 

should, ought to. 
Debido-a, a. due, owed ; dutiful. 
Debil, a. weak, feeble. 
DebiMad, sf. debility, languor, 

pusillanimity. 

180 



BED 



DEJ 



Debilitado-a, a. debilitated, weak 
ened, enfeebled, extenuated. 

Debilitar, inf. va. to debilitate, to 
weaken, to enfeeble. 

Debio, F. Deber, ind.pret. 3s. owed ; 
ought to. 

Debo, F. Deber, ind. pres. Is. I 
must, ought, owe. 

Decaido, F. Decaer, pari, decayed, 
fallen, low-spirited. 

Decencia, sf. decency, honesty, 
modesty. 

Decente, a. decent, modest, honest. 

Decia, F. Decir, ind. impf. 1 or 3s. 
said, was saying. 

Dec! an, F. Dear. ind. impf. Bp. 
they said. 

Decid, F. Decir, imp. pres. 2p. say 
ye or you. 

Decidio, (se) ind.pret. 3s. decided, 
it was determined. 

Decidir, inf. va. to decide, to deter- 
mine, to resolve. 

Decimo-a, a. num. tenth. 

Decimocuarto-a, a. num. fourteenth. 

Decir, inf. va. to say, to assure, to 
correspond. 

Decision, sf. decision, resolution, 
disposition. 

Declama, F. Declamar, ind. pres. 
3s. declaims. 

Declarado-a, pari, adjec. declared, 
known, determined. 

Declarar, inf. va. to declare, to con- 
fess, to depose. 

Declaro, F. Declarar, ind. pret. 3s. 
declared. 

Declinando, F. Declinar, ger. de- 
clining, sinking, shunning. 

Decoraban, F. Decor or, ind. impf. 
Sp. they decorated. 

Decoroso-a, adj. decorous, beco- 
ming. 

Dedicar, inf. va. to dedicate, to 
consecrate, to inscribe. 

16 



Dedicado-a, part, and a. engaged, 
occupied in ; given up to. 

Dedo, sm. finger. 

Defender, inf. va. to defend, to pro- 
tect, to assert, to resist. 

Defendieron, F. Defender, ind. pret. 
Sp. they defended. 

Defendiesen, F. Defender, subj. 
impf. Sp. they should defend. 

Defecto, sm. defect, error, mistake. 

Defensa, sf defence, shelter. 

Defensor, sm. defender, protector; 
lawyer. 

Defiendan, F. Defender, subj. pres. 
Sp. may defend. 

Defiende, F. Defender, ind. pres. 3s. 
defends. 

Definitivo-a, a. definitive, positive. 

Degrada, F. Degradar, ind. pres. 3s. 
degrades. 

Deidad, sf. deity, God. 

Deis, F. Dar, subj. pres. 2p. you 
may deliver. 

Deja, F. Dejar, imp. pres. 2s. re- 
linquish, or permit thou. 

Deja, F. Dejar, ind. pres. 3s. re- 
linquishes. 

Dejaba. F. Dejar, ind. impf. 1 or 3s. 
I left. 

Dejad, F. Dejar, imp. pres. Sp. per- 
mit, or relinquish ye. 

Dejado, F. Dejar, part, left; per- 
mitted ; s. neglectful person. 

Dejan, F. Dejar, ind. pres. Sp. they 
relinquish, or permit. 

Dejando, F. Dejar, ger. leaving, 
permitting. 

Dejar, inf. va. to leave, to relin- 
quish, to let, to permit, to be- 
queath ; dejar de, to fail to. 

Deje, F. Dejar, ind. pret. Is. I left, 
or relinquished. 

Deje, Dejar, imp. pres. 3s. let him 
leave, or leave you. 

Dejemos, F. Dejar, imp. pres. lp. 
we may permit. 

181 



DEM 



DER 



Dejeneran, F. Dejenerar, ind. pres. 
3p. they degenerate. 

Dejenerando, F, Dejenerar, ger. 
degenerating, becoming. 

Dejenerar, inf. vn. to become, to 
degenerate into, to grow base. 

Dejenerarian, subj. impf. Bp. would 
degenerate into. 

Dejenere, subj. fut. 1 or 3s. she 
may, or should degenerate. 

Dejo, F. Dejar, ind. pres. 3s. I leave 
off. 

Dejo, ind. pret. 3s. he left or let; 
dejo caer, he dropped. 

Del, prep, and art. of, in, from the ; 
of, in, from him. 

Delante, ad. before, the forepart, 

Delatar, inf. va. to accuse, to im- 
peach, to denounce, to inform. 

Deleitar, inf. va. to please, to de- 
light, to give pleasure. 

Deleite, sm. delight, pleasure. 

Deleitoso-a, a. agreeable, pleasing, 
delightful. 

Delfos, sub. prop. m. Delphi, a pagan 
temple, erected by Delphus, and 
dedicated to Apollo, his father. 

Delicadeza, sf delicacy, tenderness, 
effeminacy, perspicacity. 

Delicado-a, a. delicate, pleasing, 
elfeminate, nice, slender. 

Delicia, sf. delight, comfort, satis- 
faction. 

Delicioso-a, a. delightful, delicious, 
pleasing. 

Delincuente, sm. delinquent, culprit, 
prisoner, delinquency. 

Delineado, part, delineated, pour- 
trayed, sketched, described. 

Delio, sub. prop. m. Delius. 

Delirio, sm. delirium, rant, idle talk. 

Delito, sm. crime, transgression, 
offence. 

Demas, (los, or las demas) pron. 
indef the rest, the other, it. 



Demas, prep, independently, be- 
sides. 
Demostracion, sf. demonstration, 
proof, manifestation. 

Denominacion, sf denomination, 
distinct appellation. 

Denominaron, (se) pret. ind. Sp. 
derived their name, were denomi- 
nated. 

Denso, a. thick, dense. 

Dentro, or dentro de, prep, in, with- 
in, inside of; far into. 

Deplorable, a. deplorable, lamenta- 
ble, calamitous, bewailing. 

Depone, F. Deponer, ind. pres. 3s 
deposes, leaves. 

Deponer, inf. va. to depose, to de- 
clare, to affirm, to displace. 

Depositamos, F. Depositor, ind. 
pret. Ip. we deposited. 

Depositor, inf. va. to deposite, to 
confide, to intrust, to confer. 

Depositario, sm. depositary, reposi- 
tory. 

Derecho, a. straight, just, lawful; 
s. law, right. 

Deriva, F. Derivar, ind. pres. 3s. 
derives. 

Derivar, inf. va. to derive, to de- 
duce, to infer. 

Derramado-a, F. Derramar, part, 
abs. shed, diffused, spread. 

Derramando, F. Derramar, ger. 
spilling, shedding. 

Derramar, inf. va. to shed, to spread, 
to pour forth. 

Derramara, F. Derramar, subj. impf 
1 or 3s. would shed. 

Derramara, F. Derramar, ind. fat. 
3s. will pour forth. 

Derrame, F. Derramar, subj. pres. 
3s. may shed. 

Derramo, F. Derramar, ind. pret. 
3s. shed. 

Derredor, sm. circuit, circumfe 
rence ; adv. arround. 

182 



DES 



DES 



Derribado-a, F. Derribar, part, abs. 
overthrown, crushed. 

Derribaron, F. Derribar, ind. pret. 
3p. they demolished. 

Desabrido-a, a. insipid, rugged, 
cragged, sour, hard. 

Desagradaba, F. Desagradar, ind. 
impf. 3s. did displease. 

Desagradaban, F. Desagradar, ind. 
impf. Sp. they displeased. 

Desagradar, inf. va. to displease, to 
cause discontent. 

Desagradecido-a, a. unthanked, un- 
grateful, not thanked for. 

Desaire, sm. a slight, disdain, 
scorn. 

Desalentado-a, a. discouraged, dis- 
mayed, put out of breath. 

Desembarazadamente, ad. freely, 
without embarassment. 

Desanimar, (se) vr. to be disheart- 
ened, to be discouraged. 

Desapacible, a. disagreeable, un- 
pleasant, sharp. 

Desaparecen, F. Desaparecer, ind. 
pres. Sp. they disappear. 

Desaparecer a, F. Desaparecer, ind. 
fut. 3s. will disappear. 

Desapoderado-a, a. dispossessed ; 
furious, huge, ungovernable. 

Desarmado-a, a. disarmed, disband- 
ed^ dismounted, pacified. 

Desarmado, F. Desarmar, part, dis- 
armed. 

Desarreglado-a, a. immoderate, in- 
temperate, unrestrained. 

Desarreglado, part, disordered, dis- 
composed, confounded. 

Desatinado-a, a. extravagant, ex- 
cessive, impetuous ; s. crazy. 

Desatan, F. Desatar, ind. pres. Sp. 
they dissolve, untie. 

Desatar, inf. va. to loosen, to untie, 
to dissolve, to separate. 

Desautorizado, part, unauthorized ; 
not respected. 



Descaecer, inf. vn. to decline, to 

decay, to droop, to fade. 
Descaeciesen, F. Descaecer, subj. 

impf Sp. they should decline. 
Descalzando, F. Descalzar, ger. 

pulling off (the shoes or boots.) 
Descaminado-a, part, adjec. stray, 

lost, entangled, misguided. 
Descansa, F. Descansar, imp. pres. 

2s. repose thou. 
Descansa, F. Descansar, ind. pres 

3s. reposes. 
Descansaba, F. Descansar, ind 

impf 3s. reposed. 
Descansar, inf. vn. to repose, to 

rest, to lean upon, to sleep. 
Descanso, sm. repose, relaxation, 

rest, tranquillity. 
Descaradamente, adv. impudently, 

shamelessly. 
Descarado-a, adj. shameless, impu- 
dent, barefaced. 
Descarga, F. Descargar, ind. pres, 

3s. discharges. 
Descargar, inf. va. to discharge, to 

unload, to land. 
Descender, inf. vn. to descend, to 

proceed, to let down. 
Desciende, F. Descender, ind. pres. 

3s. descends. 
Desciendo, F. Descender, ind. pres. 

3s. descends, go down. 
Descifrar, inf. va. to decipher, to 

unravel, to make out. 
Descomunal, a. huge, ponderous, 

uncommon. 
Desconcertado-a, part, being con- 
fused, perplexed. 
Desconcierto, sm. confusion, disa- 
greement. 
Desconocido-a, a. unknow T n, foreign, 

disavowed. 
Desconocer, inf. va. to disown, to 

be unacquainted. 
Desconoces, F. Desconocer, ind. 

pres. 2s. thou dost not know. 
183 



DES 



DLS 



Desconfiado-a, F. Desconflar, adj. 
despairing of. 

Descontento, sm. discontent, dissa- 
tisfaction, displeasure. 

Descripcion, sf description, de- 
lineation. 

Descubierto-a, part, adjec. uncover- 
ed, unprotected, open, forlorn. 

Descubierto, F. Descubrir, part. 
discovered, found out, detected. 

Descubre, F. Descubrir, ind. pres. 
3s. discovers. 

Descubria, F. Descubrir, ind. impf. 
1 or 3s. discovered. 

Descubriendo, F. Descubrir, ger. 
discovering, finding out. 

Descubrieron, F. Descubrir, ind. 
pret. Sp. they disclosed. 

Descubriese, F. Descubrir, subj. 
impf. 1 or 3s. should discover. 

Descubrio, F. Descubrir, ind. pret. 
3s. discovered. 

Descubrir, inf. pres. va. to discover, 
to find out, to disclose. 

Descuidado-a, a. neglectful, care- 
less ; s. a careless person. 

Descuidado, F. Descuidar, part. 
neglected, omitted. 

Desdenar, inf. va. to disdain, to 
scorn. 

Desdenes, F. Desdenar, subj. pres. 
2s. you may disdain. 

Desde, prep. from. 

Desden, sm. disdain, disregard, con- 
temn. 

Desdicha, sf. misfortune, unhappi- 
ness. 

Desdichado-a, s. an unfortunate, 
miserable, or pitiful person. 

Desdichado, a. unfortunate, unsuc- 
cessful, unhappy, miserable. 

Desdoro, sm. dishonour, treason, 
blemish. 

Desea, F. Desear, ind. pres. 3s. 
desires. 



Deseaba, F. Desear, ind. impf. 1 oi 

3s. desired. 
Deseais, F. Desear, subj. pres. 2p. 

ye or you may desire. 
Deseado-a, a. desired, wished, 

longed for. 
Desean, F. Desear, ind. pres. 3p. 

they desire. 
Deseas, F. Desear, ind. pres. 2s. 

thou desirest, dost desire. 
Desear, inf. va. to wish, to desire, 

to long for, to demand. 
Desechar, inf. pres. va. to throw off, 

lay aside, expel. 
Deseen, F. Desear, subj. pres. Sp. 

they may desire. 
Desees, F. Desear, subj. pres. 3s. 

you may desire. 
Desembarcando, F. Desembarcai , 

ger. debarking. 
Desembarcar, inf. va. to unload, to 

disembark, to land. 
Desempeiiar, inf. pres. va. to fulfil, 

to accomplish, to redeem. 
Desenfado, sm. calmness, coolness, 

tranquillity, facility. 
Desenfrenado, F. Desenfrenar, part. 

unbridled, carried away. 
Desenfrenar (se) va. or ref to 

launch one's-self into, to be car- 
ried away. 
Desenganado-a, a. undeceived, dis- 
abused. 
Desenganador-a, sub. undeceiver, 

he who frees from error. 
Desenganara, F. Desenganar, ind. 

Jut. 3s. will undeceive. 
Desenredar, inf. va. to disentangle, 

to clear up, to put in order. 
Desenterrar, inf. va. to unbury, to 

dig up, to disinter. 
Desenvuelto-a, F. Desenvolver, a 

part, forward, lively; unfolded 
Deseo, sm. desire, wish. 
Deseo, F. Desear, ind. pres. Is. I 

desire 

184 



DES 



DES 



Dese6so-a, a. desirous, anxious ; 
part, being anxious. 

Desesperacion, sf. desperation, des- 
pair. 

Desesperado, part, adjec. despaired; 
despairing. 

Desesperar, vn. to despair, to de- 
spond. 

Desesperes, F. Desesperar, subj. 
pres. 2s. thou mayest despair. 

Desestimar, inf. pres. va. to disre 
gard, not to pay attention to. 

Desestimo, F. Desestimar, ind.pres. 
Is. I disregard. 

Desestimo, ind. pret. 3s. he disre- 
garded, disesteemed. 

Desfallecido-a, F. Desfallecer, part. 
pined, fallen away, broken down. 

Desfigurado-a, part, adjec. disfi 
gured, deformed, disguised. 

Desgracia, sf. misfortune, infelicity, 
adversity. 

Besgraciado-a, a. unfortunate, un 
successful, unlucky. 

Deshacer, inf. va. to undo, to efface ; 
vr. to melt into ; to get rid of. 

Deshauciado-a, part, adjec. given 
up (by the physicians.) 

Deshecho, a. undone, mixed. 

Deshiciese, (se) F. Deshacer, subj. 
3 impf 1 or 3s. should get rid, 

Deshonestidad, sf. dishonesty, want 
of candour, immodesty. 

Deshonesto-a, a. immodest, un- 
chaste, lewd. 

Desierto, sm. desert, wilderness. 

Designio, sm. design, intention, 
sinister scheme. 

Desinteres, sm. liberality, disregard, 
disinterestedness. 

Disinteresado-a, a. disinterested, 
not selfish. 

Desistiese, F. Desistir, subj. 3 impf. 
1 or 3s. should desist. 

Desistir, inf. vn. to desist, to cease, 
to abandon. 
16* 



Deslumbrado-a, a. dazzled, con- 
fused, perplexed. 
Deslustrar, inf. va. to tarnish, to 

sully. 
Desmaya, F. Desmayar, ind. pres. 

3s. faints. 
Desmayaba, F. Desmayar, ind. impf 

1 or 3s. fell into a swoon. 
Desmayado, a. dismayed, sunk, ap- 
palled, discouraged. 
Desmayar, inf. va. to dispirit, to 

frighten. 
Desmayar, inf. vr. to faint, to fall 

into a swoon. 
Desnudar, inf. va. to strip off, to 

discover, to reveal, to undress. 
Desnudo, F ..Desnudar, ind. pres. Is. 

I strip. 
Desnudo, a. naked, bare, uncover- 
ed. 
Desorden, sm. disorder, disturbance, 

confusion. 
Despacha, F. Despachar, ind. pres. 

3s. sends her away. 
Despachar, inf. va. to despatch, to 

sell, to send away. 
Despacho, F. Despachar, ind. pres. 

Is. I despatch, sell. 
Despacho, F. Despachar, ind. pret. 

3s. sold, despatched. 
Despavorido-a, part, adjec. terrified, 

frightened. 
Despedazaban, F. Despedazar, ind. 

impf. 3p. they tore. 
Despedazado-a, part, adjec. torn to 

pieces, destroyed, lacerated. 
Despedazan, F. Despedazar, ind. 

impf. Sp. tear. 
Despedazar, inf. va. to tear, to cut 

to pieces, to rend, to lacerate. 
Despedia, F. Despedir, ind. impf. 

1 or 3s. dismissed, or shed. 
Despedian, F. Despedir, ind. impf. 

Sp. they dismissed. 
Despedir, inf. va. to dismiss, to 

discharge, to deny, to refuse. 
185 



DES 



DES 



Despeno, F. Despenar, ind. pret. 
3s. he precipitated. 

Despertar, inf. pres. va. to awaken 
to rouse frora sleep, to excite, to 
recall. 

Despertasteis, F. Despertar, ind. 
pret. 2p. you, or ye awoke. 

Despiadado-a, a. unmerciful, unre- 
lenting, cruel, inhuman, profli 
gate. 

Despide, F. Despedir, ind. pret. 3s. 
discharges, or takes leave. 

Despidio (se) F. Despedir, ind. 
pret. 3s. took leave; discharged. 

Despiertan, F. Despertar, ind. pres. 
Sp. they awake. 

Despierto-a, a. awake, vigilant, 
brisk. 

Despierto, F. Despertar, part. 
awake. 

Desplegar, inf. va. to unfold, to dis- 
play, to explain, to expand. 

Desplego, F. Desplegar, ind. pret. 
3s. unfolded. 

Despojado-a. a. stript, undressed, 
bereft, deprived. 

Despojado, F. Despojar, part. 
stripped, undressed, dismissed. 

Despojando, F. Despojar, ger. strip- 
ing, undressing. 

Despojar, inf. va. to strip, to un- 
dress. 

Despojo, F. Despojar, ind. pres. Is. 
I strip. 

Despojo, F. Despojar, ind. pret. 3s. 
stripped. 

Despojo, sm. spoil, spoliation. 

Despotico-a, a. despotic, absolute, 
tyrannical. 

Desprecio, sm. contempt, scorn, 
disregard. 

Desprecia, F. Despreciar, ind. pres. 
3s. despises. 

Despreciable, a. despicable, con- 
temptible. 



Despreciado-a, F. Despreciar, part, 

despised, condemned. 
Despreciando, F. Despreciar, ger. 

despising. 
Despreciar, inf. va. to despise, to 

depreciate, to disdain. 
Desprecias, F. Despreciar, ind. pres. 

2s. thou despisest. 
Desprecio, sm. contempt. 
Desprecio, F. Despreciar, ind. pret. 

3s. despised. 
Desproveido-a, a. unprovided, un- 
prepared, heedless, improvident. 
Despues, or despues de, prep, and 

ad. after; afterwards. 
Despues que, conj. since, from the 

time that. 
Desquitan, F. Desquitar, ind. pres. 

Sp. they repair. 
Desquitar, inf. va. to retrieve, to 

repair, to avenge. 
Desterrado-a, F. Desterrar, part. 

banished; s. an exile. 
Desterrar, inf. va. to banish, to ex- 
pel, to drive away. 
Desterro, F. Desterrar, ind. pret. 

3s. banished. 
Destierro, sm. exile, banishment. 
Destilan, F. Destilar, ind. pres. Sp. 

they drop, distil. 
Destilar, inf. vn. to drop, to extract 

by a still, to filter. 
Destinado-a, a. destined, doomed, 

consigned. 
Destino, sm. destiny, doom, fate, 

lot, destination. 
Destituido-a, part. abs. deprived, 

destitute, stripped. 
Destreza, sf dexterity, address, 

skill. 
Destruccion, sf. destruction, ruin, 

devastation. 
Destruian, F. Destruir, ind. impf 

Sp. they destroyed. 
Destruir, inf. va. to destroy, to ruin, 

to lay waste, to raispend. 

186 



DEU 



DIF 



Destruyendo, F. Destruir, ger. de- 
stroying, laying waste. 

Desvalido-a, a. helpless, destitute. 

Desvario, sm. delirium, extravagant 
speech, nonsense. 

Desvela, F. Desvelar, ind. pres. 3s. 
it, he, or she watches. 

Desvelar, inf. va. to watch for, to 
keep awake. 

Desvelar, inf. vr. to be vigilant, to 
be watchful. 

Desvelen, F. Desvelar, subj. pres. 
Sp. they may perceive. 

Desvelo, sm. wakefulness ; exer- 
tion, zeal, energy. 

Desvelo, F. Desvelar, ind. pres. Is. 
I watch. 

Desventura, sf misfortune, calam- 
ity, misery. 

Dervergiienza, sf. impudence, pe- 
tulance. 

Detenemos, F. Detener, inf. pres. 
\p. we stop. 

Determina, F. Determinar, ind. 
pres. 3s. determines. 

Determinado-a, part, adjec. deter- 
mined, resolute, bold, coura- 
geous. 

Determinare, F. Determinar, subj. 
fat. 3s. I should determine. 

Determine, F. Determinar, subj. 
pres. 1 or 3s. may determine. 

Determino, F. Determinar, ind. 
pret. 3s. it, he, or she determined. 

Detener, inf. va. to detain, to stop, 
to arrest, to reserve, to keep. 

Detenido-a, a. sparing, parsimo- 
nious, slow, inert. 

Detenido, F. Detener, part, stopped, 
detained, arrested. 

Detiene, F. Detener, ind. pres. 3s. 
it, he, or she detains. 

Detuviesen, F. Detener, subj. 3 
impf. Sp. they should stop. 

Detuvo, F. Detener, ind. pret. 3s. it, 
he, or she detained 



Deuda,. sf. debt, obligation. 
Deudo, sm. relationship, kindred, 

consanguinity. 
Deudor, am. debtor, a person in- 
debted. 
Devoraba, F. Devorar, ind. impf 1 

or 3s. devoured. 
Di, F. Dar, ind. pret. Is. I gave; 

F. Decir, say thou. 
Dia, sm. day. 
Dia, ad. day-time, 
Diamante, sm. diamond, a precious 

gem. 
Dice, F. Decir, ind. pres. 3s. says. 
Dicen, F. Decir, ind. pres. Sp. they 

say, it is said. 
Dices, F. Decir, ind. pres. 2s. thou 

sayest. 
Dicha, sf happiness, felicity, luck. 
Dicho, sm. saying, expression. 
Dicho, F. Decir, part, said, being 

said. 
Dich6so-a, a. happy, felicitous, for 

tunate, prosperous. 
Diciendo, F. Decir, ger. saying, 

having said. 
Dictado-a, a. dictated, actuated, 

commanded. 
Dictado, F. Dictar, part, dictated, 

ordered. 
Dictando, F. Dictar, ger. dictating, 

or ruling. 
Dictar, inf. va. to dictate, to speak 

authoritatively, to command. 
Diego, sub. prop. m. James, a man's 

christian name. 
Diestro-a, a. dexterous, smart, skil 

ful, sagacious, cunning, right. 
Diese, F. Dar, subj. fat. should 

give ; diese a luz, were it pub- 
lished. 
Diesen, F.Dar, subj. impf Sp.th.ej 

might give. 
Diez, a. num. ten. 
Diferencia, sf. difference, incongru- 
ity, misunderstanding. 

187 



DlJ 



DIS 



Diferencian, F. Diferenciar, ind 

pres. Bp. they differ. 
Differencial", inf. vn. to differ; va 

to cause a difference. 
Diferente, a. different, dissimilar, 
unlike. 

Dificil, a. difficult, arduous. 

Dificultad, sf. embarrassment, en- 
tanglement, obstacle. 

Dificultoso-a, a. difficult, trouble- 
some, hard. 

Difunto-a, sub. and a. defunct, de- 
funct, deceased, late person. 

Dieron, ind. pres. Bp. they gave ; 
die ran gar rote, strangled. 

Diese, snbj. impf. 1 or 3s. should 
give, render, show. 

Diestro-a, a. right ; 8. right-hand. 

Diga, F. Decir, imp. pres. 3s. let 
him say, or say you. 

Diga, F. Decir, subj. pres. 1 or 3s. 
I or it, he or she may say. 

Digas, F. Decir, subj. pres. 2s. thou 
may est say. 

Digna, (te) F. Dignar, imp. pres. 
2s. vouchsafe, or deign thou. 

Dignado, F. Dignar, part, deigned, 
been pleased. 

Dignar, inf. vr. to deign, to vouch 
safe, to condescend. 

Dignidad, sm. dignity, advance- 
ment, preferment. 

Digno-a, a. worthy, deserving, con- 
dign. 

Digo, F. Decir, ind. pres. Is. I say. 

Dijerais, F. Decir, subj. 2 impf. Bp. 
ye would say. 

Dijerir, inf. pres. va. to digest, to 
bear with patience. 

Dije, F. Decir, ind. pret. Is. I said. 

Dijeron, F. Decir, ind. pret. Bp. 
they said. 

Dijese, F. Decir, subj. 3 impf 1 or 
3s. he should tell. 

Dijo, F. Decir, ind. pret. 3s. he or 
she said. 



Dilacion, sf. delay, procrastination, 
dilation. 

Dilatado, a. delayed; sub. a slow 
man. 

Dilatadisimo, a. sujyer. very much 

delayed. 
Dilatar, inf. va. to dilate, extend, 
defer. 

Dinero, sm. money, wealth. 
Dio, F. Dar, ind. pret. 3s. gave. 

Diojenes, sub. prop. m. Diogenes, a 
cynic of antiquity. 

Diom'sio, sub. prop. m. Dionysius. 

Dios, sub. prop. m. God. 

Diputado, sm. deputy, commis- 
sioner, representative. 

Dira, F. Decir, ind. fut. 3s. will 
say. 

Diran, F. Decir, ind. fut. Bp. they 
will say. 

Diras, F. Decir, ind. fut. 2s. thou 
wilt say. 

Dire, F. Decir, ind. fut. Is. I shall 
say. 

Director, sm. director, president, 
confessor, ruler. 

Dirjje, F. Dirijir, imp. pres. 2s. di- 
rect thou. 

Dirije, F. Dirijir, ind. pres. Bs. 
directs. 

Dirijiendo, F. Dirijir, ger. direct- 
ing, ruling. 

Dirijimos, F. Dirijir, ind. pret. Ip. 
we directed. 

Dirijir, inf. va. to rule, to direct, to 
govern, to guide. 

Discordia, sf discord, opposition. 

Discreto-a, a. discreet, judicious, 
prudent, sharp. 

Discurren, F. Discurrir, ind. pres. 
Bp. fly, run about. 

Discurriendo, F. Discurrir, ger. 
thinking, imagining. 

Discurrir, inf. pres. va. and n. to 
think, to roam, to discuss. 

188 



DIS 



DOB 



Discipulo, sm. scholar, student, pu 
pil, disciple. 

Discurso, sm. reason, ratiocination ; 
speech, discourse. 

Disentir, inf. vn. to dissent, to disa 
gree, to separate. 

Disforme, a. disfigured, deformed, 
huge. 

Disfrutar, inf. va. to enjoy, to have 
possession. 

Disgustado, F. Disgustar, part, dis- 
gusted, offended, displeased. 

Disiente, F. Disentir, ind. pres. 3s. 
it, he or she dissents. 

Disimulacion, sf. dissimulation, hy- 
pocrisy. 

Disimulado, a. dissembled, feigned ; 
s. dissembler, hypocrite. 

Disimular, inf. va. or vn. to dissem- 
ble, to conceal, to hide. 

Oisminuyendo, F. Disminuir, ger. 
diminishing. 

Disminuido-a, F. Disminuir, part. 
diminished, impaired, detracted. 

Disminuyo, F. Disminuir, ind. pret. 
3s. diminished. 

Disolucion, sf. dissolution, libertin- 
ism, lewdness. 

Dispensando, F. Dispensar, ger. 
distributing, dealing out. 

Dispensar, inf. va. to dispense, to 
excuse, to distribute. 

Dispierto-a, see Despierto. 

Disponer, inf. va. to arrange, to dis- 
pose, to direct, to command. 

Disponiendo, F. Disponer, ger. dis- 
posing, arranging. 

Disposicion, sf. disposition ; condi- 
tion; bearing; talents, turn. 

Distante, prep, distant, remote. 

Disteis, F. Dar, ind. pret. 2p. ye 
gave. 

Distinguian, F. Distinguir, ind. 
impf Sp. they distinguished. 

Distinguir, inf. va. to distinguish, 
to perceive, to discern. 



Distintivo, sf. distinction, attribute; 
honour, badge. 

Distintivo-a, a. distinctive, distin- 
guishing, private. 

Distraer, inf. va. to distract, to call 
away the attention, to be absent, 
to perplex. 

Distraido-a, a. inattentive, absent ; 
s. an absent person. 

Distraiga, F. Distraer, subj. pres. 
3s. may amuse, draw off. 

Distraigas, F. Distraer, subj. pres, 
2s. thou may est amuse. 

Distrajo, F. Distraer, ind. pret. 3s. 
called off. 

Distribuidor, sm. distributor, dis- 
penser. 

Distribuimos, F. Distribuir, ind. 
pret. \p. we distributed. 

Distribuir, inf. va. to distribute, to 
divide, to deal out, to arrange. 

Diversion, sf. diversion, amuse- 
ment. 

Divert! a, F. Divertir, md. impf. 2s. 
he amused, diverted. 

Divertido-a, a. amused, diverted. 

Divertido, F. Divertir, pari, di- 
verted, amused. 

Divertir, inf. va. to amuse, to divert 
to entertain. 

Divinatorio-a, a. foretelling. 

Divino-a, a. divine, celestial, su- 
premely good. 

Divisabamos, F. Divisar, ind. impf 
\p. we descried, perceived. 

Division, sf. division, diversity. 

Divulgado-a, a. divulged, publish- 
ed. 

Divulgado, F. Divulgar, part, di- 
vulged, published. 

Do, ad. where, the same as donde. 

Dobleces, sfp. dissimulation, craf- 
tiness, malice. 

Doblez, sm. fold. 

Doblon, sm. doubloon, a Spanish 
gold coin, worth in Spain $16. 
189 



DOS 



DUR 



Doce, a. num. twelve. 

D6cto-a, sub. learned, erudite per- 
son. 

D6cto-a, a. learned, wise. 

Doctor, sm. physician, doctor. 

Doctrina, sf. wisdom, science; doc- 
trine, rules. 

Documento, sm. document, writing, 
instruction. 

Doi, F. Dar, ind. pres. Is. I -give. 

Doler, inf. vn. to have pain in, to 
have a sore, to feel sorry. 

Doliente, sm. sick person, patient. 

Dolio, F. Doler, ind. pret. 3s. was 
sorry for, pained. 

Dolo, sm. fraud, deceit, imposition. 

Dolor, sm. grief, pain, affliction. 

Dolorido-a, a. doleful, afflicted, 
grieved. 

Domestico-a, a. domestic, tame ; s. 
a servant. 

Dominacion, sf. dominion, authori- 
ty, commanding ground. 

Dominaciones, sm. p. Dominations, 
the heavenly spirits of the fourth 
choir. 

Dominar, inf. pres. va. to rule ; 
Dominarse, vr. to curb one's self. 

Dominaron, F. Dominar, ind. pret. 
3p. they ruled. 

Domine, F. Dominar, subj. pres. 3s. 
may domineer. 

Domine, F. Dominar, ind. pres. 3s. 
let it, him, or her domineer. 

Don, sm. Don, a title of respect. 

Don, sm. a gift, a grant. 

Donaire, sm. grace, elegance, witty 
saying. 

Doncella, sf. young lady, virgin, 
damsel, maid. 

Donde, ad. where ; which ; de donde, 
whence. 

Dona, sf. Donna, a title given to a 
lady: it is the feminine of Don 

Dorado-a, a. gilt, golden. 

Dos, a. num. two. 



Dotado-a, a. gifted, endowed, set- 
tled upon. 

Dote, sm. dowry, portion. 

Dramatico-a, a. dramatical, belong- 
ing to the drama. 

Ducado, sm. ducat, a coin ; Duchy, 
the possessions of a Duke. 

Duda, sf. doubt, ambiguity. 

Dudan, F. Dudar, ind. pres. 3p. 
they doubt. 

Dudar, inf. va. to doubt, to hesitate, 
to be uncertain. 

Dudo, F. Dudar, ind. pres. Is. I 
doubt. 

Dudosamente, ad. doubtfully, timo- 
rously, dubiously. 

Duele, F. Doler, ind. pres. 3s. it 
pains her, him, me, or them. 

Duele, (se) F. Dolerse, ind. pres 
3s. he complains of. 

Duelo, sf. mourning; duel. 

Dueno-a, sub. owner, proprietor, 
master. 

Duerme, F. Dormir, ind. pres. 3s. 
he sleeps. 

Duerme, F. Dormir, imp. 2s. sleep 
thou. 

Duermes, F. Dormir, ind. pres. 2s. 
thou sleepest. 

Dulcificar, inf. va. to sweeten, to 
assuage, to soften. 

Dulcisimo-a, a. super, most sweet, 
most pleasant, most agreeable. 

Dulce, a. soft, gentle, sweet. 

Dulzura, sf. sweet, sweetness, soft- 
ness, mildness. 

Duque, sm. Duke. 

Dura, F. Durar, ind. pres. 3s. lasts, 
continues. 

Duracion, sf. duration, continuance. 

Duradero-a, a. lasting, durable. 

Duran, F. Durar, ind. pres. 3s. they 
last. 

Durar, inf. vn. to last, to continue, 
to endure. 

190 



ECS 



EDI 



Durado-a, F. Durar, part, lasted, 

continued. 
Durare, F. Durar, subj.fut. 1 or 3s. 

should last. 
Duraron, F. Durar, ind. pret. Sp. 

they lasted. 



Dureza, sf. hardness, obstinacy, tu- 
mour, roughness. 
Duro, sm. dollar, a silver coin. 
Duro-a, a. hard, rough, obstinate. 
Duro, F. Durar, ind. pres. Is. I last. 
Duro, F. Durar, ind. pret. 3s. lasted. 



E 



E, conj. and used instead of i, or y, 
before a word beginning with i or 
hi. 

Echa, F. Echar, ind. pres. 3s. throws 

Echado-a, part, adjec. thrown, cast, 
imputed. 

Echado, part, thrown, cast, being- 
expelled from. 

Echan, F. Echar, ind. pres. Sp. they 
throw. 

Echar, inf. pres. va. to throw, to 
bud, to apply, to impute, to re- 
cline. 

Echas, F. Echar, ind. pres. 3s. thou 
throwest. 

Echo, F. Echar, ind. pres. Is. I 
throw. 

Echo, F. Echar, ind. pres. 3s. threw. 

Economia, sf. economy, frugality. 

Ecsacto-a, sm. exact, punctual, as- 
siduous. 

Ecsajeracion, sf. exaggeration, hy- 
perbole, amplification. 

Ecsalan, F. Ecsalar, ind. pres. Sp. 
exhale. 

Ecsalta, F. Ecsaltar, ind. pres. 3s. 
exalts. 

Ecsaltar, inf. va. to exalt, to ele- 
vate, to praise, to extol. 

Ecsamen, sm. examination, trial, 
investigation. 

Ecsaminado-a, part, adjec. exa- 
amined, tried, investigated, in- 
quired into. 

Ecsaminan, F. Ecsaminar, ind. 
pres. Sp. they examine. 



Ecsaminar, inf. va. to examine, to 
investigate, to inquire into. 

Ecsaminas, F. Ecsaminar, ind. pres 
2s. thou examinest. 

Ecsasperado-a, a. exasperated, irri- 
tated, offended. 

Ecsecrable, adj. execrable. 

Ecsistencia, sf. life, vitality, exist- 
ence. 

Ecsiste, F. Ecsistir, ind. pres. 3s. 
exists. 

Ecsistir, inf. vn. to be, to exist, to 
have a being. 

Ecsito, sm. issue, success, end. 

Ecsonerar, inf. pres. va. to exone 
rate, to unload, to disburden, to 
pay. 

Ecsonerase, F. Ecsonerar, subj. 3 
impf. 1 or 3s. should exhonerate. 

Ecsorbitante, a. exorbitant, exces- 
sive, enormous. 

Ecsijia, F. Ecsijir, ind. impf. 1 or 
3s. I, it, he, or she demanded. 

Ecsijir, inf. va. to exact, to demand, 
to require, to wish. 

Ed ad, sf age, time. 

Edificado-a, part, adjec. edified, in- 
structed, built, constructed. 

Edif ican, F. Edificar, ind. pres. Sp. 
they edify. 

Edificar, inf. va. to edify, to in- 
struct, to build, to construct. 

Edificio, sm. building, structure, 
edifice. 

Edifico, F. Edificar, ind. pret. 3s. 
edified. 

191 



EJE 



EMB 



Educacion, sf instruction, educa^ 
tion. 

Educar, inf. va. to educate, to 
teach, to instruct. 

Efectivainente, a. in fact, effectu- 
ally, powerfully. 

Efecto, sm. effect, purpose ; en efec- 
to, adv. in fact. 

Efectuan, F. Efectuar, ind. pres. 
Sp. they effect. 

Efectuar, inf. va. to effect, to ac- 
complish, to carry through. 

Efectue, (se) sabj. pres. 3s. be ac- 
complished, efected. 

Efes, sub. p. m. eff (the name of the 
letter f.) 

Eficaz, ad. efficacious, active, pow- 
erful. 

Egloga, sf eclogue, a pastoral dia- 
logue. 

Eje, sm, axle-tree, axis, centre. 

Ejecucion, sf. execution, perform- 
ance. 

Ejecutado, F. Ejecutar, part, exe- 
cuted, accomplished, performed. 

Ejecutan, F. Ejecutar, ind. pres. 3p. 
they execute. 

Ejecutar, ind. pres. va. to execute, 
to perform, to accomplish. 

Ejemplo, sm. example, project, pre- 
cedent. 

Ejercer, inf. va. to exercise, to 
practice. 

Ejercicio, sm. exercise, practice, 
employment, task. 

Ejercieron, F. Ejercitar, ind. pret. 
Sp. they exercised. 

Ejercitar, inf. va. to exercise, to 
practise, to devote one's self. 

Ejercitasen, F. Ejercitar, subj. S 
impf. Sp. they would exercise. 

Ejercito, sub. collec. m. army, mul- 
titude. 

Ejercito, F. Ejercitar, ind. pret. 3s. 
exercised. 



El, art. m. the ; pron. he, it; el mas, 
the most. 

Elefante, sm. elephant. 

Elegancia, sf. elegance. 

Elejir, inf. va. to elect, to select, to 
choose. 

Elemento, s?n. element. 

Elementos, sub. m. p. elements, ru- 
diments, first principles. 

Elevacion, sf. elevation, rise, exal- 
tation, altitude. 

Elevado-a, a. elevated, great, mag- 
nanimous, sagacious. 

Elevado, F. Elevar, part, raised, 
exalted, elevated. 

Elevando, F. Elevar, ger. elevating, 
raising. 

Elevar, inf. va. to elevate, to raise, 
to exalt. 

Elevasen, F. Elevar, subj. 3 impf 
Sp. they should elevate. 

Elevo, F. Elevar, ind. pres. Is. I 
exalt. 

Elevo, F. Elevar, ind. pret. 3s. ele- 
vated. 

Eliano, sub. prop. m. JElian, an 
ancient Greek writer. 

Ella, pron. per.f. sub. n. she, it. 

Ella, pron. per.f. sub. o. her, it, so. 

Ello, pron. per. neut. sub. n. it, so. 

Elocuencia, sf. eloquence, oratory. 

Embajada, sf. embassy (public 
message.) 

Embajador, sm. ambassador (a mes- 
senger from a sovereign power.) 

Embaraza, F. Embarazar, ind. pres. 
3s. embarrasses. 

Embarazado-a, part, adjec. embar- 
rassed, confused, entangled, ha- 
rassed, wearied. 

Embarco, F. Embarcar, ind. pres. 
3s. embarked. 

Embarcar, inf. va. to embark, to 
ship, to engage in. 

Embargado, F. Embargar, part, ar- 
rested, sequestered, seized. 
192 



EMP 



ENC 



Embargo, sm. embargo, sequestra- 
tion, seizure. 
Embebecido-a, F. Embebecer, part. 

abs. plunged into, struck with. 
Embebido-a, F. Embeber, part im- 
bibed, drenched, enraptured. 
Embeleco, sm. fraud, deceit, im 

postor. 
Embeleso, sm. astonishment, won 

der, object of amazement. 
Embeleza, F. Embelezar, ind. pres. 

3s. it, he, or she charms. 
Embelezar, inf. pres. va. to charm, 

to bewitch, to astonish, 
Embrazando, F. Embrazar, ger. 

embracing, clasping. 
Embrazar, inf. va. to embrace, to 

contain. 
Embriaguez, sf drunkenness, in- 
toxication. 
Em brute ce, (se) F. Embrutecer, ind, 

pres. 3s. becomes stupified, stupi- 

fies. 
Eminencia, sf. eminence, height, 

greatness. 
Eminente, a. eminent, conspicuous, 

great. 
Emisferio, sm. hemisphere. 
Empapado, F. Empapar, part. 

drenched, surfeited. 
Empapando, F. Empapar, ger. 

soaking, drenching. 
Empena, F. Empeiiar, ind. pres. 3s. 

it, he, or she engaged. 
Einpenado, F. Empeiiar, part. 

pawned, pledged, engaged, 

obliged, bound. 
Empeiiar, inf. va. to engage, to 

pawn, to persist, to intercede. 
Empeno, sm. eiibrt, great anxiety, 

innuential intercessor. 
Emperador, sm. emperor, monarch. 
Empero, conj. but, yet, however, 

notwithstanding. 
Empezar, inf. pres. va. to begin, to 

commence, to be the first. 
17 



Empezo, F. Empezar, ind,. pret. 3s. 
began. 

Empieaste, F. Emplear, ind. pret. 
2s. thou didst employ. 

Emplco, sm. office, trust, occupa- 
tion, station. 

Empobrecer, inf. va. to impoverish; 
vn. to become indigent. 

Emulando, F. E malar, ger. emu- 
lating, vying with, contending. 

Empleado, sm. officer; person in 
public office. 

Emplear, inf. va. to employ, to 
occupy, to purchase, 

Empleas, F. Emplear, ind. pres. 2s. 
thou employes t. 

Empleasen, F. Emplear, subj. 3 
impf 3p. they should employ. 

Emponzoiia, F. Emponzonar, ind. 
j)res. 3s. poisons. 

Emprender, inf. pres. va. to under- 
take, to embark, to attempt, to 
take. 

Empresa, sf undertaking, attempt. 

Ernulacion, sf. emulation, envy. 

Emular, inf. pres. vn. to emulate, 
to vie with, to rival. 

En, prep, in, at, on ; en cuanto a, a9 
for. 

Enajenado-a, a. and part, pledged, 
alienated, enraptured. 

Enamora, F. Enamorar, ind. pres. 
3s. charms. 

Enamorado, F. Enamorar, part. 
enamoured ; s. a lover. 

Enamorar, inf. va. to charm, to in- 
spire love, to court, to woo. 

Enano-a, s. dwarf. 

Encadenaba, F. Encadenar, ind. 
imp. 3s. chained, enthralled. 

Encaminar, inf. va. to guide, to 
direct, to forward, to manage. 

Encarninase, F. Encaminar, subj. 
impf. 3s. should guide. 

Encamines, F. Encaminar, subj 
pres. 2s. thou mayest direct. 
193 



ENC 

Encantado-a, a. charmed, enchant- 
ed, haunted. 

Encantado, F. Encantar, pari. 
charmed, enchanted. 

Encantador, sm. charmer, sorcerer. 

Encanto, or Encantamiento, sm. 
charm, incantation, enchantment. 

Encarcelar, inf. va. to incarcerate, 
to put in jail, to imprison. 

Encarecen, F. Encarecer, ind. pres. 
Sp. enhance. 

Encarecsr, inf. pres. va. to extol, to 
enhance. 

Encarecimiento, sm. exaggeration, 
enhancement, amplification. 

Encargado-a, F. Encargar, part. 
charged with, intrusted, commis- 
sioned. 

Encargar, inf. va. to charge, to in- 
trust with, to recommend. 

Encargo, F. Encargar, ind. pret. 3s. 
it, he, or she took charge. 

Encartar, inf. va. outlaw, to involve, 
to include, to enrol. 

Encender, inf. va. to kindle, to 
light, to set fire, to inflame. 

Encendido-a, a. incensed, exaspe- 
rated, burning, infuriated. 

Encendido, F. Encender, part, burnt, 
kindled, set on fire. 

Encendieron, ind. pret. Sp. kindled, 
made. 

Encendiese, F. Encender, stibj. 3 
impf 1 or 3s. should kindle. 

Encerraba, F. Encerrar, ind. impf. 
1 or 3s. shut, locked up. 

Encerrado, F . Encerrar, part, shut 
up, confined, secluded. 

Encerrar, inf. va. to shut up, to 
close, to contain. 

Encerraron, F. Encerrar, ind. pret. 
3p. shut, locked up. 

Encerro, F. Encerrar, ind. pret. 3s 
it, he, or she shut up. 

Enchancletado-a, F. Enchancletar, 
pari, adjec. with slippers on. 



ENE 

Enciende, F. Encender, ind. pres. 
3s. kindles. 

Encienso, sm. incense, flattery. 

Encina, sf oak. 

Encojer, inf. va. to shrink, to con- 
tract, to be low-spirited. 

Encojido-a, a. shrinking, bashful, 
contracted ; low-spirited. 

Encojiendo,ger. contracting, shrink- 
ing. 

Encolerizar, inf. va. to make a per- 
son angry ; vn. to become en- 
raged. 

Encolerizo, F. Encolerizar, ind. 
pret. 3s. became enraged. 

Encomendado, F. Encomendar, part. 
recommended, praised, lauded. 

Encontrado, F. Encontrar, part. 
met, encountered, found. 

Encontramos, F. Encontrar, ind. 
pres. \p. find. 

Encontrando, F. Encontrar, ger 
meeting, finding. 

Encontrar, inf. va. to meet, to meet 
with, to find, to light upon. 

Encontro, F. Encontrar, ind. pres. 
3s. met. 

Encubre, F. Encubrir, ind. pres. 3s. 
corers. 

Encubren, F. Encubrir, ind. pres. 
Sp. they cover, or conceal. 

Encubrir, inf. va. to cover, to con- 
ceal, to hide. 

Encuentra, F. Encontrar, ind. pres. 
3s. meets. 

Encue^ntran, (se) ind.pres. Sp. they 
meet, find themselves. 

Encuentro, F. Encontrar, ind.pres. 
Is. I find. 

Encuentro, S7n. meeting ; knock. 

Endurecido-a, part, adjec. hardened, 
callous, rough, inured, cruel. 

Enemigo, s. enemy, opponent, an- 
tagonist. 

Enemigo-a, a. inimical, hostile to. 

194 



ENG 



fo^T 



Enemistad, sf. enmity, hatred, 
aversion. 

Enfada, F. Enfadar, ind. pres. Ss. 
he vexes, molests. 

Enfadar, inf. va. to vex, to tire, to 
disturb, to make angry. 

Enfado, F. Enfadar, ind. pret. Ss. 
vexed. 

Enfadosisimo-a, a. sup. most trou- 
blesome, most vexing. 

Enfadoso-a, a. vexatious, trouble- 
some. 

Enfermedad, sf. infirmity, disease, 
damage, risk. 

Enfermo-a, s. sick person, patient. 

Enfilar, inf. va. to continue, to 
pierce, to string. 

Enf ila, ind. pres* Ss. pierces. 

Enfilo, pret. Ss. he went through. 

Enflaquecen, F. Enflaquecer, ind. 
pres. Sp. they weaken. 

Enfiaquecer, inf. va. to enervate, to 
enfeeble, to weaken! 

Enflaquecieron, F. Enfiaquecer, ind. 
pret. Sp. they enfeebled. 

Enganado, part, deceived, cheated, 
mistaken, duped. 

Enganador-a, sm. deceiver, im- 
postor, scoundrel. 

Enganan, F. Enganar, ind. pres. 
Sp. they deeeive. 

Engaiiar, inf. va. to deceive s to im- 
pose upon, to cheat. 

Enganen, F. Enganar, suhj. pres. 
Sp. they may deceive. 

Engano, F. Enganar, ind. pres. Is. 
I deceive. 

Engano, F. Enganar, ind. pret. Ss. 
deceived. 

Engano, sm. deceit, imposition. 

Enganoso, a. deceitful, artful, crafty. 

Engarrotado-a, pari, adjec. close, 
concealed, squeezed. 

Engastado-a, F. Engasiar, a. in- 
crusted, enchased, enclosed. 



Enjendrar, inf. va. to engender, to 
beget, to raise, to create. 

Enjendre, F. Enjendrar, ind. pret 
Is. did beget. 

Enjendremos, subj. pres. \p. we 
may engender, or let us engender. 

Enigma, sf enigma, riddle. 

Enjambre, sub. collec. f swarm, 
crowd. 

Enjuto-a, part adjec. dried up, dry. 

Enlazado, F. Enlazar, part tied, 
bound, united, connected. 

Enlazar, inf. va. to chain, to bind, 
to link, to connect 

Enlutado, F. Enlutar, part, veiled, 
dressed in mourning. 

Enmudezco, F. Enmudecer, ind. 
pres. Is. grow, become dumb. 

Enojo, sm. irritation, offence, fret- 
fulness. 

Ensanchar, inf va. to widen, to 
render broader, to cheer up. 

Ensena, F. Ensenar, ind. pres. Ss. 
teaches. 

Ensenaba, F. Ensenar, ind. impf. 
1 or Ss. taught. 

Ensenando, F. Ensenar, ger. teach- 
ing, instructing. 

Ensenar, inf. va. to teaeh, to in- 
struct, to inform. 

Ensenasen, F. Ensenar, subj. 3 
impf. Sp. they should teach. 

Enseno, F. Ensenar, ind. pret. Ss. 
taught. 

Ensenorean, (se) ind. pres. Sp. take 
their superior standing. 

Enseiiorear, inf. va. to lord, 
domineer, to command, to rule. 

Ensordece, F. Ensordecer, ind. pres. 
Ss. it, he, or she deafens. 

Ensordecer, inf va. to deafen ; vn. 
to become deaf. 

Entallar, inf. pres. va. to carve, to 
cut, to engrave, to picture. 

Ente, sm. being. 



195 



ENT 



ENT 



Entended, F. Entender, imp. 2p. 

understand ye. 
Entender, inf. va. to understand. 
Entendi, F. Entender, ind. pret. 3s. 

I understood. 
Entendimiento, sm. mind, under- 
standing, judgment. 
Enterado-a, F. Enterar, part, in- 
formed, acquainted. 
Entereis, (de) subj. pres. 2p. you 

may become acquainted with. 
Entereza, sf. integrity, rectitude, 

fortitude, uprightness. 
Enternecen, F. Enternecer, ind. 

pres. Bp. they move to compassion. 
Enternecer, inf. va. to move to 

compassion, to excite pity. 
Enternecera, F. Enternecer, ind 

fut. 3s. will move to compassion 
Enternecido-a, F. Enternecer, part. 

being moved to compassion. 
Enternecio, F. Enternecer, ind. pret. 

3s. moved to compassion. 
Entero-a, a. entire, whole, complete. 
Enterrado, part, buried, interred. 
Enterrar, inf. va. to bury, to inter, 

to put into the grave. 
Enterro, F. Enterrar, ind. pret. 3s. 

buried. 
Entiende, F. Entender, ind. pres. 

3s. understands. 
Entienden, F. Entender, ind. pres. 

3p. they understand. 
Entiendo, F. Entender, ind. pres. 

Is. I understand. 
Entonces, ad. then, at that time. 
Entorpece, F. Entorpecer, ind. pres. 

3s. benumbs. 
Entra, F. Entrar, ind. pres. 3s. 

enters. 
Entraban, F. Entrar, i/nd. impf. 3p. 

entered. 
Entrada, sf. entrance, ravaging ex- 
pedition, descent on. 
Entrado-a, a. and part, entered, 

being advanced, having got in. 



Entramos, F. Entrar, ind. pres. lp. 

we enter. 
Entran, F. Entrar, ind. pres. 3p. 

they enter. 
Entrando, F. Entrar, ger. entering. 

Entran able, a. intimate, affection- 
ate, dear. 

Entranas, sf p. bowels, intestines. 

Entrar, mf pres. vn. to enter, to 
advance ; va. to place to account. 

Entraron, F. Entrar, ind. pret. 3p. 
they entered. 

Entras, F. Entrar, ind. pres. 2s. 
thou enterest. 

Entre, prep^ among, between. 

Entrega, F. Entregar, ind. pres. 3s. 
delivers. 

Entregar, inf. va. to deliver, to re- 
store, to give. 

Entregaron, F. Entregar, ind. pret 
3p. gave up, threw. 

Entregas, F. Entregar, ind. pres. 2s 
thou givest up, deliverest. 

Entrego, F. Entregar, ind. pret. 3s. 
delivered. 

Entretanto, ad. meanwhile, in th& 
meantime. 

Entretejer, inf. va. to interweave,, 
to tissue. 

Entretejido, F. Entretejer, part, in- 
twined, interwoven, intermixed. 

Entretejiendo, F. Entretejer, ger. 
interweaving, intermixing. 

Entretener, inf. va.. to entertain, to. 
put off. 

Entreteniendo, F. Entretener, ger* 
entertaining, amusing, delaying. 

Entretenimiento, sm. entertainment* 
appointment, procrastination. 

Entristecer, inf. va. to make sad ;. 
vr. to become melancholy. 

Entristeciendo, (se) F. Entristecer r 
ger. saddening, becoming gloomy. 

Entro, F. Entrar, ind. pret. 2s. en- 
tered. 

EntusiasmjQ* sm^ enthusiasm. 

19$ 



ESC 






Envejece, F. Envejecer, ind. pres. 
3s. grows old. 

Envejecer, inf. va. to make old ; vn. 
to grow old. 

Enviaba, F. Enviar, ind. impf 1 or 
3s. I, or he, sent. 

Enviado-a, sub. envoy. 

Enviado, F. Enviar, part, sent, 
transmitted. 

Enviasen, F. Enviar, subj. 3 impf. 
2p. they should send. 

Envidia, sf envy, emulation, 
jealousy. 

Envidiado, F. Envidiar, part, en- 
vied. 

Envidiar, inf. va. to envy, to feel 
envy, to feel pain at the sight of 
excellence or felicity. 

Envidie, F. Envidiar, subj. pres. 3s. 
he may envy. 

Envidioso, a. envious, jealous, in- 
vidious. 

Envilecido, F. Envilecer, part, ren- 
dered vile, base, mean, or de- 
graded. 

Envio, F. Enviar, ind. pret. 3s 
sent, transmitted. 

Envite, sm. invitation. 

Envuelto-a, adj. enveloped in. 
given up to. 

Erario, sm. exchequer, royal coffers, 
treasury. 

Era, F. Ser, ind. impf 3s. was. 

Eras, F. Ser, ind. impf 2s. thou 
wast. 

Eres, F. Ser, ind. pres. 2s. thou art. 

Es, F. Ser, ind. pres. 3s. it, he, or 
she is. 

£ scalar, inf. va. to scale, to climb 
by the help of ladders. 

Escamas, sub.f.p. scales (of a fish.) 

Escandalizado, F. Escandalizar , 
part, scandalized, offended, irri- 
tated. 

Escapar, inf. vn. to escape, to ^et 
out of danger, to evade, 
17* 



Escapara, F. Escapar, subj. 1 impf 
would escape. 

Escaparon, F. Escapar, ind. pret 
Sp. they escaped. 

Escarcha, sf a frost 

Escargorta, sm. prop. Escargorta, a 
living Spanish writer, of some 
distinction. 

Escarlata, sf scarlet. 

Escarolado-a, part, adjec. contract- 
ed, turned. 

Escasea, F. Escasear, ind. pres. 3s, 
it begins to grow scanty. 

Escasear, inf. vn. to decrease, to 
grow scanty. 

Escaso-a, a. scarce, limited, scanty. 

E see da, F. Esceder, subj. pres. 3s, 
he may excel. 

Esceder, inf. pres. va. to exceed, to 
surpass, to excel. 

Escederse, v?\ to go beyond bounds. 

Escelencia, sf excellence, emi- 
nence, excellency. 

Escelente, a. excellent. 

Escelino, sub. prop. m. Escelinus, 
a person's name. 

Escelso, a. most high. 

Escena, sf. scene, stage, vicissitude. 

Esceptuando, F. Esceptuar, ger. 
excepting. 

Esceptuar, inf. va. to except, to 
exempt, to exclude. 

Escesivo-a, a. excessive, immode- 
rate, exorbitant. 

Ecscipion, sub. prop. m. Scipio, a 
renowned Roman general. 

Escita, F. Escitar, ind. pres. 3s. 
excites. 

Escitar, inf. va. to excite, to move, 

to stimulate. 
Esclamacion, sf. exclamation, cla- 
mour, cheer. 
Esciamar, inf. vn. to exclaim, to 

cry out. 
Esclame, F. Esciamar, iruL. pret. 3s. 
I exclaimed. 

197 



ESC 



ESH 



Esclamo, F.Esclamar, ind pret. 3s. 
exclaimed. 

Esclavitud, sf slavery, bondage, 
servitude. 

Esclavo-a, a. slave, captive; ft a 
slave, 

Eseluido-a, a. excluded, debarred. 

Escluido, F. Escluir, part, ex- 
cluded. 

Eseoje, F. Escojer, ind. pres. 3s. 
selects. 

Escojer, inf. va. to select, to choose, 
to pick out. 

Eseojido, F. Escojer, part, chosen,, 
selected, preferred. 

Escombra, F. Escombrar, ind. pres. 
3s. clears. 

Escornbrar, inf. va. to remove ob- 
stacles, to clear away rubbish. 

Esconde, F. Esconder, ind. pres. 3s. 
hides. 

Esconder, inf. va. to hide, to con- 
ceal, to disguise, to dissemble, to 
include. 

Escondido, F. Esconder, part, ab- 
sconded, hidden, concealed. 

Escnba, F. Escribir, subf. pres. 1 or 
3s. she may write. 

Escribiese, F. Escribir, subj. impf. 
I or 3s. should write, 

Escribio, F. Escribir, ind. pret. 3s. i 
wrote. 

Escribir, inf. va. or vn r to write, to 
compose. 

Escrito, sm. writing, composition. 

Escrito-a, a. written, composed. 

Escritor, sm. writer, author. 

Escrupulo, sm. scruple, hesitation, 
doubt, 

Escrupuloso-a, a. scrupulous, ex- 
act, conscientious, 

Escucha, F. Escuchar, ind. pres. 3s. 
listens. 

Escuchaba, F. Escuchar, ind. impf. 
1 or 3s. listened to. 



Escuchado, F. Escuchar, part. 
heard, listened to. 

Escuchando, F, Escuchar, ger. lis- 
tening. 

Escuchar, inf. va. to listen to, to* 
hearken. 

Escutla, sf. school, instruction, 
system, university, 

Esc nip ir, inf. va. to sculpture, te- 
en grave. 

Escureee, F. Escureeer, ind. pres. 
3s. darkens. 

Escureeer, inf. va. to darken, to 
denigrate ; vn, to grow dark. 

Escursion, sf excursion. 

Escusando, F. Escusar, ger. ex- 
cusing, exempting, avoiding. 

Escusar, inf. va. to excuse, to free, 
to exempt, to avoid, 

Ese, pron. dem. sub. m. o. or n. this, 
that, the latter. 

Esencia, sf. essence, existence,, 
quintessence. 

Esi'nto-a, a. exempt, free from. 

Esforzado-a, a. strong, valiant, vi- 
gorous. 

Esforzando, F. Esforzar, ger. en- 
deavouring, corroborating. 

Esforzar. inf. va. to strengthen, to 
aid, to endeavour. 

Esfuerza, F. Esforzar, ind. pres. 3s. 
he exerts, endeavours. 

Esfuerzo, sm. effort, courage, spirit, 
confidence. 

Eshala, F. Eshalar, ind. pres. 3s 
exhales. 

Eshalaba, F. Eshalar, ind. impf 
1 or 3?. exhaled. 

Eshalar, inf. va. to exhale, to eva- 
porate. 

Eshortacion, sf. exhortation, admo- 
nition, lecture. 

Eshortar,- inf. va. to exhort. 

Eshorte, F. Eshortar, ind. pret. Iff, 
I exhorted. 



198 



ESP 



ESP 



Esmaltan, F. Esmaltar, ind. pres. 
3p. they enamel, adorn. 

Esinaltar, inf. va. to enamel, to va- 
riegate, to adorn, embellish. 

Eso, pron. dem. sub. neut. o. or n. 
this, that. 

Esos-as, pron. dem. p. o. or n. these, 
those. 

Espacio, sm. space, period, inter- 
val. 

Espacioso-a, a. spacious, wide, 
roomy, slow. 

Espada, sf sword, steeh 

Espalda, sf. shoulder 

Espaldas, sf.p. back* 

Espanta, F. Espantar, ind. pres. 3s 
frightens. 

Espantadizo-a, a. timid, fearful, 
shy, skittish, 

Espantado, F. Espantar, part, sur- 
prised, astonished, terrified. 

Espantar, inf. va. to frighten, to 
terrify, to be astonished. 

Espanto, sm. dread ; no me espanto, 
I am not astonished. 

Espantoso, a. horrid, dreadful, won- 
derful. 

Espana, sub. prop.f. Spain, a coun- 
try in Europe. 

Espanol, sm. the Spanish language, 
a Spaniard; a. Spanish. 

Esparcen, F. Esparcer, ind. pres. 
2p. they spread. 

Esparcer, inf. va. to scatter, to dis- 
seminate, to spread, to divulge. 

Esparcido, F. Esparcir, part. 
spread, scattered, diffused, pro- 
mulgated. 

Especial, a. special, particular. 

Especialmente, ad. specially, par- 
ticularly. 

Especie, sf. kind, species. 

Espectaculo, sm. spectacle, show, 
theatre, scene. 

Espedicion, sf. transaction, expedi- 
tion, activity, readiness. 



Espejo, sm. looking glass, mirror, 
model. 

Espender, inf. va. to expend, to 
spend, to lay out. 

Esperaba, ind. impf. it awaited ; I* 
he, or she, or it hoped. 

Esperado, F. Esperar, part, hoped? 
expected, dreaded. 

Esperan, F. Esperar, ind. pres. 3p. 
they wait for. 

Esperando, F. Esperar, ger. hoping. 

Esperanza, sf. hope, expectation. 

Esperar, inf. va. to expect, to wait 
for, to hope ; to await. 

Esperar em os, F. Esperar, ind.fut, 
\p. we shall or will wait for. 

Esperas, F. Esperar, ind. pres. 2s. 
thou waitest for. 

Esperiencia, sf. experience, know- 
ledge. 

Esperimentaba, F. Esperimentar, 
ind. impf. 1 or 3s. experienced. 

Esperimentamos, F. Esperementar, 
ind. pret. lp. we experienced 

Esperimentaron, F. Esperimentar 9 
ind. pret. 3p. they experienced. 

Espero, F. Esperar, ind. pret. 3s, 
waited for. 

Espeso-a, a. thick, condensed, 
close. 

E spina, sf. brier, thorn. 

Espino, sm. thorn, buckthorn. 

Espinoso-a, a. briery, thorny, ar- 
duous, rugged. 

Espirante, part. pres. breathing, ex- 
piring, respiring. 

Espirar, inf. vn. to expire, to breathe 
the last. 

Espirara, F. Espirar, ind. fat. 3s. 
will expire. 

Espirara, F. Espirar, subj. 1 impf. 
1 or 3s. would expire. 

Espiritu, sm. spirit, mind, courage, 

Esplendente, a. shining, resplen- 
dent, radiant. 

199 



EST 



EST 



Esplendor, sm. splendour, magnifi 

cence, grandeur. 
Esplica, F. Esplicar, ind. pres. 3s, 

it, he, or she explains. 
Esplican, F. Esplicar, ind. pres. 3p. 

they explain. 
Esplicando, F. Esplicar, ger. ex- 
plaining. 
Esplicar, inf. va. to explain, to ex- 
plicate, to elucidate. 
Esponen, F. Esponer, ind. pres. 3p. 

they expose. 
Esponer, inf. va. to expose, to ex- 
plain, to publish. 
Espongan, F. Esponer, subj. pres. 

3p. let them expound. 
Espongo, F. Esponer, ind. pres. 3s. 

I expose. 
Esponia, F. Esponer, ind. impf 1 

or 3s. exposed. 
Esposa, sf. wife. 
Esposo, sm. spouse, husband. 
Espresion, sf. expression, word. 
Espreso, sm. messenger, express. 
Espreso-a, a. expressed, not under- 
stood, clear, manifest. 
Espuma, sf. froth, foam. 
Espumoso-a, a. frothy, spongy, fu- 
rious, agitated. 
Esqueleto, sm. skeleton. 
Esquisito-a, a. exquisite, curious,. 

consummate. 
Esta, pron. dem. sf. o. or n. this. 
Esta, F. Estar, ind. pres. 3s. is. 

lies, exists. 
Estaba, F. Estar, ind. impf. 1 or 3s. 

was ; se estaba, remained. 
Estaban, F. Estar, ind. impf. 3p. 

they were. 
Establecer, inf. va. to settle, to es- 
tablish, to found. 
Estableci, F. Establecer, ind. fret. 

Is. I established. 
Estableci eron, F. Establecer, ind. 

pret. 3p. they established. 
Estaca, sf. stake, stick, cudgel. 



Estado, sm. state, situation, condi- 
tion, rank ; commonwealth. 
. Estais, F. Estar, ind. pres. 3p. you 
are. 
E stall i do, sm. cracking, bursting. 
Estamos, F. Estar, ind. pres. lp 

we are. 
Estan, F. Estar, ind, pres. 3p. they 

are ; se estan, remain. 
Estando, F. Estar, ger. being, ex- 
isting. 
jEstanque, sm. pond, monopoly, 

custom-house. 
'Estar, inf. vn. to be, to exist. 
Estara, F. Estar, ind. fut. 3s. will 

be, there will be. 
E stare, F. Estar, ind. fut. Is. I shall 

or will be. 
Estaria, F. Estar, subj. 1 impf 1 or 

3s. would be. 
Estas, F. Estar, ind. pres. 2s. thou 

art. 
Estatua, sf. statue, a stupid person. 
Estatura, sf. stature, height. 
Estatuto, sm. statute, law, ordi- 
nance. 
Este, pron. dem. sm. o. or n. this, 

this one, the latter. 
Este, F. Estar, subj. pres. 1 or 3s. 

I, or he may be. 
Estender, inf. pres. va. to extend, 
to enlarge, to widen, to expatiate. 
Estendi, F. Estender, ind. pret. Is. 

I extended. 
Estendimos, F. Estender, ind. pret. 

lp. we extended. 
Es tension, sm. extension, expatia- 

tion. 
Estenuado, F. Estenuar, part, ex- 
tenuated, diminished. 
Esteril, a. barren, unfruitful. 
Esterilidad, sf. sterility, barren- 
ness. 
Esterior, sm. exterior, outward ap- 
pearance. 
Esterior, a. exterior, external. 
200 



EST 



EST 



Esterioridad, sf. exterior, outward 
demonstration, show. 

Estes, F. Estar, subj. pres. 2s. thou 
mayst be. 

Estiende, F. Estender, ind. pres. 3s. 
extends. 

Estiio, sin. style, diction, manner, 
mode. 

Estima, F. Esiimar, ind. pres. 3s. 
esteems. 

Estimable, a. amiable, estimable, 
valuable. 

Estimacion, sf. value, merit; es- 
teem, love. 

Estimar, inf. va. to estimate, to es- 
teem, to value, to like. 

Estincion, sin. extinction, destruc- 
tion. 

Estio, sm. summer, dog-days. 

Esto, pron. dem. neut. o. or n. this. 

Estoi, F. Estar, ind. pres. Is. I am. 

Estomago, sm. stomach. 

Estos-as, pron. dem. p. o. or n. 
these. 

Estopa, sf tow, oakum, coarse 
cloth. 

Estragado-a, F. Estragar, part, de- 
based, destroyed, ruined, disfi- 
gured. 

Estrago, sm. ravage, ruin, havoc. 

Estrajo, F. Estraer, ind. pret. 3s. 
extracted. 

Estranjero, sm. stranger, foreigner, 
alien. 

Estranjero, a. foreign, exterior. 

Estrana, ind. pres. 3s. he finds new, 
foreign to him. 

Estranar, inf. va. to be astonished 
at ; to banish ; to miss ; to ad- 
mire. 

Estrano, ind. pret. 3s. it, he, or she 
admired, was astonished at. 

Estrano, a. foreign, strange, cu- 
rious ; s. a stranger. 

Estraordinariamente, ad. extraordi- 
narily. 



Estraordinario-a, a. extraordinary 
uncommon. 

Estratajema, sf. stratagem, artifice, 
dilemma. 

Estravagancia, sf. extravagance, 
irregularity, disorder. 

Estravagante, a. extravagant. 

Estraer, inf. va. to extract, to draw 

Estrecha, F. Estrechar, imp. pres. 
2s. make thou it tighter, clasp, 
embrace. 

Estrecha, F. Estrechar, ind. pres. 
3s. he renders tighter, clasps, em- 
braces. 

Estrechando, F. Estrechar, ger. 
narrowing, confining. 

Estrechar, inf. va. to tighten, to 
confine, to constrain. 

Estrechasen, F. Estrechar, subj. 3 
impf. Sp. they should tighten 

Estrechez, sf. narrowness, intima- 
cy, austerity, poverty. 

Estrecho-a, a. narrow, intimate, 
familiar, indigent ; s. a strait. 

Estrechura, sf. narrowness, auste- 
rity, danger, familiarity. 

Estrelia, sf. star, planet. 

Estrellar, inf. pres. va. to dash, to 
break, to confound. 

Estremecer, inf. va. to shake, to 
make tremble, to be amazed. 

Estremeceran, F. Estremecer, ind. 
fut. Sp. they will shudder. 

Estremidad, sf. extremity, excess 

Estremo, sm. extreme, highest de- 
gree. 

Estrepito, mi. noise, clamour. 

Estruendo, s?n. noise, confusion, 
bustle. 

Estudiante, sm. student, scholar, 
pupil. 

Estudiar, inf. va. to study. 

Estudio, sm. study, calculation, ap- 
plication, oifice. 

Estuvieron, F. Estar, ind. pret. 3p 
they were. 

201 



FAM 



FEB 



Estuvo, F. Estar, ind. prel. 3s. 
was. 

Eternamente, ad. eternally, for 
ever. 

Eternidad, sf. eternity, long conti- 
nuance. 

Lterno-a, a. eternal, durable, end- 
less ; 5. the Eternal. 



lEtre, sub. prop. m. Etre, a French 

Marshal. 
Europa, sub. prop. f. Europe. 
Eusebio, sm. prop. Eusebius, a 

man's name. 
Evitar, inf. pres. va. to avoid, to 

escape, to free one's self from 

vassalage. 



Fabric a, sf. manufactory, fabric. 
Fabricado, part, built, constructed, 

manufactured. 
Facil, a. easy, not difficult. 
Facilidad, sf facility, ease, levity, 

licentiousness. 
Faciiitar, inf. va. to facilitate, to 

render easier. 
Facineroso-a, a. wicked, atrocious, 

bad. 
Facultad, sf faculty, power, force, 

ftdtsnce. 
Faja, sm. bandage, roller, belt. 
Fajardo, sub. prop. m. see Saavedra 

Fajardo. 
Faida, sf. skirt, lap, brow of a 

hill, leaf of a hat. 
False an, F. Falsear, ind. pres. Sp. 

they counterfeit. 
Faisear, inf. pres. va. to adulterate, 

to falsify, to counterfeit. 
Falsedad, sf. falsehood, deceit. 
F;ilso-a, a. false, deceitful, counter- 
feited. 
Falta, sf. fault, defect, mistake. 
F Uta, F. Faltar, ind. pres. 3s. w T ants, 

fails. 
Faltaba, F. Faltar, ind. impf. 3s. 

he was wanting. 
Faltar, inf. vn. to be wanting, to 

fail. 
Faitaron, F. Faltar, ind, pret. Sp. 

wanted, failed. 
Fama, sf. fame, renown, report. 



Familia, sf. family, house. 

Fainiliaridad, sf. familiarity, easi- 
ness of intercourse. 

Famoso-a, a. famous, renowned, 
noted. 

Fanal, sm. lamp, lanthorn, light. 

Fantasia, sf. fancy, imagination, 
vanity. 

Fantasma, sf. phantom, spectre, a 
presumptuous person. 

Fasti dio, sm. tedium, wearisome- 
ness, irksomeness. 

Fatiga, sf. fatigue, weariness, toil. 

Fatiga, F. Fatigar, ind. pres. 3s. 
fatigues. 

Fatigado, F. Fatigar, part, fatigued, 
tired, molested, wearied. 

Fatigar, inf. 3s. to fatigue, to tire, 
to harass, to molest, 

Fatuo, adj. stupid, imbecile. 

Favor, sm. favour, patronage, pro- 
tection, means. 

Favorable, a. favourable, advan- 
tageous, propitious. 

Favorecer, inf. va. to favour, to 
protect, to grant favours. 

Favorecido, F. Favorecer, part, fa- 
voured, protected. 

Faz, sf. face, superficies. 

Fe, sf. faith, fealty, parole, cre- 
dence. 

Fealdad, sf. ugliness, deformity. 

Febo, sub. prop. m. Phoebus, or the 
sun. 

202 



FER 



FOE 



Febeo-a, a. brilliant, shining, reful- 
gent. 

Fecundo-a, a. fertile, fecund, proli- 
fic. 

Feijoo, sub. prop. m. Feijoo, (Frai 
Benito Jeroninio,) a distinguished 
Spanish popular writer of the last 
century, styled sometimes, with 
great propriety, 'the Spanish Ad- 
dison.' He devoted his great ta- 
lents and his long life to the refu- 
tation of vulgar errors, and the 
abolition of prejudices. A selec- 
tion of his works has been trans 
lated into English. Born 1676; 
died 1764. 

Felice, a. happy, successful, felici 
tous. The same as Feliz. 

Felicidad, sf. felicity, happiness, 
success. 

Felics, sub. prop. m. Felix, a man's 
name. 

Felipe, sub. prop. m. Philip, a man's 
name. 

Feliz, a. happy, felicitous. 

Fenecer, inf. va. to die, to termi 
nate, to be no mor?. 

Fenecer, inf. va. to finish, to con- 
clude, to terminate. 

Fenicio, sm. Phoenician, a native of 
Phoenicia. 

Feo-a, a. ugly, deformed; s. ugly 
person. 

Ferian, F. Feriar, ind. pres. 3p. 
they barter, sell, or buy. 

Fernando, sub. prop. m. Ferdinand, 
a man's name. 

Ferocidad, sf. ferocity, cruelty. 

Feroz, a. ferocious, fierce, formida- 
ble. 

Fertil, a. fertile, prolific. 

Feitilidad, sf. fertility, fecundity, 
plenty. 

Ferviente, a. fervent, ardent, burn- 
ing. 



Festivo-a, a. festive, gay, merry, 

lively. 
Fetido-a, adj. fetid, stinking. 
Fiado-a, part, trusting, relying; 

trusted ; on credit. 
Fiel, a. faithful, true, loyal. 
Fiero-a, a. savage, fierce ; violent, 

angry. 
Fiera, sf. a wild beast. 
Figuraban, F. Figurar, ind. imp, 

Sp. figured. 
Fijarse, vr. inf. to be fixed, to be 

absorbed. 
Fin, sm. end ; en fin, at last, in fine ; 

al fin, after all. 
Firme, a. firm, strong, unbending, 

inflexible. 
Flaco-a, a. weak, feeble, lean, 

meagre. 
Flame nco-a, sub. a Fleming, or na- 
tive of Flanders. 
Flamenco-a, a. Flemish. 
Flaqueza, sf. weakness, foible. 
Flauta, sf flute. 
Flecsible, a. flexible, docile. 
Flegmatico-a, adj. phlegmatic, cold. 
Flojedad, sm. weakness, foible, la- 
ziness. 
Flor, sf. flower, bloom. 
Flora, sf. Flora, the goddess of 

flowers and gardens. 
Flore ce, F. Florecer, ind. pres. 3s. 

it, he, or she flourishes. 
Florecen, F. Florecer, ind. pres. Sp. 

they flourish. 
Florecer, inf. vn. to flourish, to 

bloom, to blossom, to prosper. 
Flore ncia, sub. prop, f Florence, a 

town in Italy. 
Fondo, sm. bottom, ground of stuifs. 
Forma, sf. form ; way, means. 
Forma, F. Formar, ind. pres. 3s.it, 

he or she forms. 
Formaban, F. Formar, ind. impf. 

Sp. they formed. 

203 



FRE 



FUf 



Form ad, F. Foi-mar, imp. pres. 2p. 
form ye, or you. 

Formado-a, a. formed, fashioned, 
completed, accustomed. 

Forman, F. Formar, ind. pres. 3p. 
they form. 

Formar, inf. va. to form, to shape, 
to make, to put in order. 

Formaron, F. Formar, ind. pret. 3p. 
they formed. 

Form-as, F. Formar, ind. pres. 2s. 
thou formest. 

Fortaleza, sf. fortress, fortitude, 
strength, firmness. 

Fortificaron, F. Fortificar, ind. pret. 
3p. fortified. 

Fortuna, sf. fortune, luck, success ; 
state, condition. 

Forzado-a, a. forced, obliged, ra- 
vished. 

Forzoso-a, a. necessary, indispen- 
sable. 

Fragmento, sm. fragment, vestige, 
sign. 

Fragor, sm. smell, scent, noise. 

Fragoso-a, a. rough, uneven. 

Fragura, sf. roughness, impervious- 
ness. 

Frai, sm. brother; a title by which 
the members of religious orders, 
or monks are distinguished. It 
means Fraile, monk. 

Frajilidad, sf. fragility, weakness, 
debility. 

Frances-a, a. French ; s. French- 
man. 

Francisco, sub. prop. m. Francis, a 
man's name. 

Franco-a, a. frank, open, free. 

Franquea, F. Franquear, ind. pres. 
3s. he grants. 

Freno, sm. reins, curb, bridle. 

Frente, sf front, forehead, counte- 
nance. 

Fresco-a, a. fresh, new, cheerful. 



Frescura, sf. coolness, freshness, 

amenity. 
Frio, a. cold. 
Frio, sm. cold. 

Frito-a, F. Freir, part, adjec. fried. 
Frontera, sf. frontier, confine ; a. 

opposite to, in front of. 
Fruncido-a, a. frizzled, corrugated, 

or wrinkled. 
Frunciendo, F. Fruncir, ger. frown- 
ing, looking stern. 
Fruncir, inf. pres. va. to frown, to 

knit, to look stern, to contract. 
Frutal, sub. collec. m. orchard, a 

number of fruit trees. 
Frutal, a. fruitful, fruit; drbol fru- 
tal, fruit tree. 
Fruto, sm. fruit, advantage, result. 
Fue, F. Ser, ind. pret. 3s. he was. 
Fuego, sm. fire, conflagration. 
Fuente, sf. fountain, spring, source. 
Fuentes (Conde de,) sub. prop. m. 

an eminent Spaniard. 
Fuera, F. Ser, subj. 1 impf. 1 or 3s. 

would or should be. 
Fuera, prep, out, except, without ; 

fuera de, besides. 
Fuera, ad. abroad. 
Fue re, F. Ser, subj. fut. 1 or 3s. 

should be. 
Fueres, F. Ser, subj. fut. 2s. thou 

shouldst be. 
Fueron, F. Ser, ind. pret. 3p. they 

were. 
Fuerte, a. strong, massy, hard. 
Fuerza, sf. strength, force ; a fuer- 

za de, by dint of. 
Fuese, F. Ser, subj. 3 impf. 1 or 3s. 

should be, become. 
Fuesen, F. Ser or Ir, subj. 3 impf 

3p. they should be or go. 
Fugaz, a. swift, shy, fugitive. 
Fui, F. Ser, ind. pret. Is. I was, I 

became. 
Fuimos, F. Ser, ind. pret. \p. we 

were. 

204 



GAN 



GLO 



Fuljente, a. refulgent, radiant, bril- 
liant. 

Fundado-a, a. grounded, founded. 

Fundaniento, sm. foundation, origin, 
basis. 

Fundaria, F. Fundar, subj. imp. 3s. 
would found, place. 



Furia, sf. fury, rage, hurry. 
Furioso-a, sub. a furious, violent, or 

frantic person. 
Furor, sf. fury, madness, passion. 
Futilidad, sf. futility, triflingness. 
Futuro, sm. the future, future 

tense. 



G 



Gabinete, sm. room, cabinet, office ; 
closet. 

Gachon, a. pampered, spoiled. 

Gala, sf. gala, or court dress, rich, 
expensive attire. 

Galana, sf. fine, well dressed wo- 
man. 

Galardonar, inf. va. to reward great- 
ly, to recompense abundantly. 

Galatea, sub. prop. f. Galatea, a 
woman's name. 

Galera, sf. galleys, penitentiary. 

Gallardo-a, a. gallant, brave, fa- 
mous. 

Gana, sf. inclination, desire, will. 

Ganaba, F. Ganar, ind. impf. 3s. 
gained. 

Ganaban, F. Ganar, ind. impf. 3p. 
they gained. 

Ganado, F. Ganar, part, gained, 
won. 

Ganados, sm. p. sheep, cattle. 

Ganan, F. Ganar, ind. pres. Sp. 
they gain. 

Ganando, F. Ganar, ger. gaining, 
winning, attaining. 

Ganar, inf. va. to win, to gain, to 
earn, to attain. 

Ganar voluntades, v. to please, to 
obtain the general good will. 

Ganaron, F. Ganar, ind. pret. Sp. 
they gained. 

Ganas, F. Ganar, ind. pres. 2s. thou 
gainest. 

18 



Ganote, $m. wind-pipe, throat, 
glottis. 

Garcia Malo, sm. prop, a distin- 
guished Spanish anecdote writer 
of the last century; celebrated 
for his collection of little stories, 
which he entitled Voz de la Na- 
turaleza, 'The Voice of Nature.' 

Garcilaso, sub. prop. m. Garcilaso, 
one of the most classic, elegant, 
and polished lyric poets of Spain. 
Born in 1503 ; died 1536. 

Garfio, sm. a hook ; gdrfio de hierro, 
iron-hook. 

Garganta, sf. throat, defile. 

Garra, sf. claw, talon, paw. 

Garrote, sm. stick, pole, a strangling 
scaffold ; dar garrote, to strangle. 

Garza, sf. heron, plume. 

Gastando, F. Gastar, ger. spending, 
wasting. 

Gastar, inf. va. to spend, to grow 
old, to become useless. 

Gastas, F. Gastar, ind. pres. 3s. thou 
spendest. 

Gasto, F. Gastar, ind. pret. 3s. he 
spent. 

Gasto, sm. expense. 

Globo, sm. the globe, the earth. 

Gloria, sm. glory, fame, renown. 

Gloria, F. Glonar, ind. pres. 3s. 
glories in. 

Gloriar, inf. vr. to glory, to pride 
one's self, to brag. 

Glorieta, sf summer-house, bower. 
205 



GRA 



GRA 



Gnido, sub. prop./. Gnidus, an an- 
cient promontory. 
Gobernador, sm. governor, ruler. 
Gobernar, inf. va. to govern, to rule, 

to sway, to master. 
Gobierna, F. Gobernar, ind. pres. 

3s. governs. 
Gobierno, sm. government. 

Goce, F. Gozar, imp. pres. 3s. let 
him enjoy. 

Goce, F. Gozar, subj. pres. 1 or 3s. 
I, he, she or it may enjoy. 

Goce, sm. enjoyment. 

G6do-a, a. Gothic ; s. a Goth. 

Goloso-a, a. gluttonous, epicurean. 

Golpe, sm. blow, stroke ; measure. 

Gondolero, sm. boatman. 

G6rdo-a, a. thick, fat, big. 

Gorra, sf. cap ; meter gorra, to 
sponge. 

G6tico-a, a. gothic, illustrious, no- 
ble. 

Goza, F. Gozar, ind. pres. 3s. he 
enjoys. 

Gozaba, F. Gozar, ind. impf. 1 or 
3s. enjoyed. 

Gozaban, F. Gozar, ind. imp. Sp 
they enjoyed. 

Gozado, F. Gozar, part, enjoyed, 
rejoiced. 

Gozado-a, part. abs. being enjoyed 

Gozan, F. Gozar, ind. pres. Sp. 
they enjoy. 

Gozar, inf. j;a. to enjoy, to be de- 
lighted with, to rejoice. 

Gozo, F. Gozar, ind. pres. Is. I 
enjoy. 

Gozo, F. Gozar, ind. pret. 3s. en- 
joyed. 

Gozo, sm. enjoyment, pleasure, ju- 
bilee, cheer. 

Gozoso-a, a. joyful, cheerful, con- 
tent. 

Gracia, sf. thanks, grace, gift ; witty 
saying. 



Gracian, (Baltasar,) sm. prop. Gre- 
cian, a celebrated satirical and 
political writer of Spain. Born 
in Calatayud, Aragon, at the end 
of the 16th, or beginning of the 
17th century ; died in 1658. 
Graciosamente, ad. gratuitously, 
with grace, tastefully, exquisitely. 
Graciosisimo-a, a. super, extremely 

graceful, very witty. 
Gracioso-a, sub. merry andrew, 

harlequin, comic actor. 
Gracioso-a, a. graceful, accom- 
plished, facetious, pleasant, de- 
lightful. 

Grado, sm. degree, step, will. 

Gran. a. great, eminent, large, con- 
tracted from grande. 

Grana, sf. red or scarlet; (colour) 
cochineal. 

Granada (Frai Luis de) sm. prop. 
Granada, one of the most distin- 
guished pulpit orators and ascetic 
writers Spain has produced. 
Born in the city of Granada, 
whose name he adopted, in 1504 ; 
died 1588. 

Granada, sub. prop, f Granada, a 
city of Spain. 

Granada, sf. hand-granade (a small 
ball filled with powder,) pome- 
granate (a fruit.) 

Granadino-a, sm. or /. a native of 
Granada. 

Grande, sm. grandee, a title by 
which the nobles of Spain are 
distinguished. 

Grande, a. great, eminent, large. 

Grandez, sm. greatness, eminence, 
bigness. 

Grande za, sf. greatness, grandeur, 
pre-eminence. 

Grandisimo- a, a. super, most great, 
most excellent. 

Granero, sm. granary, fruitful coun* 
try. 

206 



GUA 



GuS 



Granjea, F. Granjear, ind.pres. 3s. 
he gains, attracts. 

Granjeaban, F. Granjear, ind. impf. 
Sp. they attracted. 

Granjear, inf. va. to acquire, to ob- 
tain, to attract, to gain. 

Granjees, F. Granjear, subj. pres. 
2s. thou canst gain. 

Gratitud, sf. gratitude, thankful 
ness. 

Grave, a. grave, serious, important ; 
dreadful. 

Gravedad, sf. gravity, heaviness 
greatness; enormity. 

Gravisimo-a, a. super, very or most 
grave, momentous. 

Gregueria, sf. confused noise, out- 
cries, bustle. 

Griego-a, a. Grecian, Greek. 

Grita, F. Gritar, ind. pres. 3s. he 
cries out. 

Gritan, F. Gritar, ind. pres. Sp. they 
shout. 

Gritar, inf. vn. to shout, to hoot, to 
cry, to make a noise. 

Grito, STTi. shout, cry, voice. 

Grose 11a, sf. a currant. 

Grosero-a, a. rough, uncourteous, 
coarse, rude, unpolished. 

Grueso-a, a. thick, large ; s. thick- 
ness, bigness. 

Guarda, sm. guard, protection, cus- 
tom-house officer. 

Guardaban, F. Guardar, ind. impf 
Sp. they kept. 

Guardado, F. Guardar, part, kept, 
guarded, protected. 

Guardado-a, part. abs. being kept, 
guarded, protected. 



Guardador, sm. keeper, guardian. 

Guardamos, F. Guardar, ind. pres. 
\p. we keep. 

Guardando, F. Guardar, ger. keep- 
ing, preserving. 

Guardan, F. Guardar, ind.pres. Sp. 
they keep. 

Guardar, inf. va. to keep, to guard, 
to preserve. 

Guard as, F. Guardar, ind. pres. 2s. 
thou keepest. 

Guardia, sf guard, watch. 

Guardo, F. Guardar, ind. pres. Is. 
I keep. 

Guardo, F. Guardar, ind. pret. 3s. 
I kept. 

Guarnecido-a, F. Guarnecer, part. 
garnished, garrisoned. 

Guarnicion, sf garrison ; ornament, 
flounce, trimming. 

Guerra, sf. war. 

Guiado, F. Guiar, part, guided. 

Guiado-a, a. guided. 

Guiar, inf. va. to guide, to com- 
mand, to show, to direct. 

Guido, sub. prop. m. Guido, 'the 
most charming and graceful pain- 
ter that Italy ever produced.' 
Born 1575 ; died 1642. 

Guirnalda, sf. wreath, laurel, myr- 
tle. 

Guio, F. Guiar, ind. pret. 3s. guided. 

Gula, sf gluttony. 

Gustan, F. Gustar, ind. pres. 3s. 
they taste, or like. 

Gustar, inf. va. to taste, to enjoy, 
to like, to be pleased with. 

Gusto, sm. taste, pleasure, deligh* 
enjoyment. 



207 



fJB 



-CRE 



v?TVJr 



H 



Ha, F. Haber, ind. pres. 3s. has, is, 

there is. 
Habeis, F. Haber, ind. pres. Sp. 

have, are, there are. 
Habeinos, F. Haber, ind. pres. \p. 

have, are, there are. 
Haber, inf. va. aux. and imp. to 

have, to hold; there to be, to be. 
Haber, Haberes, sm. property; 

wealth. 
Haber de, vn. must, to be obliged 

to. 
Habia, F. Haber, ind. impf. 1 or 3s. 

I or he, had; there was, or were. 
Habian, F. Haber, ind. impf. Sp. 

they had. 
Habias, F. Haber, ind. impf 2s. thou 

hadst. 
Habido, F. Haber, part. had. 
H&hido-a., part, adjec. had, possessed 
Habiendo, F. Haber, ger. having. 
Habita, F. Habitar, ind. pres. 3s. it, 

he, or she inhabits. 
Habitacion, sf habitation, abode, 

mansion, dwelling. 
Habitador, sm. inhabitant, resident. 
Habitais, F. Habitar, ind. pres. lp. 

you or ye inhabit. 
Habitante, sm. inhabitant, resident. 
Habitar, inf. va. to inhabit, to live 

in, to reside. 
Habito, sm. custom, manner, habit 

dress, costume. 
Habitua, F. Habituar, ind. pres. 3s. 

accustoms. 
Habituar, inf. pres. vn. to accustom, 

to inure ; vr. to accustom one's 

self. 
Habia, sf. speech, talk. 
Habia, F. Hablar, ind. pres. 3s. 

speaks. - 
Hablaba, F. Hablar. ind. impf, 1 or 

3s. spoke. 



Hablaban, F. Hablar, ind. impf. Sp. 

they spoke. 
Hablado, F. Hablar, part, spoken, 

said. 
Hablador, sub. babbler, talker ; 

speaker. 
Habian, F. Hablar, ind. pres. Sp. 

they speak. 
Hablando, F. Hablar, ger. speaking, 

talking. 
Hablar, inf. pres. vn. to speak ; va. 

to utter, to say, to discourse on. 
Hablara, F. Hablar, ind. fnt. 3s. 

will speak. 
Habias, F. Hablar, ind. pres. 2s. 

thou speakest. 
Hablase, F. Hablar, subj. 3 impf. 1 

or 3s. should speak. 
Hable, F. Hablar, imp. pres. 3s. let 

him speak. 
Hablo, F. Hablar, ind. pret. 3s. 

spoke. 
Habra, F. Haber, ind. fut. 3s. will 

or shall have. 
Habra, F. Haber, ind. fut. 3s. or p. 

there will be. 
Habran, F. Haber, ind. fut. Sp. they 

shall or will have. 
Habras, F. Haber, ind. fat. 2s. thou 

shalt or wilt have. 
Hace, F. Hacer, ind. pres. 3s. does 

or makes. 
Hace, F. Hacer, ind. pres. 3s. it is, 

it makes. 
Haced, F. Hacer, imp. pres. 2p. do, 

or vouchsafe thou. 
Hacemos, F. Hacer, ind. pres. lp. 

we make. 
Hacen, F. Hacer, ind. pres. Sp. they 

do or make. 
Haces, F. Hacer, ind. pres. 2s. thou 

makest. 

208 



HAL 



HAR 



Hacer, inf. va. to make, to do, to 

commit ; to order. 
Hacerse, inf. vr. to make one's self, 

to become. 
Hacer saber, comp.va. to inform, to 

let know. 
Hacia, F. Hacer, ind. impf. 1 or 3s. 

made. 
Hacia, F. Hacer, ind. impf. 3s. it 

was, made, did. 
Hacia, prep, towards, to. 
Hacian, F. Hacer, ind. impf Sp. 

they made, did. 
Hacias, F. Hacer, ind. impf 2s. thou 

madest. 
Hacienda, sf state, fortune, lands, 

real estate, wealth. 
Haciendo, F. Hacer, ger. making, 

doing. 
Haga, F. Hacer, imp. pres. 3s. let 

him make. 
Haga, F. Hacer, subj. pres. I or 3s. 

she may make. 
Hagais, F. Hacer, subj. pres. 2p. 

you may order. 
Hagamos, F. Hacer, subj. pres. lp. 

we may do, or let us do. 
Hagan, F. Hacer, subj. pres. Sp. 

they may make. 
Hagas, F. Hacer, subj. pres. 2s. thou 

may est make. 
Hai, F. Haber, ind. pres. 3s. or p. 

there is, or there are. 
Halagado, F. Halagar,part. allured, 

cajoled, flattered, caressed. 
Halagan, F. Halagar, ind. pres. Bp. 

they allure, flatter. 
Halagar, inf. va. to attract, to allure, 

to ensnare, to caress. 
Halla, F. Hallar, imp. pres. 2s. find 

thou. 
Halla, F. Hallar, ind. pres. 3s. finds. 
Hallaba, F. Hallar, ind. impf 1 or 

3s. found. 
Hallabamos, F. Hallar, ind. impf 

lp. found. 
18* 



Hallaban, F. Hallar, ind. impf Bp. 

found. 
Hallado, F. Hallar, part, found, 

met, found. 
Hallan, F. Hallar, ind. pres. Sp. 

they find. 
Hallando, F. Hallar, ger. finding, 

meeting. 
Hallar, inf. va. to find, to encounter, 

to meet, to discover. 
Hallara, F. Hallar, ind. fat. 3s. will 

find. 
Hallaras, F. Hallar, ind. fat. 2s. thou 

wilt find. 
Hallaremos, F. Hallar, ind. fat. lp 

we shall or will find. 
Hallarian, F. Hallar, subj. 2 impf. 

Bp. they would find. 
Hallaron, F. Hallar, ind. pret. Sp. 

they found. 
Hallas, F. Hallar, ind. pres. 2s. 

thou findest. 
Halle, F. Hallar, imp. pres. 3s. let 

him find. 
Halle, F. Hallar, subj. pres. 1 or 3s. 

may find. 
Hallo, F. Hallar, ind. pres. Is. I 

find. 
Hallo, F. Hallar, ind. pret. 3s. found. 
Hambre, sf. hunger, desire. 
Hampa, sm. bully, bragger. 
Han, F. Haber, ind. pres. Bp. they 

have, there are. 
Hara, F. Hacer, ind. fit. 3s. shall 

or will make. 
Haras, F. Hacer, ind. fit. 2s. thou 

shalt or wilt make, or do. 
Hare, F. Hacer, ind. fat. Is. I shall 

or will do, or make. 
Haria, F. Hacer, subj. 1 impf 1 or 

3s. would do, make. 
Harias, F. Hacer, subj. 1 impf 2s. 

thou wouldst do, or make. 
Harmon i a, sf harmony, concord. 
Hartar, inf. va. to feed, to glut, to 

satiate. 

209 



HER 



HOL 



Harto-a, a. full, very, surfeited. 

Has, F. Haber, ind. pres. 2s. thou 
hast, dost. 

Hasta, or hasta que, prep, till, until, 
as far as, about, up to. 

Haya, F. Haber, subj. pres. 1 or 3s. 
may have ; s. beech-tree. 

Hay as, F. Haber, subj. pres. 2s. thou 
inayest have. 

Haz, sf. superficies, face, counte- 
nance ; va. make, do. 

Hazaiia, sf. exploit, achievement. 

He, F. Haber, ind. pres. Is. I have; 
he de, I must, I am to. 

Hebra, sf. hair, thread, silk, fibre. 

Hechiza, F. Hechizar, ind. pres. 3s. 
it, he, or she charms. 

Hechizar, inf. pres. va. to bewitch, 
to charm, to please, to enrapture, 
to fascinate. 

Hecho, F. Hacer, part, made, done ; 
being accustomed, inured. 

Hecho, s. deed, exploit, action. 

Hechor, sm. maker, performer, he 
who commits an act. 

Hediondo-a, adj. fetid, stinking. 

Helado-a, a. frozen, congealed. 

Helar, inf. v. imp. to freeze, to con- 
geal, to coagulate. 

Hembra, sf female; nut, eye. 

Hemos, F. Haber, ind. pres. lp. we 
have. 

Henrique, sub. prop. m. Henry, a 
man's name. 

Heredad, sf. farm, plantation ; pro- 
perty, heritage. 

Heredcro, sub. heir; sf. Heredera, 
heiress. 

Herida, sf. wound, sore, severe blow. 

Hermana, sf. sister. 

Hermano, sm. brother. 

Hermoso-a, a. beautiful, handsome. 

Hermosura, sf. beauty, symmetry. 

Herodoto, sub. prop. m. Herodotus, 
the oldest profane historian 
known. 



Hero'icidad, sf. heroic action. 

Heroico-a, a. heroic, heruical. 

Herreruelo, sm. a long cloak* a 
small piece of iron. 

Hervir, inf. mi. to boil, to swarm, to 
be crowded. 

Hice, F. Hacer, ind. pret. Is. made, 
drew. 

Hicieron, F. Hacer, ind. pret. Sp. 
made. 

Hiciese, F. Hacer, subj. 3 impf. 1 
or 3s. I or he should confer on. 

Hiciste, F. Hacer, ind. pret. 2s. thou 
madest, or didst. 

Hidalgo, sm. nobleman, a noble. 

Hidropico, a. hydropic, diseased 
with the dropsy. 

Hiela, F. Helar, ind. 3s. it freezes. 

Hierba, sf herb, grass. 

Hierro, sm. iron. 

Hierven, F. Hervir, ind. pres. Sp. 
they swarm. 

Hija, sf. daughter, child. 

Hi jo, sm. son, child, young one. 

Hijuelo-a, sub. young one, a young 
child, dim. of Hijo. 

Hilaza, sf yarn, thread, coarse stuff. 

Hipocresia, sf. hypocrisy, dissimu- 
lation. 

Hipocrita, sub. hypocrite. 

Hipocrita, a. hypocritical, dissem- 
bling. 

Historia, sf history, story, narra- 
tion. 

Historiador, sm. historian, narrator. 

Hizo,- F. Hacer, ind. j)res. 3s. did, 
made, become. 

Hoguera, sf. fire ; bon-fire. 

Hoi, ad. to-day, this day. 

Hoja, sf. leaf, blade, scale. 

Hoj6so-a, a. leafy, covered with 
leaves. 

Holgaba, F. Holgar, ind. impf 3s. 
was pleased with. 

Holgar, inf. vn. to be pleased, to 
rejoice, to amuse one's self. 
210 



HUB 



HUM 



Hollando, F. Hollar, ger. trampling, 

crushing. 
Hollar, inf. va. to tread, to trample 
upon, to break through. 

Hollas, F. Hollar, ind. pres. 2s. thou 
treadest. 

Hollo, F. Hollar, ind. pret. Bs. tram- 
pled upon. 

Hombre, sm. man, husband. 

Hombro, sm. shoulder. 

Homenaje, sm. homage. 

Hondo, sm. depth, profundity. 

H6ndo-a, a. deep, profound. 

Honestamente, ad. honestly, by 
honourable means. 

Honestidad, sf. honesty, modera- 
tion, modesty, urbanity. 

Honesto-a, a. honest, honourable, 
pure, virtuous. 

Honor, sm. honour, reputation. 

Honra, sf. honour, reverence. 

Honradez, sf. honesty, probity, 
honour. 

Honrado-a, a. honourable, honest, 
exact. 

Honran, F. Honrar, ind. pres. Bp. 
they honour, or worship. 

Honrando, F. Honrar, ger. honour- 
ing. 

Honrar, inf. va. to honour, to reve 
rence, to fondle, to praise. 

Honraron, F. Honrar, ind. pret. Bp. 
they honoured. 

Honras, F. Honrar, ind. pres. Bs. 
thou honourest. 

Hora, sf. hour, time. 

Horrisono, a. thundering, clanking. 

Horror, sm. horror, fright. 

Hosteria, sf. inn, tavern, hotel. 

Hostilidad, sf. hostility. 

Hoz, sm. scythe, sickle, defile. 

Hubieran, F. Haber, subj. impf Bp. 
would, should have. 

Hubieron, F. Haber, ind. pret. Bp. 
they held, or possessed. 



Hubiese, F. Haber, subj. impf. 1 or 

3s. should have. 
Hubiesen, F. Haber, subj. impf. Bp, 

they should have. 
Hubo, F. Haber, ind. pret. Bs. had 

existed, was, were. 
Hueco-a, a. hollow, empty, vain. 
Huela, F. Oler, subj.*pres. 1 or 3s, 

it, he, or she may smell. 
Huele, F. Oler, ind. pres. Bs. it, he. 

or she smells. 
Huelgan, F. Holgar, ind. pres. Bp. 

they are pleased. 
Huella, sm. footstep. 
Huella, F. Hollar, imp. pres. 2s. 

trample thou. 
Huella, F. Hollar, ind. pres. Bs. it, 

he, or she tramples. 
Huellan, F. Hollar, ind. pres. Bp. 

they trample. 
Huellas, F. Hollar, xnd. pres. 2s. 

thou tramplest. 
Huelle, F. Hollar, subj. pres. 1 or 

3s. may trample. 
Huelles, F. Hollar, subj. pres. 2s. 

thou may est trample. 
Hueso, sm. bone, stone, toil. 
Huesped, sm. tavern-keeper, host, 

guest. 
Huespeda, sf. land-lady, female 

tavern-keeper. 
Huevo, sm. egg, spawn. 
Huia, F. Huir, ind. impf. Bs. he 

fled, or shunned. 
Huir, inf. vn. to fly, to escape, to 

shun, to run away. 
Humanidad, sf. humanity, benevo- 
lence. 
Humanidades, sf. p. belles-lettres, 

rhetoric, philology. 
Humano-a, a. human, rational, hu- 
mane. 
Humea, F. Humear, ind. pres. Bs 

smokes. 
Humear, inf. vn. to smoke, to be 

kindled, to be inflamed. 

211 



1GN 



\LV 



Huineas, F. Humear, ind. pres. 2s. 

thou sinokest. 
Huinedecen. F. Humedecer, ind. 

pres. Sp. they moisten. 
Humedecer, inf. va. to moisten, to 

wet, to soak. 
Humildad, sf. humility, meekness, 

mildness. ^ 
Humillacion, sf. humiliation. 
Hurao, sm. smoke, vapour, vanity. 
Humor, sin. humour, moisture. 
Hundido, F. Hundir, part, sunk, 

destroyed. 
Hundido-a, part. abs. being sunk. 
Hurtar, inf. va. to steal, to rob, to 

cheat, to separate. 



Hurtas, h . Hurtar, ind. pres. 2s 

thou stealest. 
Huye, F. Huir, imp. pres. 2s. fly 

thou. 
Huye, F. Huir, ind. pres. Ss. flies. 
Huyen, F. Huir, ind. pres. Sp. they 

fly- 

Huy?ndo, F. Huir, ger. flying, es- 
caping. 

Huyeron, F. Huir, ind. pret. Sp. 
they flew. 

Huyes, F. Huir, ind. pres. 2s. thou 
fliest. 

Huyo, F. Huir, ind. pres. Is. I fly. 

Huyo, F. Huir, ind. pret. Ss. flew. 



i 



fba, F. Ir, ind. impf. 1 or 3s. went, 

was going, 
ibamos, F. Ir, ind. impf Ip. we 

went, were going, 
fban, F. Ir, ind. impf Sp. were 

going, 
fbas, F. Ir, ind. impf. 2s. thou wast 

going. 
Id, F. Ir, imp. pres. 2p. go ye, or 

you. 
Idea, sf. idea, design, notion. 
Idioma, sin. language, tongue, idiom. 
Idiota, sm. idiot. 
Idolatra, sm. idolater. 
Idolo, sm. idol, object of love, or 

esteem. 
Iglesia, sf. church, temple, chapel. 
Ignoraban, F. Ignorar, ind. impf 

Sp. they were ignorant of. 
Ignorancia, sf. ignorance, stupi- 
dity. 
Ignorantemente, ad. ignorantly, 

without knowiedge. 
Ignorar, inf. va. to be ignorant of, 

not to know, to be unacquainted 

with. 



Ignoras, F. Ignorar, ind. pres. 2s. 
thou art ignorant of. 

Igual, a. equal, resembling, even. 

Iguala, F. Igualar, ind. pres. Ss. 
equals. 

Igualar, inf. va. to equal, to equal- 
ize, to level, to make even. 

Igualdad, sf. equality, similitude, 
uniformity. 

Igualmente, ad. equally. 

Ilicito-a, a. illicit, unlawful. 

Ilimitado-a, a. unlimited, boundless, 
unconfined. 

Ilumfna, F. lluminar, ind. pres. Ss. 
illumines. 

jlluminado-a, part, adjec. illumined, 
enlightened, lit, coloured. 

lluminar, inf. va. to illumine, to en- 
lighten, to illuminate. 

Ilusion, sf. illusion, fanciful show. 

Iluso-a, a. deluded, deceived, ridi- 
culed. 

Ilustrado-a, adj. enlightened. 

Ilustre, a. illustrious, magnificent, 
noble. 

212 



IMP 



INC 



Imajen, sf. image, picture, repre- 
sentation, description. 

Imajinacion, sf. imagination, fancy, 
conception, erroneous idea. 

Imajinais, F. Imajinar, ind. pres. 
2p. ye or you imagine. 

Imajinan, F. Imaginar, ind. pres. 
Sp. they imagine. 

Imajinar, inf. va. to imagine, to 
think, to fancy, to apprehend. 

Impaciencia, sf. impatience, vehe- 
mence of temper. 

Impaciente, a. impatient. 

Impedian, F. Impedir, ind. impf Sp. 
they prevented. 

Impedido, F. Impedir, part, im- 
peded, obstructed, prevented. 

Impedir, inf. va. to impede, to ob- 
struct, to hinder, to prevent. 

Impeler, inf. va. to impel, to excite, 
to stimulate. 

Impelio, F. Impeler, ind. pret. 3s. 
impelled. 

Impenetrable, a. impenetrable, in- 
scrutable, incomprehensible. 

Imperio, sm. empire, command. 

Impertinente, sub. an impertinent 
or troublesome person. 

Impertinente, a. impertinent, trou- 
blesome. 

fmpetu, sm. impetus, impetuosity, 
violence. 

Impidiesen, F. Impedir, subj. 3 impf 
Sp. they should impede. 

Implora, F. Implorar, ind. pres. 3s. 
implores. 

implorar, inf. va. to implore, to 
crave, to supplicate, to solicit. 

lmploro, F. Implorar, ind. pret. 3s. 
implored. 

Importancia, sf. importance, con- 
sequence. 

Importunar, inf. va. to importune, 
to vex, to bore, to harass. 

Importunidad, sf importunity, in- 
cessant solicitation. 



Importuno, F. Importunar, ind. 
pret. 3s. wearied. 

Importuno-a, a. importunate, vexa- 
tious. 

Imposible, a. impossible, impracti- 
cable, unfeasible. 

Impresion, sf impression, mark, 
image, 

Impropera, F. Improperar, ind. 
pres. 3s. abuses. 

Improperar, inf. va. to upbraid, to 
abuse. 

Imprudente, a. imprudent, indis- 
creet. 

Impune, a. unpunished, without 
punishment. 

Inaccesible, adv. inaccessible, arm- 
ed against. 

Inadvertido-a, part, adjec. careless, 
inadvertent, unnoticed. 

Inagotable, a. inexhaustible. 

Inanimado-a, a. inanimate, without 
animation. 

Incapaz, sm. incapable, powerless, 
unsuitable. 

Incendiar, inf. va. to set on fire, to 
kindle, to inflame. 

Incendiaron, F. Incendiar, ind. pret. 
Sp. they set on fire. 

Incendio, sm. conflagration, fire. 

Incertidumbre, sf. uncertainty, in- 
certitude. 

Incesante, a. incessant, without in- 
termission. 

Incitacion, sf. excitement, motion, 
stimulant. 

Inclemencia, sf inclemency, rigour, 
severity. 

Inclina, F. Inclinar, ind. pres. 3s. 
inclines. 

Inclinaban, F. Inclinar, ind. impf. 
\p. they were inclined. 

Inclinar, inf. vr. to incline, to bow, 
to induce. 

Inclinara, subj. imp. 3s. should in- 
duce, incline. 

213 



IND 



INS 



mclinas, F. Inclinar, ind. pres. 2s. 
thou art inclined. 

Incomodidad, sf. inconvenience, 
trouble. 

Incomparable, a. matchless, incom- 
parable, not to be acquired. 

Incomprehensible, a. incomprehen- 
sible, not to be understood. 

Inconsiderado, a. rash, thoughtless, 
inattentive, inconsiderate. 

Inconstancia, sf. inconstancy, vola- 
tility, fickleness. 

Inconstante, a. inconstant, change- 
able, volatile. 

Incontrastable, adv. irresistible, 
firm. 

Inconveniente, sm. inconveniency, 
incongruity. 

Inconveniente, a. inconvenient, in- 
commodious. 

Incorporar, inf. va. to incorporate ; 
vr. to be united. 

Incorporaron, F. Incorporar, ind. 
pret. Sp. they incorporated. 

Incorruptible, a. incorruptible, not 
to be perverted or corrupted. 

Increible, a. incredible, not to be 
credited. 

Inculcar, inf. va. to inculcate, to 
impress, to corroborate. 

Inculquen, F. Inculcar, subj. pres. 
Sp. they may inculcate. 

Incumbencia, sf. incumbency, duty. 

Incurren, F. Incurrir, ind. pres. Sp. 
fall into. 

Indica, F. Indicar, ind. pres. 3s. in- 
dicates. 

Indican, F. Indicar, ind. pres. \p. 
they indicate. 

Indicar, inf. va. to indicate, to point 
out, to show. 

Indicio, sm. indication, mark, token 

Indijencia, sf. indigency, poverty, 
penury. 

Indignacion, sf indignation, anger. 



Indigno-a, a. unworthy, undeserv- 
ing, unsuitable, vile. 

Indiscreto-a, a. indiscreet, incau- 
tious, inordinate. 

Indispuesto-a, a. indisposed, ill, 
having some misunderstanding. 

Individuo, sm. individual. 

Industria, sf. arts and manufactures, 
labour; address. 

Infahble, a. infallible, not liable to 
error, certain. 

Infante, sm. Infante, a title given to 
the sons of the king of Spain, the 
heir apparent excepted. It is 
equivalent to prince. 

Infausto-a, a. unfortunate, unhap- 
py, unlucky. 

Infelicidad, sf. misfortune, calamity, 
disgrace. 

Infeh'z, a. unhappy, unfortunate, 
inert. 

Infelizmente, adv. miserably, un- 
happily. 

Inferir, inf. pres. vn. to infer, to de- 
duce, to draw from. 

Infernal, a. infernal, hellish, perni- 
cious. 

Infinito-a, a. infinite, unlimited, 
immense. 

Inflamado-a, a. inflamed, incensed, 
heated. 

Inflamado, F. Inflamar, part, in- 
flamed, kindled. 

Inflecsible, a. inflexible, inexorable, 
stern, unbending. 

Influir, inf. va. to influence, to pre- 
vail upon, to produce. 

Influye, F. Influir, ind. pres. 3s. 
produces. 

Inform aba, F. Informar, ind. impf 
1 or 3s. informed. 

Informar, inf. va. to inform, to make 
acquainted, to instruct. 

Informe, sm. report; information, 
instruction, knowledge. 

Inglaterra, sub. prop. f. England, 
214 



INQ 

the most considerable part of 
Great Britain. 

Ingles-a, a. English ; s. an English- 
man. 

Ingratitud, sf ingratitude, ungrate- 
fulness. 

Ingrato-a, sub. an ungrateful person. 

Ingrato-a, a. ungrateful, unpleasing, 
harsh. 

Inhumano-a, a. inhuman, brutal, 
beastly. 

Injenio, sm. genius, character, mind, 
wit. 

Injenioso-a, a. ingenious, inventive ; 
of genious, of imagination. 

Injenuidad, sf. ingenuousness, can- 
dour. 

Injenuo-a, a. ingenuous, open, can- 
did. 

Injuria, sf. injury, affront, detriment. 

Injustamente, ad. unjustly, wrongly . 

Injurioso-a, a. injurious, contume- 
lious, reproachful. 

Inmediatamente, ad. immediately, 
directly. 

Inmediato-a, a. immediate, contigu- 
ous. 

Inmensidad, sf. immensity, infinity, 
boundlessness. 

Inmenso-a, a. immense, unbounded. 

Inmoble, a. motionless, immovable, 
unshaken, constant. 

Inmortalidad, sf immortality, eter- 
nal life. 

Inmovil, a. immovable, motionless. 

Inimitable, a. immutable, invari- 
able, unalterable. 

Inocencia, sf innocence, purity, 
modesty, sincerity, simplicity. 

Inocente, a. innocent, pure, simple. 

Inquieta, F. Inquietar,ind. pres. 3s. 
troubles. 

Inquietar, inf. va. to harass, to trou- 
ble, to molest, to vex. 

Inquieto-a, a. restless, turbulent, 
clamorous, solicitous. 



[NS 

Inquietud, sf inquietude, restless- 
ness. 

Inquirir, inf. va. to inquire, to exa- 
mine into, to ask for. 

Insaciable, a. greedy, insatiable. 

Insensato-a, a. stupid, thoughtless, 
foolish. 

Insensible, a. insensible, callous, 
unfeeling. 

Inseparable, a. inseparable, not to 
be separated or disconnected. 

Insertado, part, inserted, intro- 
duced. 

Insigne, a. illustrious, eminent, 
great, remarkable. 

Insignia, sf a badge, insignia. 

Insipido-a, a. insipid, tasteless, un- 
pleasant, uninteresting. 

Insistio, F. Insistir, ind. pret. 3s. 
persisted, insisted. 

Insistir, inf. vn. to insist, to rest 
upon, to dwell upon. 

Insolente, a. insolent, impudent, 
shameless, unaccustomed. 

Insondable, a. bottomless, unfa- 
thomable, inscrutable, unsearcha- 
able. 

Inspira, F. Inspirar, ind. pres. 3s. 
inspires. 

Inspiracion, sm. inspiration, infu- 
sion, breathing. 

Inspirar, inf. va. to inspire, to infuse 
into, to animate. 

Inspiraron, F. Inspirar, ind. pret. 
Sp. they inspired. 

Instancia, sf. favour, urgency, per- 
sistence, suit. 

Instando, F. Instar, ger. pressing, 
urging. 

Instante, sm. instant, a short while. 

Instar, inf. va. to press, to urge, to 
urge the execution. 

Instaron, F. Instar, ind. pret. Sp. 
they urged. 

Instinto, sm. instinct, encourage- 
ment, impulse, instigation. 
215 



INT 



fRA 



Instruccion, sf instruction, tuition, 
precepts, information. 

Instruct! vo-a, a. instructive, con- 
veying knowledge. 

Instructor, sm. instructor, teacher, 
professor. 

Instruir, inf. va. to instruct, to 
teach, to inform, to lead into. 

Instrumento, sm. instrument. 

Instruye, F Instruir, ind. pres. 3s. 
instructs. 

Insufrible, a. insufferable, intolera- 
ble, not to be borne or endured. 

Integridad, sf. integrity, purity, 
virginity. 

Intelijencia, sf. intelligence, under- 
standing, knowledge, ability. 

Intencion, sf. intention, purpose, 
design, view. 

Intentar, inf. va. to intend, to at- 
tempt, to try, to endeavour. 

Intento, sm. intent, design, purpose. 

Interceptor, inf. va. to intercept, to 
cut off, to stop and seize. 

Interes, sm. interest, gain, usury. 

Interesa, F. Interesar, ind. pres. 3s. 
is interesting. 

Interesar, inf. vn. to be important, 
to be interesting. 

Interesamos, F. Interesar, ind. pret. 
lp. we interested. 

Interesante, a. interesting, useful, 
convenient, important. 

Interin, ad. meanwhile, whilst. 

Interior, sm. interior, inside. 

Interior, a. internal, inward. 

Interminable, a. everlasting, end- 
less. 

Interrumpiendo, F. Interrumpir, ger. 
interrupting, intruding. 

Interrumpir, inf. va. to interrupt, to 
hinder, to intrude on. 

Interrumpo, F. Interi'umpir, ind. 
pres. Is. I interrupt. 

Intimando, F. Intimar, ger. inti- 
mating, notifying. 



ntimidad, sf. intimacy, familiarity, 
acquaintance, habitude. 

ntimo-a, a. intimate, familiar, in- 
ternal. 

ntrepidez, sf. intrepidity, boldness, 
temerity. 

ntrepido-a, a. intrepid, bold, dar- 
ing. 

ntriga, sf intrigue, artifice. 

ntroducido, F. Introductr, part. 
introduced, conducted. 

ntroduciendo, F. Introductr, ger. 
introducing, bringing to notice. 

ntroducir, inf. va. to introduce, to 
present, to bring into notice. 

ntrodujeron, F. Introducir, ind. 
pret. Sp. they introduced. 

numerable, a. numberless, innu- 
merable, countless. 

nurbano-a, a. impolite, rude, unci- 
vil, uncouth. 

nutil, a. useless, unprofitable. 

nvasion, sf. invasion, attack. 

nvencion, sf. invention, contri- 
vance, discovery. 

nventado-a, a. invented, discover- 
ed, feigned. 

nventaron, F. Inventar, ind. pret. 
Sp. invented. 

nvestiga, F. Investigar, ind. pres. 
3s. investigates. 

nvestigar, inf. va. to investigate, to 
search out, to inquire into. 

nvierno, sm. winter. 

nvisible, a. invisible, impercepti- 
ble. 

nvocacion, sf invocation, prayer, 
supplication. 

nvocando, F. Invocar, ger. invok- 
ing, imploring. 

nvocar, inf. va. to invoke, to call 
on, to implore. 

r, inf. vn. to go, to exist, to lay a 
wager, to be about. 

ra, sf ire, anger, revenge, wrath. 

216 



JEN 



JOC 



Iracundo-a, a. passionate, irasci- 
ble, enraged, furious. 

Ire is, F. Ir, ind. fat. 2p. you shall 
or will go. 

Irracional, a. irrational, stupid, 
foolish ; s. a brute. 

Irremediable, adj. irremediable. 

Irrevocable, a. irrevocable, not to 
be recalled. 

Irrisible, a. -laughable, risible. 

Irrision, sf. derision, contempt, 
scorn. 



Irritar, inf. va. to irritate, to agi- 
tate, to exasperate. 

Isabel, sub. prop. f. Isabella, or 
Elizabeth, a woman's name. 

Isaias, sub. prop. m. Isaiah, the 
prophet. 

Isla, sf. isle, island. 

Isla, sub. prop, f Isla, the surname 
of a distinguished Spanish writer. 

Israel, sub, prop. m. Israel. 

Italia, sub. prop. f. Italy, a country 
in Europe. 



Jaez, sf. kind, species, manner. 

Jamas, ad. never. 

Jardin, sm. garden. 

Jardinero-a, sub. gardener. 

Jasmin, sub. jessamin (a flower.) 

Jefe, S77i. chief, officer, ring-leader. 

Jemido, sm.. groan, lamentation. 

Jeneracion, sf. generation, progeny, 
age. 

Jeneral, sm. general, chief, com- 
mander. 

Jeneralmente, ad. generally, com- 
monly, in the main. 

Jenero, sm. kind, sort. 

Jeneros, sin. p. goods, effects, mer- 
chandise. 

Jenerosidad, sf. generosity, magna- 
nimity, liberality. 

Jenio, sm. genius ; character, dispo- 
sition. 

Jenofonte, sub. prop. m. Xenophon, 
a celebrated Athenian general 
and historian. 

Jenova, sub. prop.f Genoa, a city 
in Italy. 

Jente, sub. collec. f people, an as- 
semblage of persons. 

Jentil, a. gentle, soft, assuaging. 

Jentileza, sf. genteel address, ease, 
politeness, ostentation. 
19 



Jentilhombre, sm. nobleman, lord, 

gentleman. 
Jeograf ia, sf. geography. 
Jermen, sm. germ, seed, source. 
Jeronimo, sm. prop. Jerome, a 

man's name. 
Jerusalen, sub. prop. m. Jerusalem, 

a celebrated city in Asia, capital 

of ancient Judea, and now of 

modern Palestine. 
Jesucristo, sub. prop. m. Jesus 

Christ. 
Jigante, sm. giant, an uncommonly 

large person. 
Jigante, jiganteses, a. gigantic. 
Jil-Blas, sub. prop. m. Gil-Bias, the 

hero of a celebrated Spanish 

novel. 

Jinete, sm. horseman, cavalry. 
Jitaneria, sf. art, trick, wheedling, 

flattery, (used by the gypsies.) 
Jitanillo-a, sub. little gypsy, dim. of 

Jitaao. 
Jitanismo, sub. collec. m. the whole 

body of gypsies. 
Jitano-a, sub. gypsy. 
Joaquin, sm. prop. Joakim, a man's 

christian name. 
Jocosidad, sf. gaiety, mirth, merri- 
ment, jocularity. 

217 



J UN 



JUZ 



Jornada, sf. journey, travel, road, 
act (of a play.) 

Jose\ sub. prop. m. Joseph, a man's 
name. 

J oven, sm. or/, youth, young man 
or lady ; ad. young. 

Joy a, sf. jewel. 

Juan, sm. prop. John, a man's name. 

Juanetudo-a, a, massy, bony. 

Juanot, sub. prop. m. Juanot, the 
name of a personage in the anec- 
dotes of Corpas. 

Juanoteria, sub. prop. m. Juanote- 
n'a, the name of a marquisate in 
the anecdotes of Corpas. 

Jubilado-a, a. emerited; free, ex- 
empt, emeritus. 

Jubilo, cm. jubilee, joy, merriment. 

Jueces, pi. of Juez. 

Juego, sm. play, gambling. 

Juez, sm. judge, arbitrator. 

Jui^aban, F. Juisar, i id. imp/. Zp. 
they played. 

Juguete, sm. toy, trinket, gewgaw. 

Juicio, sm. judgment, opinion. 

Julian, sm. Julianus, a Roman em- 
peror. 

Julio, sub. prop. m. July, the name 
of the seventh month of the year. 

Jumento, sm. ass, beast, stupid per- 
son. 

Junta, ind. pres. 3s. joins ; s. assem- 
bly. 

Juntado, a. and part, united; gath- 
ered, made out, assembled. 

Juntamente, ad. jointly, together, at 
the same time. 

Juntamos, F. Juntar, ind. pres. Ip 
we join. 



Juntan, F. Juntar, ind. pres. Sp 

they join. 
Juntar, inf. va. to join, to unite, to 

assemble. 
Junta ron, F. Juntar, ind. pret. Sp. 

they joined. 
Junto, F. Juntar, ind. pres. Is. I 

join. 
Junto, F. Juntar, ind. pret. 3s. 

joined. 
Junto-a, a. together with, united; 

near, contiguous. 
Jura, F. Juror, imp. pres. 2s. sweaj 

thou. 
Jura, F. Juror, ind. pi-es.Ss. swears. 
Jurado-a, part, sworn to. 
Juran, F. Jurar, ind. pres. 3p. they 

swear. 
Jurar, inf. vn. to swear, to make 

oath, to curse. 
Jurisdiccion, sf. jurisdiction, limits, 

command, province. 
Justicia, sf. justice; public officers, 

officers of justice. 
Justo-a, sm. a just or blessed person 

in heaven. 
Justo-a, a. just, correct, upright. 
Juventud, sf. youth, youthfulness. 
Juzga, F. Juzgar, imp. pres. 2s. 

judge thou. 
Juzga, ind. pres. 3s. judges, thinks. 
Juzgad, F. Juzgar, imp. pres. 2p. 

judge ye. 
Juzgan, F. Juzgar, ind. pres. 3p. 

they judge. 
Juzgar, inf. va. to judge, to pass a 

sentence. 
Juzgar, inf. vn. to judge, to form 

an opinion, to apprehend. 



218 



LAN 



LEG 



La, art. f s. the ; la mas, the most. 

La, F. Ella, pron. per. o. f s. her, 
it; the one, she. 

Labio, sm. lip, edge (of any thing.) 

Labrado-a, F. Labrar, part, labour- 
ed, wrought made. 

Labrador, sm. farmer, labourer, rus- 
tic, peasant ; a. working. 

Labran, F. Labrar, ind. pres. Sp. 
they labour, or work. 

Labrar, inf. va. to work, to labour, 
to till, to construct, to form. 

Labras, F. Labrar, ind. pres. 2s. 
thou labourest. 

Labro, F. Labrar, ind. pres. Is. I 
labour. 

Labro, F. Labrar, ind. pret. 3s. la- 
boured. 

Lado, sm. side, companion. 

Ladrillo, sm. brick, tile. 

Ladron, sm. thief, robber ; lock. 

Laercio, sm. Diogenes Laertius, an 
ancient writer. 

Lago, sm. lake, swamp. 

Lagrirna, sf. tear, drop. 

Lamentaba, F. Lamentar,ind. impf 
1 or 3s. lamented. 

Lamentable, a. lamentable, deplo- 
rable, unfortunate, miserable. 

Lamentar, inf. va. to lament, to 
mourn, to bewaiL 

Lamentaron, F. Lamentar, ind. pret. 
Sp. they lamented. 

Lampazo, sm. burdock (a plant.) 

Lancha, sm. launch, gunboat, cut- 
ter. 

Languidamente, ad. languidly, 
weakly. 

Languidez, sf. weariness, debility, 
melancholy. 

Lanza, sf lance, spear. 

Lanza, F. Lanzar, ind. pret. 3s. 
throws. 



Lanzan, F. Lanzar, ind. pres. Bp. 

they throw. 
Lanzar, inf. va. to cast, to throw, to 

dart, to let loose, to rush upon. 
Lanzo, F. Lanzar, ind. pret. 3s 

rushed upon, or threw. 
Largo- a, a. long, large, free. 
Las, pron. dem.f.p. n. those, they 

then. 
Las, art. f p. the ; las mas, the 

most. 
Laseivo-a, sub. a libidinous, or las- 
civious person. 
Lascivo-a, a. libidinous, lascivious, 

luxurious. 
Lastima, sf. pity, compassion, mis- 
fortune. 
Lastimar, va. and n. to hurt, to hurt 

another's feelings, 
Latin, sm. the Latin language. 
Latin-a, a. Latin, Roman. 
Laurel, sm. laurel, glory, renown. 
Laureles, sub. p. m. honours. 
La van, F. Lanzar, ind. pres. Bp. 

they clear or wash. 
Lavar, inf. va. to wash, to clear 

(from a charge,) to white- wash. 
Lazo, sm. tie, knot, snare. 
Le, pron. per. sub. m. o. it, him, he, 

you; to him, to her, to you. 
Lealtad, sf loyalty, fidelity. 
Leandro, sm. Leander, a man's 

name. 
Lecho, sm. couch, litter, bed 
Lechuza, sf owl. 
Leccion, sm. lesson, lecture. 
Lector, sm. reader, professor. 
Leen, F. Leer, ind. pres. 2p. they 

read. 
Leer, inf. va. to peruse, to lecture, 

to penetrate into. 
Legalidad, sm. legality, fidelity, 

punctuality. 

219 



LEV 



LIE 



Legua, sm. league, (a distance of 

three miles.) 
Lei, sf. law. 
Leia, F. Leer, ind. impf. 1 or 3s. 

read. 
Lei an, F. Leer, ind. impf. Bp. they 

read. 
Lei as, F. Leer, ind. impf. 2s. thou 

didst read. 
Lejos, ad. far, at a distance, far off. 
Lemnos, sub. prop, f Lemnos, a 

Grecian island in the Archipe 

lago. 
Lengua, sf. tongue, language. 
Lenguaje, sf. language ; tongue, 

diction. 
Lento-a, a. slow, tardy, sluggish. 
Leonardo, sub. prop. m. Leonard, a 

man's name. 
Leonera, sf. lion-cage. 
Leon, sm. lion. 
Les, F. Ellos, or Ellas, pron. per. p. 

m. o. them, those ; to them, to you. 
Letra, sf. letter, character, type. 
Levanta, F. Levantar, ind. pres. 3s. 

raises. 
Levant aba, F. Levantar, ind. impf. 

1 or 3s. rose. 
Levantado, F. Levantar, part, rais- 
ed, lifted up, standing up. 
Le van-tan, F. Levantar, ind. pres. 

Ip. they raise. 
Levantando, F. Levantar, ger. ris- 
ing. ^ 
Levantar, inf. va. to raise, to rise, 

to elevate. 
Levantara, F. Levantar, subj. 1 

impf. 1 or 3s. would raise. 
Levantaron, F. Levantar, ind. pret. 

3p. raised, rose. 
Levantas, F. Levantar, ind. pres. 2s. 

thou raisest. 
Levante, F. Levantar, sub), or imp. 

3s. let, may raise. 
Levante, F. Levantar, ind. pret. Is. 

I raised. 



Levante, sub. prop. m. Levant, 
coast of the Mediterranean, east 
of Italy. 

Levante, sm. east, east wind. 

Levanto, F. Levantar, ind. pres. Is. 
I raise. 

Levanto, F. Levantar, ind. pret. 3s. 
rose. 

Leve, a. light, trifle. 

Leyes p. of Lei, laws. 

Liberal, a. liberal, generous, open. 

Liberalidad, sf. liberality, genero- 
sity. 

Liberalmente, ad. liberally, gene- 
rously, expeditiously. 

Libertad, sf liberty, freedom, privi- 
lege, permission. 

Libertar, vn. to free from, to ex- 
empt. 

Libertino-a, a. libertine, irreligious, 
dissolute; s. a rake. 

Libra, sf. pound. 

Libra, F. Librar, imp. pres. 2s. de- 
liver or free thou. 

Libra, F. Librar, ind. pres. 3s. de- 
livers, exempts. 

Libran, F. Librar, ind.* pres. 3p. 
they deliver. 

Librar, mf. va. to free, to deliver, 
to exempt, to issue. 

Libras, F. Librar, ind. pres. 2s. thou 
deliverest. 

Libre, a. free, exempt from. 

Libre a, sf. living, clothes, garment, 
robes. 

Libro, sm. book. 

Liceneia, sf. license, permission, 
leave. 

Liceneiado, sm. licentiate, a gradu- 
ate in Spanish universities, licen- 
tiate, a title given by the vulgar 
to any one who wears long robes 

Licor, sm. liquor, spirits. 

Lid, sf. struggle, strife. 

Lienzo, sm. linen, rag. 

220 



LIV 



LOZ 



Lijereza, sf levity, inconstancy, 
fickleness, agility, unchastity. 

Lijero-a, a. light, thin, swift, in- 
constant. 

Limlta, F. Limitar, ind. pres. I 
limits, or is limited. 

Limitado-a, a. limited, common, in- 
different, (in capacity.) 

Limitan, F. Limitar, ind. pres. Sp. 
they limit, or are limited. 

Limitar, inf. va. to limit, to confine, 
to set bounds. 

Limite, sm. limit, boundary, con- 
fine. 

Limosna, sf. charity, alms. 

Limpiar, inf. va. to clean, to scour. 

Limpieza, sf. cleanliness, chastity, 
integrity . 

Limpio-a, a. clean, neat, elegant, 
clear. 

Lince, sm. lynx; a. clearsighted, 
penetrating. 

Lindo, a. neat, pretty, complete, 
fine. 

Lino, sm. linen, flax. 

Liquido-a, a. liquid, fluid, clear, 
evident. 

Lirico-a, a. lyric, (pertaining to 
odes, and songs.) 

Lirio, sm. lily. 

Liso-a, a. soft, even, clear. 

Lisonja, sf. flattery, adulation. 

Lisonjea, (se) F. Lisonjear, ind. 
pres. flatters itself. 

Lisonjeado, F. Lisonjea?', part, flat- 
tered, praised. 

Lisonjero-a, a. flattering, pleasing; 
s. flatterer. 

Literario-a, a. literary, belonging to 
letters. 

Literatura, sf. literature, science, 
learning. 

Liviano -a, a. libidinous, unchaste ; 
light. 

Livio, sub. prop. m. Titus Livius, 
an eminent writer of antiquity. 
19* 



Lo, pron. neut. sub. o. it, so ; lo que, 
that which, what. 

Lobo, sm. wolf. • 

L6co-a, a. mad, foolish, crazy. 

Locuacidad, sf. loquacity, garrulity, 
talk. 

Locura, sf folly, absurdity, mad- 
ness. 

Loeches, sm. Loeches, a town of 
Spain. 

Logra, F. Lograr, ind. pres. Bs. ob- 
tains. 

Logrado, F. Lograr, pa?~t. obtained, 
attained, acquired. 

Logrado-a, part, abs. being ob- 
tained. 

L 6 gran, F. Lograr, ind. pres. Sp. 
they obtain. 

Lograr, inf. va. to obtain, to enjoy, 
to succeed in, to acquire. 

Lograron, F. Lograr, ind. pret. 3p« 
they obtained, 

Logras, F. Lograr, ind. pres. 2s. 
thou obtainest. 

Logro, F. Lograr, ind. pres. Is. ob- 
tain or enjoy. 

Logro, F. Lograr, ind. pret. 3s. ob- 
tained, succeeded in. 

Logro, sm. accomplishment, fulfil- 
ment, attainment. 

Longura, sf. length, a long period. 

Lonja, sf. exchange ; warehouse, 
store. 

Loredano, sub. prop. m. Loredano, 
a chief of Cochin. 

Lorrena, sub. prop. f. Lorrain, an 
extensive country in the north- 
east of France. 

Los, art. p. m. the ; los mas, the 
most. 

Los, pron. dem. m. n. those, they. 

Losa, sf. flag (a certain stone used 
for pavement,) earthenware. 

Lozama, luxuriance, exuberance, 
elegance, valour. 

221 



LLA 



LLX 



Luce, F. Lucir, ind. pres. Ss. 
shines. 

Lucen, F. Lucir, ind. pres. Sp. they 
shine. 

Lucero, sm. morning star, guide, 
idol, lover. 

Luces, sm. p. talents, genius, know- 
ledge. 

Luces, F. Lucir, ind. pres. 2s. thou 
shinest. 

Lucir, inf. vn. to shine, to be bril- 
liant, to make a figure, to glitter, 
to gleam. 

Lucir, inf. va. to enlighten, to out- 
shine, to exceed. 

Luculo, sub. prop. m. Lucullus, an 
ancient Roman, distinguished for 
his oratorical, philosophic, and 
military talents. 



Luchan, F. Luchar, ind. pres. Sp, 

struggle. 
Luego, ad. soon, immediately ; lue- 

go que, as soon as. 
Lugar, sm. spot, site, place, town. 
Luis, sub. prop. m. Lewis, a man's 

name. 
Lujo, sm. luxury, extravagance, 

excess. 
Lujuria, sf luxuriousness, impurity, 

voluptuousness. 
Lumbre, sf. light, spark, fire. 
Luna, sub. prop. f. moon, glass, 

plate. 
Luto, sm. mourning, the dress of 

sorrow ; de luto, in mourning. 
Luz, sf. light; luces, knowledge, 

intellectual advancement. 
Luzco, F. Lucir, ind. pres. Is. I shine. 



LL 



Ll^ga, sf sore, wound. 

Llagado-a, a. wounded, hurt, in- 
jured, having sores. 

Llagado, part, wounded, hurt. 

Llama, sf. flame. 

Llama, F. Llamar, imp. pres. 2s. 
call. 

Llama, F. Llamar, ind. pres. 3s. 
calls. 

LI am aba, F. Llamar, ind. impf. 3 s. 
it, he, or she called. 

Llamaban. F. Llamar, ind. impf. Sp. 
they called. 

Llamada, sf. call, note, treaty, sig- 
nal. 

Llamado-a, F. Llamar, pari, called, 
named, termed. 

Llamais, F. Llamar, ind. pres. Sp. 
ye call or name. 

Llaman, F. Llamar, ind. pres. Sp. 
they call. 

Llamar, inf. pres. va. to call, to 
name, to attract, to summon. 



Llamar, inf. pres. vn. to refer to any 

book or writing. 
Llamas, F. Llamar, ind. pres. 2s. 

thou calle3t. 
Llamasen, F. Llamar, subj. impf 

Sp. should call. 
LI a me, F. LJamar, subj. pres. 1 or 

3s. I, or it, he, or she may call. 
Llame, F. Llamar, ind. pret. Is. I 

called. 
LI amen, F. Llamar, subj. pres. Sp. 

they may call. 
Llames, F. Llamar, subj. pres. 2s. 

thou mayst call. 
Llamo, F. Llamar, ind. pres. Is. I 

call. 
Llamo, F. Llamar, ind. pret. Ss. it, 

he, or she called, summoned. 
Llaneza, sf. simplicity, familiarity, 

plainness. 
Llano, a. plain, frank, modest. 
Llanto, sm. groan, tear, flood ot 

tears. 

222 



LLE 



LLO 



Llanura, sf evenness, equality. 
Llega, F. Llegar, ind. pres. 3s. it, 

he, or she ends in. 
Llega, F. Llegar, ind. pres. 3s. it, 

he, or she arrives. 
Llegaban, F. Llegar, ind. impf. Sp. 

they reached. 
Llegado-a, part, arrived, being ar- 
rived, having reached. 
Llegan, F. Llegar, ind. pres. Sp. 

they arrive. 
Llegando, (se) F. Llegar, ger. ar- 
riving at, reaching. 
Llegar, inf. pres. vn. to arrive at, to 

become, to attain, to be enough, 

to ascend. 
Llegar, inf. pres. vr. to approach, to 

join. 
Llegaron, F. Llegar, xnd. pret. 3s. 

they arrived. 
Llegas, F. Llegar, ind. pres. 3s. thou 

arrivest. 
Llego, F. Llegar, ind. pres. Is. I 

arrive. 
Llego, F. Llegar, ind. pret. 3s. it, 

he, or she arrived. 
Llegue, ind. pret. Is. I arrived, I 

went. 
Llegue, F. Llegar, subj. pres. 1 or 

3s. I, it, he, or she may arrive. 
Lleguen, F. Llegar, subj. pres. Bp. 

they may arrive. 
Llena, F. Lienor, imp. pres. 2s. fill 

thou. 
Llena, F. Llenar, ind. pres. 3s. it, 

he, or she fills, or occupies. 
Llenan, F. Llenar, ind. pres. Sp. 

they fill. 
Llenando, F. Llenar, ger. filling. 
Llenar, inf. pres. va. to fill, to oc- 
cupy, to accomplish, to perform. 
Llenas, F. Llenar, ind. pres. 2s. 

thou fillest. 
Llenasen, F. Llenar, subj. 3 impf 

Sp. they should fill. 



Lleno-a, a. full, complete, brim- 
full. 
Lleva, F. Llevar, imp. pres. 2s. car- 
ry thou. 
Lleva, F. Llevar, ind. pres. 3s. it, 

he, or she carries. 
Llevaba, F. Llevar, ind. imp. 1 or 

3s. carried. 
Llevado, F. Llevar, part, carried, 

brought, taken. 
Lie van, F. Llevar, ind. pres. \p. 

they carry, bear. 
Llevando, F. Llevar, ger. carrying, 

bringing. 
Llevar, inf. pres. va. to carry, to 

bring, to bear, to produce, to 

gain, to charge. 
Llevaron, F. Llevar, ind. pres. Sp. 

they carried. 
Llevas, F. Llevar, ind. pres. 2s, 

thou earnest. 
Llevase, F. Llevar, subj. impf 3s. 

might, should, or would carry. 
Lleve, F. Llevar, subj. pres. 1 or 3s. 

I, or it, he or she may cany. 
Lleve, F. Llevar, ind. pret. Is. I 

carried. 
Llevo, F. Llevar, ind. pres. Is. I 

carry. 
Llevo, F. Llevar, ind. pret. 3s. took, 

carried. 
Llora, F. Llorar, imp. pres. 2s. weep 

thou. 
Llora, F. Llorar, ind. pres. 3s. it, 

he, or she weeps. 
Lloraba, F. Llorar, ind. impf 3s. he 

wept. 
Lloraban, F. Llorar, ind. impf. Sp. 

they wept. 
Lloran, F. Llorar, ind. pres. Sp. 

they weep. 
Llorando, F. Llorar, ger. weeping, 

bewailing, lamenting. 
Llorar, inf. pres. vn. to weep, to 

show sorrow by tears. 



223 



MAJ 



MiN 



Llorar, inf. pres. va. to weep for, to 

bemoan, to bewail. 
Lloriron, F. Llorar, ind. pret. Sp. 

they wept. 
Lloras, F. Llorar, ind. pres. 2s. thou 

weepest 
Llores, F. Llorar, subj. pres. 2s. 

thou may est weep. 



Lloro, F. Llorar, ind. pres. Is. I 

weep. 
Lloro, F. Llorar, ind. pret. 3s. wept. 
Llover, inf. v. imp. to rain; to 

abound. 
Llueve, F. Llover, ind. pres. 3s. it 

rains. 
Liu via, sf rain, shower. 



M 



Maccio, sub. prop. m. Mactius, an 
eminent person. 

Macsima, sf maxim, apophthegm. 

Macsime, ad. chiefly, principally. 

Macsimo-a, a. super, chief, great- 
est, principal. 

Madurar, inf. pres. vn. to ripen, to 
become ripe. 

Madurez, sf maturity, wisdom, pru- 
dence, seriousness. 

Madre, sf. mother. 

Madrid, sub. prop, f Madrid, the 
capital of Spain. 

Madurasen, F. Madurar, subj. 3 
impf Sp. they should get ripe. 

Maestresala, sm. usher (first waiter. ) 

Maestro, sm. master, director, school- 
master. 

Magnanimidad, sf. magnanimity, 
generosity, grandeur of soul. 

Magnanimo-a, a. magnanimous, 
generous, noble, open. 

Magnificencia, sf magnificence, 
splendour. 

Magnifico-a, a. magnificent, splen- 
did, grand. 

Magno-a, a. great, superior. 

Mahomet, sub. prop. m. Mahomet, 
the founder of the religion fol- 
lowed by the Musselmans. 

Majestad, sf. majesty, grandeur, 
sovereignty. 

Majia, sf. magic. 

Majiscatzin, sub. prop. m. Magis- 



catzin, the name of a great Mexi- 
can Indian. 

Mal-a, a. bad. 

Mai, sm. evil, harm, calamity. 

Maldad, sf. wickedness, malice. 

Malear, va. or n. to become bad, to 
get spoiled. 

Males, sm. p. evils, miseries. 

Malevolo-a, a. malignant, malevo- 
lent, wicked. 

Malicia, sf malice, perverseness, 
artifice, dissimulation. 

Malicioso-a, a. malicious, suspi- 
cious, bad. 

Maligno-a, adj. malign, fatal. 

Malo-a, ad. bad, wicked. 

Malo, sm. prop. See Garcia Malo. 

Maltrata, F. Maltralar, ind. pres. 
3s. treats ill. 

Maltratado-a, F. Maltralar, part. 
abused, ill-treated. 

Maltratamiento, sm. maltreatment, 
bad usage. 

Maltratar, inf. va. to treat or use ill, 
to abuse, to spoil. 

Malvado-a, adj. wicked, bad. 

Manantial, sm. spring, source, foun- 
tain, beginning. 

Manca, F. Mancar, ind. pres. 3s. 
lames, maimes. 

Mancebo, sm. young man, youth. 

Mancha, sf. stain, spot. 

Mancha, sub. prop, f Mancha, a 
province of Spain. 

224 • 



MAN 



MAR 



Manda, F. Mandar, ind. pres. 3s. 
orders. 

Mandaban, F. Mandar, ind. impf. 
Sp. they commanded. 

Mandado, F. Mandar, part, com- 
manded, ordered. 

Mandando, F. Mandar, ger. order- 
ing. 

Mandar, inf. va. to command, to 
order, to bequeath, to send. 

Mandate, sm. command, order, in- 
junction, trust. 

Mando, F. Mandar, ind. pres. Is. I 
order. 

Mando, F. Mandar, ind. pret. 3s. 
ordered. 

Manecilla, sf. small, pretty hand, 
dim. of Mano. 

Manejais, F. Manejar, ind. pres. 
2p. ye or you manage. 

Manejar, inf. va. to transact, to 
carry on, to manage. 

Manejas, F. Manejar, ind. pres. 2s. 
thou inanagest. 

Manera, sf. manner, custom ; a ma- 
nera de, like, as. 

Manga, sf. sleeve, water-spout. 

Maniatado-a, adj. manacled, hand- 
cuffed. 

Manifestando, F. Manifestar, ger. 
manifesting, discovering. 

Manifestar, inf. va. to manifest, to 
discover, to declare. 

Manifestaron, F. Manifestar, ind. 
pret. Sp. they manifested, 

Manifestemos, F. Manifestar, subj. 
pres. \p, may manifest, let us 
manifest. 

Manifesto, F. Manifestar, ind. pret. 
3s. manifested, told. 

Manifesta, F. Manifestar, ind. pres. 
3s. manifests. 

Manjar, sm. dainty, dish, food, meal, 
viand. 

Mano, sf. hand, pestle. 



Mansedumbre, sf meekness, gen- 
tleness, peacefulness. 

Mansion, sf. mansion, abode, house. 

Manso-a, a. gentle, tame. 

Manta, sf. blanket. 

Mantener, inf. va. to maintain, to 
support, to feed, to persevere. 

Mantengo, F. Mantener, ind. pres. 
Is. I maintain. 

Mantenimiento, sf maintenance, 
sustenance, subsistence,, allow- 
ance. 

Manto, sm. veil, cloak, mantel 
piece. 

Mantuviera, F. Mantener, subj. impf 
1 or 3s. would maintain. 

Mantuvieron, F. Mantenerse, ind. 
pret. Sp. maintained themselves. 

Manuel, sm. prop. Emanuel, a man's 
name. 

Manufactura, sm. ware, manufac- 
ture, workmanship. 

Manzana, sf. apple, pommel. 

Maila, sf. dexterity, artifice. 

Man ana, ad. to-morrow ; s. morn 
ing ; de man ana, early. 

Maquina, sf. machine, engine, 
crowd. 

Mar, sm. the sea, ocean ; mar oceano, 
the great sea. 

MaraviHa, sf. wonder, admiration ; 
ind. 3s. it astonishes. 

Maravillado-a, F. Maravillar, a. 
astonished. 

Maravillan, F. Maravillar, ind. pres. 
Sp. they astonish. 

Maravillar, inf. pres. vn. to wonder, 
to be astonished; va. to admire. 

Maraviilo, F. Maravillar, ind. pres. 
Is. I wonder. 

Maraviiloso-a, a. wonderful, as- 
tonishing. 

Marca, sub. prop, f the name of a 
place in Italy. 

Marca, sf. sign, mark, scar. 



225 



MAT 



MED 



Marcado, F. Mar car, part, marked 
branded, noted. 

Marcclo, sub. prop. m. Marcellus, a 
famous Roman general. 

Marchar, inf. va. to march, to walk, 
to go. 

Marcial, a. martial, warlike. 

Mariana, (Juan de) sm. prop. Ma- 
riana, one of the greatest histo- 
rians Spain produced. Born in 
Talavera, Toledo, in 1536, died, 
1623. 

Mar i do, sm. husband, spouse, con- 
sort. 

Marino, sm. a seaman, mariner. 

Manno-a, a. marine, naval. 

Mario, sub. prop. m. Marius, a 
Roman consul. 

Mariposa, sf. butterfly, rush-light. 

Mariscal, sm. marshal, farrier, black- 
smith. 

Marjen, sm. margin, border, ed^e. 

Marlota, sf a Moorish dress. 

Marmol, sm. marble; epitaph, in- 
scription. 

Marques, s/n. a marquis ; sf. mar- 
quesa, marchioness. 

Marquesado, sf marquisate (the 
seignory or territory of a marquis. ) 

Marquesito, sm. young marquis, 
dim. of Marques. 

Mar tires, sm. p. martyrs. 

Martirio, sm. martyrdom, tortures, 
hardships. 

Martirizado, F. Martirizar, part. 
martyred, tortured. 

Mas, ad. more; but, except; que 
mas, what else. 

Masa, sf. mass, dough, mortar. 

Mataban, F. Matar, ind. impf. Sp. 
they killed. 

Matar, inf. pres. va. to kill, to mur- 
der, to slay, to extinguish, to vex. 

Matar an, F. Matar, subj. imp. Sp. 
would kill. 



Materia, sf matter, materials, sub- 
ject, occasion. 

Material, s?n. ingredient, material, 
importance. 

Material, a. material (not spiritual,) 
important, ungenteel. 

Matiz, sm. shade, mixture, (of 
colours.) 

Matiza, F. Matizar, ind. pres. 3s. 
decks, adorns, or beautifies. 

Mato, F. Matar, ind.pret.3s. killed. 

Maton, sm, bully. 

Mairimonio, sm. matrimony, mar- 
riage. 

Mayo, sub. prop. m. May, the fifth 
month of the year. 

Mayor, comp. of grande, greater, 
eldest, largest, chief. 

Mayordomo, sm. steward, major- 
domo. 

Me, F. Yo, pron. per. s. o. me, to, 
from, on, with me. 

Mecanico-a, sub. a mechanic, me- 
chanical ; mean. 

Mece, F. Mecer, ind. pres. 3s. stirs, 
rocks. 

Mecer, inf. va. to stir, to agitate, to 
jumble, to rock, to shake. 

Mecido, F. Mecer, part, stirred, 
agitated. 

Media, sf. stocking. 

Medicina, sf. medicine, physic. 

Medicinal, a. medicinal, curative. 

Medico, sm. physician. 

Medido-a, adj. measured, circum- 
spect. 

Medida, sf measure, mensuration, 
height, proportion, moderation. 

Medio, sm. means, way, middle, 
centre. 

Medio-a, a. half; en medio, in the 
midst. 

Mediocridad, sf. competency; me- 
diocrity, small degree. 

Mediodia, sm. noon, mid-day, south. 



226 



MEN 



MEZ 



Medir, inf. va. to measure, to com- 
pare, to moderate. 

Meditacion, sf. meditation, profound 
thought, contemplation. 

Medroso-a, a. fearful, terrible, hor- 
rid. 

Mejor, a. comp. better. 

Mejorar, inf. va. to better, to im- 
prove, to meliorate. 

Melancolia, sf. melancholy, gloomi- 
ness, depression. 

Melancolico-a, a. melancholy, 
gloomy, depressed. 

Melendez Valdes, sm. prop. Me- 
lendez Valdes, one of the greatest 
lyric poets of Spain. Eorn 1754, 
died 1817. 

Memorable, a. memorable. 

Memoria, sf. memory, remembrance, 
glory, record, monument. 

Memorial, sm. memorial, petition 
memorandum-book. 

Mendfgo-a, a. mendicant, venal, 
mercenary ; s. a beggar. 

Menester, sm. necessity, want, em- 
ployment, what is necessary. 

Menguado-a, a. diminished, im- 
paired ; pusillanimous, weak. 

Menor, a. comp. less, smaller; el, 
la, menor, the least. 

Menos, ad. less ; except, excepting ; 
save. 

Menoscaban, F. Menoscabar, ind. 
pres. Sp. they destroy. 

Menoscabar, inf. va. to destroy, to 
impair, to deteriorate. 

Menospreciador-a, s. detester, de- 
spiser, contemner. 

Menosprecian, F. Menospreciar, 
ind. pres. Sp. they despise. 

Menospreciando, F. Despreclar, ger. 
despising, disdaining. 

Menospreciar, inf. va. to despise, to 
depreciate, to contemn. 

Menosprecio, sm. contempt, scorn, 
disregard. 



Mensajero, sm. messenger. 

Mente, sf. mind. 

Mentecato-a, a. silly, foolish, stu- 
pid ; s. a stupid person. 

Mentira, sf falsehood, lie, error. 

Mentiroso-a, a. lying, erroneous, 
incorrect ; s. a liar. 

Menudo-a, a. small, worthless, vul- 
gar. 

Mercader, sm. a trader, shop-keeper, 
dealer. 

Mercadena, sf. merchandise, goods, 
elfects. 

Merced, sf. a benefit, favour; merced 
a, thanks to. 

Merced, sf. worship ; su merced, 
his worship. 

Merece, F. Merecer, ind. pres. 3s. 
deserves. 

Mereced6r-a, a. deserving, worthy, 
meritorious. 

Merecen, F. Merecer, ind. pres. Sp. 
they deserve. 

Merecer, inf. va. to deserve, to be 
indebted for. 

Merecia, F. Merecer, ind. impf. 3s. 
deserved, merited. 

Meridional, sm. southern. 

Merito, sm. merit, desert. 

Mero-a, a. mere, nothing but. 

Mesa, sf. table, boarding. 

Mesias, sm. Messiah (the Redeem- 
er.) 

Metal, sm. metal, strength of voice. 

Meten, F. Meter, ind. pres. Sp. they 
put. 

Meter, inf. va, to put, to include., to 
occasion, to stake. 

Meter gorra, va. and n. to sponge. 

Metido-a, F. Meter, part. abs. beina 
put, included, induced, strained. 

Metio, F. Meter, ind. pret. 3s. put, 
did put, was putting. 

Mezclando, F. Mezclar,ger. mixing, 
mingling. 

227 



MIR 



MIT 



Mezclar, inf. va. to mix, to mingle. 

Mezclaran, F. Mezclar, subj. 1 impf, 
Sp. they should mix. 

Mi s F. Yo.pron.per. s.o.to me, me. 

Mi, pron. pos. like Mio; my, mine. 

Midiendo, F. Medir, ger. measuring. 

Mi; do, sm. fear, apprehension. 

Miente, sf. mind; v. lies. 

Mi en ten, F. Mentir, ind. pres. 3p. 
they lie, speak falsely. 

Miento, F. Mentir, ind. pres. Is. I 
lie, speak falsely. 

Mientra, or Mientras, ad. whilst, 
in the mean time. 

Miguel, sub. prop. in. Michael, a 
man's name. 

Mil, a. num. one thousand, a thou- 
sand. 

Milagro, sni. miracle, prodigy, 
wonder. 

Militar, a. military, warlike ; s. a 
soldier; v. to militate. 

Millon, s. num. a million. 

Mina, sf. mine; spring. 

Mineral, a. mineral ; s. a mineral. 

Minimo-a, a. super, least, smallest. 

Ministerio, sm. office, ministry. 

Mimstran, F. Ministrar, ind. pres. 
Sp. serve. 

Ministrar, inf. va. to serve, to per- 
form the functions. 

Ministro-a, sm. minister, officer, 
magistrate. 

Minorar, inf. pres. va. to lesson, to 
reduce, to decrease. 

Minoro, F. Minorar, ind. pret. 3s. 
reduced. 

Mio-a, pron. pos. s. n. or o. my, 
mine. 

Mira, sf. view, object; attention. 

Mira, F. Mirar, ind. pres. 2s. be- 
hold, or mind thou, see. 

Mira, F. Mirar, ind. pres. 3s. looks, 
sees, minds. 

Mir aba, F. Mirar, ind. impf. 3s. 
looked, saw, minded. 



Miraban, F. Mirar, ind. impf. 3p. 
they looked at. 

Mirad, imp. pres. 2p. see, know, 
mind, take care. 

Miran, F. Mirar, ind. pres. 3p. they 
look, see. 

Mirando, F. Mirar, ger. seeing, 
looking at. 

Mirar, inf. va. to look, to see, to 
mind, to behold, to respect. 

Miras, F. Mirar, ind. pres. 2s. thou 
regardest, seest. 

Mirasteis, F. Mirar, ind. pret. 2p. 
you or ye looked at. 

Mire, F. Mirar, imp. pres. 3s. let, 
look. 

Mire, F. Mirar, subj. pres. 1 or 3s. 
mav look. 

Miren, F. Mirar, subj. pres. 3p. 
they may look. 

Mirhido-a, a. affected, consequen- 
tial. 

Miro, F. Mirar, ind. pres. Is. I look. 

Miro, F. Mirar, ind. pret. 3s. looked. 

Miron, sm. observer, gazer. 

Mis, pron. pos. p. n. or o. my, mine. 

Miserable, a. poor, miserable, un- 
fortunate ; wretch. 

Miseria, sf. misery, calamity, cove- 
tousness. 

Misericordia, sf. mercy, pity, com- 
miseration. 

Misero-a, a. miserable, wretch, dis- 
tracted, poor, indigent. 

Mismo-a, a. the same, equal, self. 

Misterio, sm. mystery, machination, 
artifice. 

Misterioso-a, a. mysterious, dark, 
obscure. 

Mitad, sf. the half, one-half. 

Mitigaba, F. Mitigar, ind. impf. 1 
or 3s. mitigated. 

Mitigando, F. Mitigar, ger. miti- 
gating, assuaging. 

Mitigar, inf. va. to mitigate, to as- 
suage, to soften, to quench 
228 



MON 



MOR 



Mitigo, F. Mitigar, ind. pret. 3s. 
mitigated. 

Moda, sf. fashion, custom; a la 
moda, fashionable. 

Modelo, sm. model, example, copy, 
pattern. 

Modera, F. Moderar, ind. pres. 3s. 
moderates. 

Moderacion, sf. moderation, tempe- 
rance, frugality. 

Moderan, F. Moderar, ind. pres. Bp. 
they moderate. 

Moderar, inf. va. to moderate, to 
regulate, to adjust. 

Moderar, inf. vr. to become mode- 
rate, or temperate. 

Moderno-a, a. modern, recent, late. 

Modernos, sm. p. the moderns. 

Modestia, sf. modesty, decency. 

Modesto-a, a. modest, unassuming, 
pure, chaste. 

Modo, sm. manner, mode ; de modo, 
or de modo que, so that. 

Mof ado, part, scorned, scoffed. 

Mofador, sm. scoffer, scorner. 

Mohatra, sm. usurer, impostor. 

Mojado-a, F. Mojar, part, wet, 
moistened. 

Molde, sm. mould, model. 

Molesta, F. Molestar, ind. pres. 3s. 
troubles. 

Molestar, inf. va. to harass, to mo- 
lest, to vex, to trouble. 

Molestia, sf molestation, injury, 
trouble. 

Molestisimo-a, a. super, most trou- 
blesome, most vexing. 

Molientes, a. grinding. 

Molina, sub. prop. m. Molina, a 
personage in Gil Bias. 

Momento, sm. moment, conse- 
quence, importance. 

Monarca, sm. monarch. 

Monarquia, sf. monarchy, kingdom. 

Moneda, sf money, coin. 

20 



Monipodio, sub. prop. m. Monipo- 
dio, a celebrated fictitious bad 
character in the Novelas Ejem- 
plares Monitory Tales of Cer- 
vantes, the author of D. Quixote. 

Monstruosamente, ad. monstrously. 

Montana, sf. mountain, rock. 

Montar, inf. va. to mount; vn. to 
go on horse-back, to amount. 

Monte, sm. mount, wood. 

Montezuma, sub. prop. m. Monte- 
zuma, the last Indian emperor of 
Mexico. 

Montiel, sub. prop. m. Montiel, a 
place in Spain. 

Monro, F. Montar, ind. pret. 3s. 
mounted. 

Monton, sm. pile, heap. 

Mora, (Jose Joaquin de) sm. prop. 
Mora, the name of a highly cele- 
brated living Spanish writer. He 
is distinguished for his admirable 
Spanish version of Sir Walter 
Scott's Ivanhoe and The Talis- 
man. 

Morada, sf. habitation, abode, resi- 
dence. 

Morado-a, a. violet colour. 

Morador, sm. inhabitant, dweller. 

Moral, sm. morality ; mulberry- 
tree; a. moral. 

Mordian, F. Morder, ind. 1 impf. 
Sp. they bit. 

More, sub. prop. m. More, a very 
distinguished English statesman. 

Moreno, a. brown, dark, swarthy. 

Moribundo-a, adj. dying. 

Morir, ind. pres. vn. to die, to per- 
ish, to become extinct. 

Morirla, F. Morir, subj. imp. 3s. 
would die. 

Moro-a, a. Moorish, Moor; Mora, 
Moorish lady, woman. 

Mortal, a. mortal, subject to death. 

Mortificacion, sf. mortification, 
grief, sorrow. 

229 



MUD 

Mostraba, F. Mostrar, ind. impf. 1 
or 3s. showed. 

Mostraban, F. Mostrar, ind. impf. 
Hp. they showed. 

Mostrando, F. Mostrar, ger. show- 
ing, pointing out. 

Mostrado, F. Mostrar, part, shown, 
proved, demonstrated. 

Mostrar, inf. va. to show, to exhi- 
bit, to establish, to explain. 

Mostraron, F. Mostrar, ind. pret. Sp. 
they showed. 

Mostro, F. Mostrar, ind. pret. 3s. 
showed. 

Motejando, F. Motejar, ger. cen- 
suring, ridiculing. 

Motejar, inf. va. to ridicule, to 
censure. 

Motejaron, F. Motejar, ind. pret. 
Sp. they censured. 

Moviiniento, mi. movement, mo- 
tion, disturbance, revolt. 

Movio, F. Mover, ind. pret. 3s. 
moved or excited. 

M6zo-a, a. young; s. mozo, a young 
man ; moza, a young woman. 

Muchaca, sf. girl. 

Muchedumbre, sf. multitude, abun- 
dance, plenty. 

Muchisimo-a, a. super, very much, 
extremely. 

Mucho, ad. and a. much, very 
abundant, numerous, long. 

Mucho, s. great quantity, great dis- 
tance, long time. 

Mudable, a. changeable, fickle, va- 
riable. 

Mudanza, sf. change, alteration, 
levity. 



MUT 

Muera, F. Morir, imp. pres. 3s. let 
it, him, or her die. 

Muera, F. Monr, subj. pres. 1 or 3s. 
she may die. 

Muere, F. Morir, ind. pres. 3s. dies. 

Muero, F. Morir, ind. pret. Is. 1 
die. 

Muerte, sf. death, assassination. 

Muerto, sm. corpse, a dead body. 

Muerto-a, a. dead, faded. 

Muestra, sf. sign, manifestation ; 
pattern, specimen, model, exam- 
ple. 

Muestra, F. Mostrar, irid. pres. 3s. 
shows. 

Muestran, F. Mostrar, ind. pres. Sp. 
they show. 

Muestras, F. Mostrar, ind. pres. 2s. 
thou showest. 

Muestre, F. Mostrar, subj. pres. 3s. 
may show. 

Mui, ad. very, much, very much. 

Mujer, sf. woman, wife. 

Mulatero, sm. jockey, mule-driver. 

Mullido-a, a. beaten up. 

Mundano-a, adj. worldly, of the 
world. 

Mundo, sm. world, manners. 

Murio, F. Morir, ind. pret. 3s. died. 

Murmuracion, sf. murmur, calum- 
ny, slander. 

Murmur ar, inf. vn. to murmur, to 
backbite, to censure. 

Murmures, F. Murmurar, subj. pres. 
2s. thou mayest murmur. 

Muro, sm. wall, rampart. 

Mustio-a, a. sad, sorrowful, with- 
ered. 

Mutuamente, ad. mutually. 



NAT 



NEG 



N 



Nacarado-a, a. pearl-coloured, set 

with pearls. 
Nace, F. Nacer, ind. pres. 3s. is 

born, or rises. 
Naced, F. Nacer, imp. 2p. arise 

spring up (ye.) 
Nace is, F. Nacer. ind. pres. 2p. ye 

or you are born, or rise. 
Nacen, F. Nacer, ind. pres. Bp. they 

are born, or rise. 
Nacer, inf. vn. to be born, to rise, to 

blossom, to bud, to spring. 
Naci, F. Nacer, ind. pret. Is. I was 

born. 
Nacido-a, a. born, risen, issued; 

part, been born. 
Naciente, part. pres. rising, coming 

into existence. 
Nacieron, F. Nacer, ind. pret. Sp. 

they were born. 
Naciese, F. Nacer, subj. 3 impf. 2s. 

should be born. 
Nacimiento, sm. birth, nativity, 

commencement, origin, rising. 
Nacio, F. Nacer, ind. pret. 3s. was 

born. 
Nada, sf. nothing, non-existence; 

ad. by no means. 
Nada, F. Nadar, ind. pres. 3s. 

swims. 
Nadar, inf. pres. vn. to float, to 

swim, to be loose, to abound. 
Nadie, pron. indef no one, nobody. 
Nardo, sm. spikenard. 
Nariz, sf. nose, nostril. 
Natural, a. native, natural ; s. tem- 
per, disposition. 
Naturaleza, sf. nature, virtue, pro- 
pensity. 
Naturalidad, sf. nature, candour, 

simplicity. 
Nataralmente, ad. naturally, hu- 
manly. 



Naufrajio, S7n. shipwreck, miscar- 
riage, disappointment. 
Nausea, sf nauseousness, disgust, 

displeasure. 
Navarra, sub. prop, f Navarre, a 

province of Spain. 
Navarro, sm. native of Navarre. 
Navegacion, sf. voyage, passage, 
navigation. 

Navio, sm. vessel, a ship of the 
line, a man of war. 

Necesario-a, a. necessary, indispen- 
sable, requisite. 

Necesidad, sf. necessity, need, co- 
gency. 

Necesitais, F. Necesitar, ind. pres. 
2p. you want. 

Necesitan, F. Necesitar, ind. pres. 
3p. they want. 

Necesitar, inf. vn. to want, to be in 
want of, to need. 

Necesitaron, F. Necesitar, ind. pret. 
3p. they wanted. 

Necesitasen, F. Necesitar, subj. 3 
impf. 3p. they should, could, or 
would want. 

Necesito, F. Necesitar, ind. pres. Is. 
I want, need. 

Necio-a, a. and s. foolish, stupid, 
nonsensical. 

Negar, inf. pres. va. to deny, to re- 
fuse; vr. to abstain. 

Nego, F. Negar, ind. pret. va. denied. 

Negociaba, F. Negociar, ind. impf 
1 or 3s. traded. 

Negociaban, F. Negociar, ind. impf. 
3p. they traded. 

Negocian, F. Negociar, ind. pres. 
3p. they trade. 

Negociante, sm. merchant, trader, 
dealer. 

Negociar, inf. vn. to trade, to nego- 
tiate. 

231 



n6b 



NUE 



Negociaron, F. Negociar, ind. pret.\Nobleza., sf. nobility. 

Sp. they traded. iNoche, sf. night, darkness. 

Negociasen, F. Negociar, subj. 3 Nombnido, F. Nombrar, part, ap- 



impf. Sp. they should trade. 
Negccio, sm. affair, business, com- 
merce. 

Negro-a, a. black. 

Neron, snb. prop. m. Nero, a Roman 
tyrant. 

Nerva, sub. prop. f Nerva, a place 
in Sweden. 

Nervio, sm. nerve, artery. 

Nervado, F. Nevar, part, snowed 

Ni, conj. neither, nor; not; ni siqui- 
era, not even. 

Nido, sm. nest, abode, residence. 

Niega, F. Negar, ind. pres. 3s. de- 
nies. 

Niegan, F. Negar, ind. pres. Sp. 
they deny. 

Niego, F. Negar, ind. jwm\ Is. I 
deny. 

Nieremberg, (Juan Eusebio) sm. 
prop, a Spanish classic writer. 
Born in Madrid, in' 1595; died 
1638. 

JVieto, sm. grandson; nieta, grand- 
daughter. 

Nieve, sf. snow, extreme whiteness. 

Ni nfa, sf nymph. 

Ningun-a, pron. indef no, nobody, 
no person. 

Ninguno, pron. indef. nobody, not 
one, not any body. 

Nineria, sf. puerility, childishness, 
gewgaw. 

Ninez, sf childhood. 

Nino-a, sub. child; a. young, child- 
ish. 

No, ad. no, not ; nothing ; no mas, 
nothing else ; no ya, not only ; 
not. 

Nobilisimo-a, a. super, most noble, 
very noble. 

Noble, a. noble, illustrious ; s. no- 
bleman. 



pointed, nominated, called. 
Nombre, sm. name, noun. 
Nonajenario-a, a. and sub. ninety 

years old. 
Norma, sf. model, standard, rule. 
Norte, a. and s. northern, the North. 
Norte, sm. rule, guide, star. 
Nos, F. Nosotros, or Nos, pron. per. 

p. o. we, us ; to, for, in, us. 
Nosotros-as, pron. per. n. p. we. 
Nosotros, pron. per. p. o. us, to us. 
Nota, F. Notar, imp. 2s. remark 

thou, note. 
Nota, F. Notar, ind. pres. 3s. re- 
marks. 
Notado-a, a. remarkable, noted. 
Notado, F. Notar, part, remarked, 

observed. 
Notan, F. Notar, ind. pres. Sp. they 

remark. 
Notar, inf. va. to remark, to observe, 

to note, to take notes. 
Noticia, sf news, information, 

knowledge, advice. 
No to, F. Notar, ind. pres. Is. I re- 
mark. 

Noto, F. Notar, ind. pret. Ss. re- 
marked. 
Novedad, sf. novelty, admiration, 

new r s. 
Novela, sf novel, romance, fiction. 
Noventa, a. num. ninety. 
No via, sf. bride. 
Novio, sm. bridegroom. 
Nube, sf cloud, film, shade. 
Nubecilla, sf. small cloud, dim. of 

Nube. 
Nublado, sm. cloud, darkness, per- 
turbation. 
Nudo, sm. joint, contraction ; knot. 
Nuestro-a, pron. pos. o. or n. our, 

ours. 
Nuevamente, ad. newly, recently. 
232 



OBR 



OBT 



Nuevo-a, a. new, repaired, Defin- 
ing ; de nuevo. anew. 

Numancia, sub. prop. f Numantia, 
a city of Spain, distinguished in 
ancient times by the valour of its 
inhabitants. 

Numantino-a, s. i^umantine, a na- 
tive of Numantia. 



Numantino-a, a. Numantine, re- 
lating to Numantia. 

Numero, sm. number, cypher, mul- 
titude, harmony. 

Numeroso-a, a. numerous, harmo- 
nious, melodious. 

Nunca, ad. never. 

Nupcial, a. nuptial, any thing per- 
taining to marriage. 



o 



6, conj. or, either ; inter, oh ! 

Obcecado-a, adj. dazzled, blinded. 

Obedeceis, F. Obedecer, ind. pres. 
2p. ye or you obey. 

Obedecen, F. Obedecer, md. pres. 
Sp. they obey. 

Obedecer, inf. va. to obey, to sub- 
mit to, to yield to. 

Obediencia, sf. obedience, submis- 
sion, precept, docility. 

Obispo, sm. bishop. 

Objeto, sm. object, view, end, de- 
sign. ^ 

Obligacion, sf. obligation, duty; 
contract, provision-office. 

Obligar, inf. va. to oblige, to com- 
pel. 

Obligas, F. Obligar, ind. pres. 2s. 
thou obligest. 

Obligue, F. Obligar, subj. pres. 3s. 
may oblige. 

6bra, F. Obrar, ind. pres. 3s. la- 
bours. 

6bra, sf. deed, work, labour, writ- 
ing ; en obra, in practice, accom- 
+ plished, inflicted. 

Obraba, F. Obrar, ind. impf. 1 or 
3s. laboured. 

Obrad, F. Obrar, imp. pres. 2p. 
labour you. 

Obrado, F. Obrar, part, manufac- 
tured, executed, constructed. 



6bran, F. Obrar, ind. pres. 3p. they 
labour. 

Obrar, inf. pres. va. to work ; to 
perform ; to act. 

6bras, F. Obrar, ind. pres. 2s. thou 
labourest. 

Obrase, F. Obrar, subj. 3 impf 1 
or 3s. should labour. 

Obscurecer, inf. va. to darken, to 
denigrate, to grow dark. 

Obscuridad, sf. obscurity, darkness, 
confusion. 

Obscuro-a, a. obscure, unintelligi- 
ble, dark, gloomy, confused. 

Observaban, F. Observar, ind. imp 
Sp. observed. 

Observancia, sf. observance, respect, 
reverence, careful obedience. 

Observando, F. Observar, ger. ob- 
serving, remarking. 

Observar, inf. va. to observe, to at 
tend to, to obey, to execute. 

Observas, F. Observar, ind. pres 
2s. thou observest. 

Obstinacion, sf. obstinacy, stub 
bornness, obduracy. 

Obstinado-a, part, or adjec. deter 
mined, obstinate ; having resolved 

Obtendra, F. Obtener, ind. fit. 3s 
shall, will obtain. 

Obtener, inf. va. to obtain, to ac- 
quire, to preserve, to maintain. 



20* 



233 



OFI 



6IG 



Dcasion, sf. occasion, opportunity, 
season, cause, motive. 

Ocasionaba, F. Ocasionar, ind. impf. 
3s. occasioned, caused. 

Ocasionar, inf. va. to cause, to oc- 
casion, to excite, to endanger. 

Oceano, sm. ocean; mar oceano, the 
great sea. 

6cho, a. num. eight. 

6cio, sm. laziness, indolence, lei- 
sure. 

Ocioso-a, a. idle, indolent, lazy. 

Octajenario-a, a. and s. eighty years 
old. 

Octavo-a, a. num. eighth, the eighth. 

Ocultar, inf. va. to conceal, to hide, 
to disguise, to keep secret. 

Oculto-a, F. Ocultar, part, conceal- 
ed, hidden. 

Ociilto, F. Ocultar, ind. pres. Is. 
I conceal. 

Ocupaban, F. Ocupar, ind. impf. 
Sp. they occupied. 

Ocupacion, sf. occupation, employ- 
ment, profession. 

Ocupado-a, part, or adj. occupied, 
employed, engaged, disturbed. 

Ocupar, inf. va. to occupy, to en- 
gage, to fill. 

O-cuparse, vn. r. to be engaged, to 
be busy. 

Ocurrencia, sf. occurrence, event, 
incident. 

6dio, sm. hatred, detestation. 

Odiosisimo-a, a. super, most or very 
odious, detestable, hateful. 

Odorifero-a, a. odoriferous, fragrant, 
perfumed. 

Ofende, F. Ofender, ind. pres. 3s. 
oifends. 

Ofender, inf. va. to oifend, to make 
angry, to injure. 

Ofendido-a,^ar£. adjec. offended, af- 
fronted, vexed, injured, displeased. 

Oficial, sm. journeyman, officer, 
clerk, magistrate. 



Oficio, sm. occupation, business, 
trade, profession, official letter. 

Oficioso-a, a. officious, attentive. 

Ofrece, F. Ofrecer, ind. pres. 3s. 
oilers. 

Ofrecer, inf. va. to offer, to present, 
to manifest to consecrate. 

Ofreci, F. Ofrecer, ind. pret. Is. I 
offered. 

Ofrecia, F. Ofrecer, ind. impf. 1 or 
3s. offered. 

Ofreci an, F. Ofrecer, ind. imp. Sp. 
they oliered. 

Ofreciendo, F. Ofrecer, ger. offer- 
ing, presenting. 

Ofrecieron, F. Ofrecer, ind. pret. 
3p. they offered. 

Ofrecimiento, sm. promise, offering. 

Ofrecio, F. Ofrecer, ind. pret. 3s. 
offered. 

Ofrenda, sf. offering, oblation, ho- 
mage. 

Ofuscado-a, part, blind, dazzled. 

Ofuscando, F. Ofuscar, ger. blind- 
ing, dazzling. 

Of use an, F. Ofuscar, ind. pres. Sp. 
disturb. 

Oh, inter, oh. 

Oi, F. Oir, ind. pret. Is. I heard, 
listened to. 

Oido, F. Oir, part, heard, listened 
to ; s. ear. 

Oiga, F. Oir, imp. pres. 3s. let 

hear. 

6iga, F. Oir, subj. pres. 1 or 3s. 
may hear. 

6igan, F. Oir, subj. pres. Sp. may 
hear. 

6igas, F. Oir, subj. pres. 2s. thou 
may est hear. 

Oigo, F. Oir, ind. pres. Is. I hear. 

Oir, inf. va. to hear, to perceive, to 
understand, to listen to. 

Oira, F. Oir, ind. fat. 3s. will or 
shall hear. 

234 



OPE 



6RD 



Oiste, F. Oir, ind. pret. 2s. thou 
heardst. 

Ojaza, aug. of Ojo, sm. large, big 
eye. 

Ojeada, sf. glance, glimpse. 

Ojete, dim. of Ojo, sm. little, small 

r eye. 

Ojo, sm. eye ; sight, lather. 

Ojuelo, sm. small, pretty eye, dim. 
of 0/o. 

Ola, sf. wave, billow. 

Olanda, sf. cambric, linen. 

Olavides (Pablo) sm.prop. Olavides, 
Count of Pilo. Born in Lima, 
Peru, 1740, died in Spain, 1803. 
He is distinguished for his perse- 
cutions, for his ill-requited spirit 
of improvement, for his talents as 
a writer, and for being the author 
of "El Evanjelio en Tfiunfo," 
The Gospel in Triumph. 

Olor, sm. smell, odour, hope. 

Oloroso-a, a. odoriferous, smelling, 
fragant. 

Olvidaba, F. Olvidar, ind. impf 1 
or 3s. forgot. 

Olvidais, F. Olvidar, ind. pres. 2p. 
you or ye forget. 

Olvidando, F. Olvidar, ger. forget- 
ing, neglecting. 

Olvidar, inf. pres. va. to forget, to 
neglect to omit. 

Olvidas, F. Olvidar, ind. pres. 2s. 
thou forgettest. 

Olvides, F. Olvidar, subj. pres. 2s. 
thou mayest forget. 

Olvido, sm. oblivion, forgetfulness. 

Omitir, inf. pres. va. to omit, to 
neglect, to pass over in silence. 

Omnipotente, sm. Omnipotent, Al- 
mighty. 

Ondeando, F. Ondear, ger. undula- 
ting, fluctuating. 

Ondear, inf. va. to undulate, to wave. 

Opera, F. Operar, ind. pres. 3s. 
operates. 



Operacion, sf. operation, action, 
conduct. 

Operan, F. Operar, ind. pres. Sp. 
they operate. 

Operar, inf. va. to operate, to act, 
to have agency. 

Opinion, sf. opinion, judgment, re- 
putation, character. 

Opone, F. Oponer, ind. pres. 3s. 
opposes. 

Oponen, F. Oponer, ind. pres. Sp. 
they oppose. 

Oponer, inf. va. to oppose, to con- 
tradict, to object. 

Opongan, F. Oponer, subj. 2ires. Sp. 
they may oppose. 

Oportunidad, sf. opportunity, occa- 
sion, convenience. 

Oportuno-a, a. opportunely, be- 
times, seasonable, convenient. 

Oposicion, sf. opposition, contra- 
diction, competition. 

Opresion, sf. oppression, calamity, 
tyranny. 

Opresivo-a, adj. oppressive, tyran- 
nical. 

Oprimen, F. Oprimir, ind. pres. Sp. 
they oppress. 

Oprimir, inf. va. to oppress, to 
crush, to afflict, to overpower. 

Oprobio, sm. opprobrium, ignominy, 
calumny, shame. 

Opuesto-a, a. opposite; contrary, 
adverse. 

Opulencia, sf opulence, wealth, 
riches. 

6ra, conj. now, whether, whether it 
be. 

Oraba, F. Orar, ind. impf. 3s. 
prayed. 

Oracion, sf prayer, supplication, 
petition. 

Orador, sm. orator, panegyrist, en- 
comiast. 

Orar, inf. vn. to pray, to supplicate 
heaven, to ask, to harangue. 
235 



osc 



6ye 



6rden, sf. order, precept. 

Ordena, F. Ordenar, ind. pres. 3s. 

ordains. 
Ordenado-a, part, adjec. ordered, 

commanded, ordained. 
Ordenanza, sf. method, order, law, 

ordinance. 
Ordenar, inf. va. to ordain, to order, 

to command, to direct. 
Ordeno, F. Ordenar, ind. pret. 3s. 

ordained. 
Ordinario-a, a. ordinary, coarse; de 

ordinario, usually. 
Orgullo, sm. pride, arrogance, 

haughtiness. 
Orgull6so-a, a. proud, haughty, 

brisk, active. 
Orijen, sm. origin, source, motive, 

birthplace. 
Orilla, sf. bank (of a river,) border, 

limit, edge, footpath. 
Ornad, F. Omar, imp. pres. 2p. or- 
nament you. 
Ornar, inf. pres. va. to ornament, to 

adorn, to embellish, to decorate. 
Ornato, sm. ornament, dress, deco- 
ration. 
6ro, sm. gold, riches, trinket. 
Ortiz, sm. prop, a late Mexican 

writer. 
Os, F. Vos, or Vosotros, pron. per. 

p. o. you, ye; to you, to ye. 
Osaba, F. Osar, ind. impf. 1 or 3s. 

I, it, he, or she dared. 
Osaban, F. Osar, ind. impf. 3p. 

they dared. 
Osadia, sf. courage, intrepidity, 

zeal, ardour. 
Osar, inf. pres. vn. to dare, to ven 

ture, to be so bold as, to fancy. 
Osa.se, F. Osar, subj. 3 impf 1 or 

3s. I or he should dare. 
Osasen, F. Osar, subj. 3 impf 3p. 

they should dare. 



Oscuridad, sf. obscurity, darkness, 
confusion. 

Oscuro-a, a. obscure, dark, unin- 
telligible. 

Ostentacion, sf ostentation, out- 
ward show, vain display. 

Ostentado, F. Ostentar, part, de- 
monstrated, bragged, praised. 

Ost.entado-a, a. ostentatious, fond 
of display. 

Ostentan, F. Ostentar, ind. pres. 3p. 
they brag of. 

Ostentar, inf. pres. va. to show, to 
demonstrate, to boast, to brag, to 
make a display, a show. 

Ostentes, F. Ostentar, subj. pres. 2s. 
thou mayest display. 

Ostento, F. Ostentar, ind. pret. 3s. 
it, he, or she displayed. 

Ostento, sm. show, spectacle, pro- 
digy. 

Otero, sm. hill, eminence. 

Otoinano-a, sub. Ottoman, Turk. 

Otomano-a, a. Ottoman, relating to 
the Turkish empire. 

Otoinan, sub. Ottoman, Turk. 

Otoman, a. Ottoman, Turkish. 

6tro-a, a. another, other; next; 
next one. 

Otrosj, ad. in the same manner, 
also, besides, further. 

Oveja, sf. ewe, flock. 

6ye, F. Oir, ind. pres. 3s. it, he, or 
she hears. 

6ye, F. Oir, imp. pres. 2s. hear thou. 

Oyen, F. Oir, ind. pres. 3p. they hear. 

Oyendo, F. Oir, ger. hearing, per- 
ceiving. 

Oyente, sm. hearer, auditor. 

Oyentes, sm. p. audience. 

Oyeron, F. Oir, ind. pret. 3p. heard, 
listened to. 

Oyes, F. Oir, ind. pres. 2s. thou 
nearest. 



PAL 



PAR 



Pablo, sub. prop. m. Paul, a man's 

name. 
Padecen, F. Padecer, ind. pres. 3p. 

they suffer. 
Padecer, inf. pres. va. to suffer, to 

sustain an injury, to be liable to. 
Padeci, F. Padecer, ind. pret. 3s. I 

suffered. 
Padeciendo, F. Padecer, ger. suffer- 
ing. 
Padezcan, F. Padecer, subj. pres. 

Sp. they may suffer. 
Padre, sin. father, parent ; ancestor, 

origin. 
Paga, F. Pagar, ind. pret. Bs. it, he, 

or she pays. 
Pagado-a,_par/. and a. pleased, paid, 

discharged, atoned, rewarded. 
Pagan, F. Pagar, ind. pres. Sp. they 

pay- 

Pagar, inf. pres. va. to pay, to atone, 
to please, to reward. 

Pagaron, F. Pagar, ind. pret. Sp. 
they paid. 

Pagas, F. Pagar, ind. pres. 2s. thou 
payest. 

Pais, sm. country, nation, place. 

Paja, sm. straw, blade. 

Pajarillo, sm. small bird, dim. of 
Pdjaro. 

Paje, sm. page, domestic. 

Palabra, sf word, affirmation, pro- 
mise. 

Palacio, sm. palace, castle, splendid 
house. 

Paliadas, sf. fabulous virgins, con- 
secrated to Jupiter, by the The- 
bans of Egypt. 

Paliado-a, a. deceitful, hypocritical, 
infamous. 

Palillo, sm. a small stick, tooth- 
pick, rolling-pin. 



Palpa, F. Palpar, ind. pres. 3s. he, 

she, or it feels. 
Palpablemente, ad. evidently, clear- 

Paipar, inf. pres. va. to feel, to 
touch, to search by feeling in the 
dark. 

Pan, sm. bread, support. 

Pantalia, sf. discharge. 

Papa, sm. Pope, the Pontiff. 

Papel, sm. paper; figure; show, 
eclat; standing. 

Par, sm. pair, equal ; sin par, match- 
less, without equal ; a la par a 
par, both at once ; de par en par, 
a-jar, (speaking of a door.) 

Para, prep, for, to, towards, to the 
end ; para con, in regard to, re- 
specting. 

Para, F. Parar, ind. pres. 3s. stops, 
detains. 

Par ad, F. Parar, imp. pres. 2p. stop. 

Paraje, sm. place, residence, condi- 
tion, disposition. 

Paralelo, sm. parallel, comparison, 
match. 

Parar, inf. va. to detain, to impede, 
to end, to happen, to stop. 

Parar, inf. vn. to stop, to halt. 

Parche, sm. patch, plaster. 

Parece, F. Parecer, ind. pres. 3s. 
appears. 

Parece d, F. Parecer, imp. 2p. ap- 
pear. 

Parecen, F. Parecer, ind. pres. Sp. 
they appear. 

Parecer, inf. vn. to appear, to seem, 
to resemble. 

Parecer, sm. opinion, look ; al pa- 
recer, to all appearances. 

Pareces, F. Parecer, ind. pres. 2s. 
thou appearest, seemst. 



237 



PAR 



PAS 



Pared, F. Parecer, ind. pret. Is. I 
appeared. 

Parecia, F. Parecer, bid. impf. 1 or 
3s. I, it, he, or she appeared. 

Parecian, F. Parecer, ind. imp/. Sp. 
they appeared. 

Parecido-a, a. resembling, like, fa- 
vouring. 

Parecido, F. Parecer, part, appear- 
ed, found out, approved. 

Pareciendo, F. Parecer, ger. appear- 
ing. ^ 

Parecio, F. Parecer, ind. pret. 3s. it, 
appeared. 

Pared, sf. wall, rampart. 

Parentesco, sm. kindred, consan- 
guinity, relationship, union, link. 

Pariente, sm. relation, kindred; a. 
resembling. 

Parleria, sf. loquacity, garrulity, 
talking, chirping. 

Paro, F. Parar, ind. pres. Is. I 
stop. 

Parpado, sm. eyelid. 

Parroco, sm. curate, rector. 

Parroquia, sf. parish. 

Parte, sf. part, share ; some ; de 
parte a parte, through. 

Parten, F. Partir, ind. pres. 3p. 
they depart. 

Partia, F. Partir, ind. impf. 1 or 3s. 
departed. 

Participan, F. Participar, ind. pres. 
Sp. they participate. 

Participo, F. Participar, ind. pres. 
Is. I participate. 

Particular, a. private, particular, 
peculiar, special, singular. 

Particularmente, ad. particularly, 
especially. 

Partida, sf quality, item, (in ac- 
count,) departure. 

Partido, sm. measure, favour, pro- 
tection, contract ; match. 

Partido, F. Partir, part, divided, 
departed. 



Partiendo, F. Partir, ger. departing, 

setting out. 
Partio, F. Partir, ind. pret. 3s. de- 
parted. 
Partir, inf. vn. to depart, to go off, 

to set out, to start. 
Partir, inf. va. to divide, to separate, 

to part, to resolve. 
Pasa, ind. pret. 3s. passes, spends. 
Pas aba, F. Pasar 9 ind. impf 1 or 

3s. passed. 
Pas ado, F. Pasar, part, passed, 

pierced. 
Pasais, F. Pasar, ind. ])res. 2p. ye 

or you pass. 
Pasan, F. Pasar, ind. pres. Sp. they 

pass. 
Pasando, F. Pasar, ger. passing, 

penetrating. 
Pasar, inf. va. to pass, to cross, to 

run through, to exceed. 
Pasar, inf. vn. to pass, to go, to call 

on, to die. 
Pasara, F. Pasar. subj. impf 1 or 

3s. I, he, &c. might or would pass. 
Pasaron, F. Pasar, ind. pret. Sp. 

they passed. 
Pasas, F. Pasar, ind. pres. 2s. thou 

passest. 
Pasase, F. Pasar, subj. 3 impf. 1 or 

3s. he might, should, w T ould pass. 
Pasasen, F. Pasar, subj. 3 impf. Sp. 

should, would, might pass. 
Pasear, inf. vn. to w r alk, to move 

slowly, to go, to take exercise. 
Paseado, F. Pasear, part, walked. 

moved. 
Pasean, F. Pasear, ind. pres. Sp. 

they w r alk. 
Pasmado-a, part, adjec. chilled, as- 
tonished, enraptured. 
Pasmar, inf. va. to astonish, to awe. 
Pasmaron, (se) ind. pret. Sp. they 

w r ere astonished. 
Pasmaron, F. Pasmar, ind. pret. 

Sp. they astonished. 

238 



PED 



PEN 



Paso, sm. step, passage ; al paso 
que, at the same time that. 

Paso, ind.pret. 3s. he went to, called 
at. 

Paso, F. Pasar, ind. pres. Is. I pass. 

Pastor, sm. shepherd, pastor. 

Pastora, sf. shepherdess. 

Pastorcillo-a, sub. dim. of Pastor. 

Patavino, sm. a native of Padua, or 
Patavium, Italy. 

Patente, sf. patent, warrant, com- 
mission. 

Patente, a. manifest, evident, plain. 

Paternal, a. paternal, fatherly. 

Patio, sm. yard, court, pit. 

Patria, sf. native country, birth- 
place, country. 

Patron, pi. Patronos; sm. supporter; 
guardian, saint. 

Paves, sm. shield. 

Pavor, sm. dread, terror. 

Paz, sf. peace. 

Peca, F. Pecar, ind. pres. 3s. sins, 
transgresses. 

Pecado, sm. sin, transgression, ex- 
travagance. 

Pecar, inf. vn. to sin ; to be want- 
ing, to commit excess. 

Pecaste, F. Pecar, ind.pret. 2s. thou 
sinnedst. 

Pececillo, sm. small fish, dim. of 
Pez, or Pezcado. 

Pecho, sm. breast, courage, bosom ; 
heart. 

Pecador-a, sub. sinner, offender, de- 
linquent. 

Pedazo, sm. piece, bit, selection. 

Pedia, F. Pedir, ind. impf. 3s. 
asked, begged. 

Pedian, F. Pedir, ind. impf. Sp. they 
asked. 

Pedir, inf. va. to ask, to petition, to 
wish, to desire, to demand. 

Pedira, F. Pedir, ind. fat. 3s. will, 
shall ask. 



Pedis, F. Pedir, ind. pres. 2p. you 
ask. 

Pedregoso-a, a. stony, cragged, 
rugged. 

Pedrena, sf. a collection of fine 
stones. 

Pedro el Cruel, sub. prop. m. Peter 
the Cruel, a tyrant of Spain. 

Pelayo, sub. prop. m. Pelagius, the 
first Spanish hero that rose against 
the Moorish yoke. 

Pelea, sf. fight, combat, struggle. 

Peleado, F. Pelear, part, fought. 

Pelear, inf. pres. va. to fight, to 
combat, to quarrel, to contend. 

Pelearon, F. Pelear, ind. pret. Bp. 
fought. 

Peligro, sm. danger, risk, hazard; 
de peligro, dangerous. 

Peligroso-a, a. dangerous, perilous, 
venturous, hazardous. 

Pel6so-a, a. hairy, covered with 
hair. 

Pellejo, sm. skin, fur, hide. 

Pena, sf punishment, pain, penal- 
ty; grief, sorrow. 

Pende, F. Pender, ind. pret. 3s. it, 
he, or she hangs, or depends. 

Pendencia, sf quarrel, disagree- 
ment, dispute. 

Pender, inf. pres. vn. to hang over, 
to depend, to be resolute. 

Pendiente, a. hanging, depending ; 
s. declivity. 

Penetra, F. Penetrar, ind. pres. 3s. 
it, he, or she penetrates. 

Penetrando, F. Penetrar, ger. pene- 
trating. 

Penetrar, inf. pres. va. to penetrate, 
to pierce, to be convinced, to un- 
derstand, to affect the mind. 

Peninsula, sm. a peninsula, or a 
portion of land almost surround- 
ed by water ; hence Spain is fre- 
quently called the Peninsula. 



£39 



PER 



PER 



Penitencia, sf. atonement, penance, 
privation. 

Penoso-a, a. painful. 

Pensaba, F. Pensar, ind. impf. 1 or 
3s. thought, was thinking. 

Pensainiento, sm. thought, idea, de- 
sign. 

Pensarnos, F. Pensar, ind. pres. \p. 
we think. 

Pensarnos, F. Pensar, ind. pret. \p. 
we thought. 

Pensando, F. Pensar, ger. thinking, 
believing. 

Pensar, inf. pres. va. to think, to 
imagine, to believe, to weigh. 

Pensativo-a, a. pensive, thoughtful, 
reflective, cautious. 

Pensil, sm. pensile, a hanging gar- 
den. 

Peiia, sm. rock. 

Pequeiio-a, a. small, narrow, young. 

Pera, sm. pear, (a fruit.) 

Perciben, F. Percibir, ind. pres. Sp. 
perceive, receive. 

Percibido, F. Percibir, part, per- 
ceived, received. 

Percibimos, F. Percibir, ind. pret. 
\p. we perceived. 

Percibio, F. Percibir, ind. pret. 3s. 
perceived. 

Percibir, inf. pres. va. to perceive; 
to receive. 

Percibo, ind. pres. Is. I perceive, 
observe. 

Perder, inf. va. to lose, to miss, to 
lavish, to misspend. 

Perdi, F. Perder, ind. pret. Is. I 
lost. 

Perdi a, F. Perder, ind. impf 1 or 
3s. lost. 

Perdian, F. Perder, ind. impf 3p. 
they lost. 

Perdicion, sf. perdition, loss, prodi- 
gality, extravagance. 

Perdida, sf. loss, detriment, da- 
mage. 



Perdi era, F. Perder, subj. 1 impf 
1 or 3s. would lose. 

Perdieron, F. Perder, ind. pret. Sjj. 
they lost. 

Perdiese, F. Perder, subj. 3 impf 1 
or 3s. should lose. 

Perdio, F. Perder, ind. pret. 3s. lost. 

Perdiste, F. Perder, ind. pret. 2s. 
didst lose, lost. 

Perdonando, F. Perdonar, ger. par- 
doning, excusing. 

Perdonar, inf. va. to pardon, to for- 
give, to beg leave, to exempt. 

Perdono, F. Perdonar, ind. pret. 3s. 
pardoned. 

Perec er, inf. vn. to perish. 

Pereceremos, F. Pereccr, ind. Jut, 
1p. we shall, will perish. 

Perecio, F. Perecer, ind. pret. 3s. 
perished. 

Peregrin ado, part, travelled, pere- 
grinated. 

Peregrino-a, a. wandering, most 
beautiful; s. a pilgrim. 

Perez (Antonio) sm. prop, an emi- 
nent Spanish minister and distin- 
guished writer, persecuted by 
Philip II. Born about the mid- 
dle of the 16th century; died 
1611. 

Pereza, sf. sloth, laziness. 

Perezoso-a, a. slothful, lazy, indo- 
lent. 

Perfeccion, sf. perfection, excel- 
lence, beauty, grace. 

Perfeccionar, inf. va. to perfect, to 
complete, to finish entirely. 

Perjuicial, a. prejudicial, hurtful, 
injurious. 

Perjuicio, sm. prejudice, injury, 
mischief. 

Perla, sf. pearl. 

Permita, F. Permitir, subj. pres. 3s. 
may permit. 

Permitid, F. Permitir, imp. pres. 2p. 
permit ye. 

240 



PER 



PIC 



Permitieron, F. Permitir, ind. pret. 
Sp. they permitted. 

Permitir, inf. va. to permit, to 
agree, to grant, to admit. 

Permutaban, F. Permutar, ind. 
impf. Sp. exchanged, trucked. 

Pernicioso-a, a. pernicious, mis 
chievous, destructive. 

Pero, prep, but ; except, yet. 

Perpetuamente, adv. everlastingly, 
forever. 

Perpetuo-a, a. perpetual, eternal. 

Perrillo, sm. a little dog, dim. of 
Perro. 

Perro, sm. dog, loss. 

Perseguido-a, part, adjec. perse- 
cuted, followed, pursued, ha- 
rassed. 

Perseguir, inf. va. to persecute, to 
pursue, to harass, to weaiy. 

Persia, sub. prop. f. Persia, an ex- 
tensive empire of Asia. 

Persiguen, F. Perseguir, subj. pres. 
Sp. they may persecute. 

Persiste, F. Persistir, ind. pres. Ss. 
persists, insists. 

Persistir, inf. vn. to persist, to con- 
tinue firm, to persevere, to insist. 

Persona, sf person, individual, per- 
sonage. 

Personaje, sm. character, person- 
age. 

Perspicaz, a. perspicacious, saga- 
cious, acute. 

Persuade, F. Persuadir, ind. pres. 
Ss. persuades. 

Persuadido-a, part, adjec. per- 
suaded, satisfied, convinced, sen- 
sible. 

Persuadir, (se) inf. va. to persuade, 
to induce, to be persuaded. 

Persuasivo-a, a. persuasive, pa- 
thetic. 

Pertenece, F. Pertenecer, ind. pres. 
Ss. belongs. 

21 



Pertenecen, F. Pertenecer, ind. pres. 
Sp. they belong. 

Pertenecer, inf. vn. to belong to; 
to behoove. 

Pertenezca, F. Pertenecer, subj. 
pres. 1 or 3s. may pertain, be- 
long. 

Pertrechos, sm. ammunition, arms, 
instruments. 

Perverso-a, a. perverse, stubborn, 
wicked. 

Pesa, F. Pesar, ind. pres. Ss. it 
grieved, sorry for. 

Pesado-a, a. difficult, troublesome, 
fatiguing; heavy. 

Pesadumbre, sf sorrow, grief, af- 
fliction. 

Pesca, sf. fishing, fish, fishery. 

Pesar, inf. pres. va. and vn. to 
weigh ; to be sorry for ; a pesar 
de, in spite, notwithstanding. 

Pesebre, sm. crib, manger, stable. 

Pesimo-a, a. super, worse, extreme- 
ly bad. 

Peso, sm. weight, consequence, dol- 
lar. 

Pestanea, ind. pres. Ss. he views in- 
distinctly. 

Pestanear, inf. va. to move the eye- 
lashes ; to view indistinctly. 

Peste, sm. plague, pest. 

Pestifero-a, a. pestiferous, mis- 
chievous. 

Pestilente, a. pestilent, pernicious. 

Peticion, sf. petition, memorial, re- 
quest. 

Peto, sm. breast-plate. 

Piadoso-a, a. pious, merciful, com- 
passionate. 

Pic aba, F. Picar, md. impf. 1 or 3s. 
pricked, pushed. 

Picaban, F. Picar, ind. impf. Sp 
they stung, pricked, pushed. 

Pi can. F. Picar, ind. pres. Sp. prick, 
push. 

Picante, a. sarcastic, cutting, hot. 
241 



PIR 



POB 



Picar, inf. va. to prick, to sting, to 

itch, to spur, to be hot. 
Picaron, sub. rogue, villain, rascal. 
Pide, F. Pedir, ind. pres. Bs. begs 

asks. 
Piden, F. Pedir, ind. pres. Sp. they 

beg. 
Pidiendo, F. Pedir, ger. asking. 

begging. 
Pidieron, F. Pedir, ind. pret. Sp. 

they asked. 
Pie, sm. foot, level ; a pie, on foot. 
Piedad, sf. piety, mercy, pity. 
Piedra, sf. stone. 
Pielago, sm. bottom, abyss, ocean, 

sea. 
Piensa, F. Pensar, ind. pres. Bs. 

thinks. 
Piensan, F. Pensar, ind. pres. Bp. 

they think. 
Piensas, F. Pensar, ind. pres. 2s. 

thou dost think. 
Pierda, F. Perder, subj. pres. 1 or 

3s. may lose. 
Pierdas, F. Perder, subj. pres. 2s. 

thou mayest lose. 
Pierden, F. Perder, ind. pres. Bp. 

they lose. 
Pierdo, F. Perder, ind. pres. Is. I 

lose. 
Pierna, sf. leg. 

Pincel, sm. pencil, lead-pencil. 
Pintado, F. Pintar, apart, painted, 

adorned. 
Pintan, F. Pintar, ind. pres. Bp. 

they paint. 
Pintar, inf. va. to paint, to portray, 

to describe, to delineate. 
Pintura, sf. picture; description; 

painting. 
Piquen, F. Picar, subj. pres. Bp. 

they may peck. 
Pirineo-a, a. Pyrenean, relating to 

the Pyrenees. 
Pirineos, sub. prop. m. p. Pyrenees. 



Pisar, inf. pres. va. to tread, to 

stamp, to trample. 
Pise, F. Pisar, subj. pres. 1 or 3&. 

may tread. 
Piso, F. Pisar, imp. pres. Is. I tread; 

s. story (of a house.) 
Pisto, sm. substance, juice. 
Pis tola, sf. pistol. 
Pitagoras, sub. prop. m. Pythagoras, 

a celebrated philosopher of anti- 
quity. 
Pizarro, sub. prop. m. Pizarro, a 

Spaniard who conquered Peru. 
Placer, sm. pleasure, delight. 
Planicie, sf. plain, evenness, even 

ground. 

Planta, sf plant, sole (of the foot.) 
Planta, F. Plantar, ind. Bs. plants, 

sows. 
Plantado, F. Plantar, part, planted, 

sown, fixed. 
Plantar, inf. pres. va. to plant, to 

set up, to fix, to erect, to sow. 
Planto, F. Plantar, ind. pres. Is. I 

plant. 
Planto, F. Plantar, ind. pres. Bs. 

planted. 
Plata, sf. silver, plate, wealth. 
Playa, sf. shore, beach. 
Plaza, sf. town, place, square, 

fortress. 
Plazo, sm. credit, appointed time. 
Plebeyo, sm. plebeian, vulgar. 
Plegado, F. Plegar, part, folded, 

doubled. 
Plegue, F. Plegar, subj. Bs. may 

it please, would that. 
Plinio, sub. prop. m. Pliny, an an- 
cient Roman natural historian. 
Pluma, sf. pen, feather, writer. 
Plutarco, sub. prop. m. Plutarch, an 

eminent ancient Greek biogra- 
pher. 
Poblacion, sf. population; town, 

city 



242 



p6l 



pos 



Poblado-a, F. Poblar, part, peopled, 
inhabited ; s. a town. 

Pobre, a. poor, indigent, insignifi- 
cant ; s. a beggar. 

Pobreza, sf poverty, wretchedness, 
misery. 

Poco, s. ad. and a. little ; poco a 
poco, slowly, by degrees. 

Poder, sm. power, force, authority, 
might. 

Poder, inf. va. to be able, to have 
energy. 

Poderoso-a, a. powerful, mighty, 
wealthy, eminent. 

Podeis, F. Poder, ind. pres. 2p. ye 
may. 

Podemos, F. Poder, ind. pres. Ip. 
we can. 

Podia, F. Poder, ind. impf. 1 or 3s. 
I could. 

Podiamos, F. Poder, ind. impf. \p. 
we could. 

Podian, F. Poder, ind. impf. Sp. 
they could, were able. 

Podido, F. Poder, part, being able. 

Podra, F. Poder, ind. fut. 3s. will 
be able. 

Podre, F. Poder, ind. fut. Is. I shall, 
will be able. 

Podremos, F. Poder, ind. fut. \p. 
we shall be able. 

Poesia, sf. poetry, poesy. 

Poeta, sm. poet, bard. 

Polibio, sub. prop. m. Polybius, an 
eminent warrior and historian of 
antiquity. 

Policia, sf police, politeness, clean- 
liness, policy. 

Politico-a, a. polite, courteous, po- 
litic. 

Poltroneria, sf. supineness, idleness, 
laziness. 

Polvareda, sf. cloud of dust, alter- 
cation, dispute. 

Polvo, sm. powder, powders. 

Polvora sf. gunpowder. 



Pompa, sf. pomp, magnificence. 

Pomposidad, sf. ostentation, mag- 
nificent show, bombast. 

Pomposo-a, a. pompous, ostenta- 
tious, magnificent, inflated. 

Pon, F. Poner, imp. pres. 2s. place, 
or put. 

Porcion, sf. portion, quantity. 

Ponderar, inf. va. to exaggerate, to 
weigh, to examine, to ponder, to 
dwell on. 

Pone, F. Poner, ind. pres. 3s. puts. 

Ponen, F. Poner, ind. pres. Sp. they 
put. 

Poner, inf. va. to put ; to fix, to im- 
pose ; vr. to set to, to begin. 

Pones, F. Poner, ind. pres. 3s. thou 
puttest. 

Ponga, F. Poner, subj. pres. 1 or 3s. 
may put. 

Pongo, F. Poner. ind. pres. Is. I 
put. 

Ponia, F. Poner, ind. impf. 1 or 3s 
placed, put. 

Poniendo, F. Poner, ger. placing, 
putting. 

Poniente, sub. prop. m. west, west 
wind. 

Pontifice, sm. Pope, Pontiff. 

Ponzoiia, sf poison, venom. 

Popular, a. popular. 

Por, prep, by, for, through, on, in, 
on account of. 

Por entre, comp. prep, between, 
among, through. 

Porfia, sf obstinacy, vying. 

Porfiado-a, a. obstinate, stubborn. 

Porque, conj. because, in order that 
why ? for what ? 

Porte, sm. carriage, postage, con- 
duct, caliber. 

Portero, sm. porter. 

Portico, sm. portico, piazza (porch 
supported by columns.) 

Posada, sf lodgings, tavern, hotel, 
inn. 

243 



PRE 



PRE 



Posee, F. Poseer, ind. pres. 3s. pos- 
sesses. 
Pose en, F. Poseer, ind. pres. 3p. 

they possess. 
Poseer, inf. va. to possess, to have, 

to hold. 
Poseian, F. Poseer, ind. impf. Sp. 

they possessed. 
Poseido, F. Poseer, part, possessed, 

had. 
Posible, a. possible. 
Positivamente, ad. positively, abso- 
lutely, certainly. 
Positivo-a, adj. positive. 
Posta, sf. mail, post-office, one that 

travels by the post. 
Postrar, inf. va. to prostrate, to hum- 
ble, to debilitate, to exhaust. 
Postrar, inf. pres. vr. to prostrate 

one's self, to kneel. 
Potest ad, sf. power. 
Potestades, sfp. the heavenly spirits 

of the sixth choir. 
Pozo, sm. well, whirlpool. 
Praderia, sf. meadow, mead, lawn, 

prairie. 
Prado, sm. meadow, prairie. 
Preceder, inf. va. to precede, to go 

before. 
Precedio, F. Preceder, ind.pret. 3s 

preceded, went before. 
Precederan, F. Preceder, ind. fat. 

Sp. they will or shall precede. 
Preciado-a, a. valued, appraised, 

precious, conceited. 
Precio, sm. price, value. 
Preciosidad, sm. preciousness, ex 

cellence, worth, merit. 
Precioso-a, a. precious, valuable, 

excellent. 
Precipicio, sm. precipice, destruc 

tiom 
Precipitar, inf. va. to precipitate, to 

throw headlong. 
Precipitaremos, F. Precipitar, ind. 

fat. Ip. we shall, will precipitate. 



Precisar, inf. va. to compel, to 
oblige, to force. 

Precision, sf precision, purity, cor- 
rectness, necessity, obligation. 

Preciso-a, a. necessary; precise, 
clear. 

Predecir, inf. va. to foretell, to anti- 
cipate, to predict. 

Predijo, F. Predecir, ind. pret. 3s. 
foretold, predicted. 

Preferible, a. preferable, eligible, 
worthy of preference. 

Pregunta, sf. request, question, in- 
quiry. 

Preguntaban, F. Preguntar, ind. 
impf. Sp. they ask. 

Preguntan, F. Preguntar, ind. pres. 
Sp. they inquire. 

Preguntando, F. Preguntar, ger. 
asking. 

Preguntar, inf. va. to ask, to ques- 
tion, to demand, to inquire. 

Pregunte, F. Preguntar, ind. preU 
Is. I asked. 

Pregunto, F. Preguntar, ind. pret* 
3s. demanded. 

Prelado, sm. prelate. 

Preludio, sm. prelude. 

Premia, F. Premiar, ind. pres. 3s. 
rewards. 

Premiar, inf. va. to recompense, to 
reward, to remunerate. 

Premio, F. Premiar, ind. pret. 3s. 
rewarded. 

Premio, sm. premium, reward. 

Prenda, sm. quality; accomplish- 
ment, pawn, talent. 

Prendado-a, a. gifted, endued; 
part, being delighted with. 

Prendieron, F. Prender, ind. pret. 
Sp. they took, they took root. 

Preocupacion, sf. prejudice. 

Prepara, F. Preparar, ind. pres. 3s. 
prepares. 

Preparar, inf. va. to prepare, to fit 
to get ready, to be disposed. 
244 



PRE 



PRI 



Preparas, F. Preparar, ind. pres. 2s. 
thou preparest. 

Preparativo, sm. preparation, prepa 
rative. 

Prerogativa, sf prerogative, power, 
privilege. 

Presa, sf. prize, spoil, capture. 

Prescindir, inf. va. to lay aside, to 
cut off, to intercept. 

Prescribe, F. Prescribir, ind. pres 
3s. prescribes, commands. 

Prescribir, inf. va. to prescribe, to 
mark, to command. 

Presencia, sf. presence, figure, de- 
meanour. 

Presenta, F. Presentar, ind. pres 
3s. presents. 

Presentaba, F. Presentar, ind. impf 
1 or 3s. presented. 

Presentaban, F. Presentar, ind. 
impf. Sp. they presented. 

Presentar, inf. va. to present, to 
offer, to favour with a gift. 

Presentaron, F. Presentar, ind. 
pret. Sp. they presented. 

Presente, sub. present, gift. 

Presente, a. present. 

Presente, F. Presentar, ind. pret. Is. 
I presented. 

Presento, F. Presentar, ind. pret. 3s. 
presented. 

Preserver, inf. va. to preserve, to 
defend from evil, to keep. 

Preservo, F. Preservar, ind. pret. 
3s. preserved. 

Preso, sm. a prisoner ; part, taken, 
seized in prison. 

Preso, F. Tomar, part, taken, 
seized. 

Presteza, sf. quickness, prompti- 
tude. 

Prestijio, sm. illusion, fascination. 

Presto, ad. soon, directly. 

Presumido-a, part, substan. pre- 
sumptuous, bold, vain, or petu- 
lant. 
21* 



Presumido, F. Presumir, part, pre- 
sumed, arrogated. 

Presuncion, sf. presumption, con- 
jecture, confidence, suspicion. 

Presuroso-a, a. hasty, prompt, light. 

Pretende, F. Pretender, ind. pres. 
3s. pretends, desires. 

Pretender, inf. va. to pretend, to 
claim, to solicit, to attempt. 

Pretendes, F. Pretender, ind. pres. 
2s. thou pretendest or attemptest. 

Pretendiente, sm. candidate, suitor, 
lover, solicitor. 

Pretension, sf pretension, claim, 
pretext. 

Pretestando, F. Pretestar, ger. al- 
leging. 

Pretestar, inf. va. to allege, to give 
a pretext, to advance a pretence. 

Pretiende, F. Pretender, ind. pres. 
3s. solicits, pretends. 

Pretiendes, F. Pretender, ind. pres. 
2s. thou pretendest. 

Pretor, sm. Praetor, formerly one of 
the chief magistrates of Rome. 

Prevaricador, sm. prevaricator, ca- 
viller, shuffler. 

Prevenir, inf. va. to prepare, to an- 
ticipate, to prevent, to provide. 

Prever, inf. va. to foresee, to fore- 
know. 

Previniendo, F. Prevenir, ger. cau- 
tioning, arranging, preventing, 
considering, ordering. 

Pre vino, F. Prevenir, ind. pret. 3s, 
provided. 

Priesa, sub. haste, hurry ; de priesa, 
in haste, fast. 

Primer, a. num. first; chief, superio 

Primeramente, ad. first, in the first 
place 

Primero-a, a. num. first ; chief. 

Primitivo-a, a. primitive, original. 

Primor, sm. nicety, delicacy. 

Primoroso-a, ad. neat, elegant, ex 
quisite, pretty, dexterous. 

245 



pr6 



FRO 



Principados, sm. p. the heavenly 
spirits of the third choir ; princi- 
pality, power, pre-eminence. 

Principal, a. principal, noble, 
princely, of quality, rank. 

Principalmente, ad. principally, 
chieliy, mainly. 

Principe, sm. prince, king. 

Principiaba, F. Principiar, ind. 
impf 3s. it was beginning, began. 

Principiar, inf. va. to begin, to 
commence, to enter upon. 

Principio, F. Principiar, ind. pret. 
3s. began. 

Principio, sm. principle, beginning, 
motive, source. 

Prisa, a. and s. haste ; de prisa, in 
haste, fast. 

Prision, sf. prison, jail, captivity. 

Prisionero, sm. prisoner, culprit. 

Priva, F. Privar, ind. pres. 3s. de- 
prives. 

Priva, F. Privar, ind. pres. 3s. en- 
joys the favour of. 

Privacion, sf. privation, want. 

Privando, F. Privar, ger. depriving. 

Privanza, sf. favour, protection. 

Privar, inf. pres. vn. to deprive of, 
to preclude from, to enjoy the 
protection of. 

Privilejiado-a, a. possessing a privi- 
lege or power. 

Probaban, (se) ind. impf 3p. they 
tried, experimented, proved. 

Probar, inf. va. to try, to examine, 
to prove, to taste, to attempt, 

Problema, sm. problem, question. 

Proceder, sm behaviour, conduct, 
manner of acting. 

Proceder, sm. manner of proceed- 
ing, demeanour, management. 

Procesion, sf procession, train. 

Proceso, sm. process, judicial pro- 
ceedings, suit. 

Procsimo-a, a. next; nearest, on 
the verge of. 



Procura, F. Procurar, ind. pres. 3s. 
endeavours. 

Procuraban, F. Procurar f ind. impf 
3p. they endeavoured. 

Procuramos, F. Procurar, ind. pres. 
\p. we endeavour. 

Procurando, F. Procurar, ger. en- 
deavouring. 

Procurar, inf va. to solicit, to strive, 
to endeavour, 

Procurare, F. Procurar, ind. fat. Is, 
I will endeavour. 

Procuremos, F. Procurar, subj. 
pres. or imp. \p. may, let .... . 
endeavour. 

Procures, F. Procurar, subj. pres. 
2s. thou mayest endeavour. 

Prodigalidad, sf prodigality, extra- 
vagance, abundance. 

Prodigar, inf. va. to waste, to lav- 
ish, to mis-spend, to bestow. 

Prodigado, F. Prodigar, part, lavish. 

Prodijio, sm. prodigy, miracle, won- 
der. 

Produccion, sf. production, com- 
modity, 

Produee, F. Producir, ind. 3s. 
produces. 

Prodiicen, F. Producir, ind. pres 
3p. produce. 

Producido, sm. proceeds. 

Producido, F. Producir, part, pro- 
duced, brought forth, exhibited, 
maintained. 

Producir, inf. va. to produce, to 
bring forth, to engender. 

Produjo, F. Producir, ind. pret. 3s 
produced. 

Produzca, F. Producir, subj. pres. 
3s. may produce. 

Proferir, inf. va. to utter, to pro- 
nounce, to proffer, to relate. 

Profesamos, F. Prqfesar, ind. pres. 
\p. we profess. 

Profesar, inf. pres. va. to profess, to 
exercise, to practise. 

246 



PRO 



PRO 



Profesion, sf. profession, trade, bu- 
siness, protestation. 

Profeta, sm. prophet, (one who tells 
future events.) 

Profetiza, F. Profetizar, ind. pres 
3s. predicts. 

Profetizar, inf. va. to prophesy, to 
predict, to conjecture. 

Profiere, F. Proferir, ind. pres. 3s 
utters, says. 

Profugo, sub. fugitive; part, runa- 
way. 

Profundamente, ad. profoundly, re- 
spectfully. 

Profundidad, sf. profundity, depth, 
intensity, excellence. 

Profundisimo-a, a, super, most deep, 
most profound, most high. 

Profundo-a, a. profound, deep, 
sound. 

Profusion, sf. profusion, lavishness. 

Progresion, sf progression, pro 
cess. 

Prolijo-a, a. prolix, tedious, fati- 
guing, troublesome. 

Prolongado-a, a. prolonged, ex- 
tended, procrastinated, delayed 

Promesa, sf promise, offering. 

Prometer, inf. va. to promise; to 
flatter one's self. 

Prometes, F. Prometer, ind. pres. 
2s. thou promisest. 

Prometi, F. Prometer, ind. pret. Is. 
promised. 

Prometo, F. Prometer, ind. pres. Is. 
I promise. 

Prontamente, ad. quickly, promptly. 

Pronto, ad. soon, immediately. 

Pronunciado-a, F. Pronunciar, part. 
uttered. 

Pronuncian, F. Pronunciar, ind. 
pres. Sp. they pronounce. 

Pronunciar, inf. va. to pronounce, 
to utter, to deliver. 

Propiamente, ad. properly, regular- 
ly, orderly. 



Propiedad, sf. possession, propriety., 
property, quality. 

Propio-a, a. peculiar to, own, pro- 
per; sm. a messenger. 

Proponer, inf. va. to propose, to 
represent, to purpose. 

Proporcion, sf proportion, symme- 
try, similarity. 

Proporcion ado, part, adjec. propor- 
tioned, adapted, 

Proporcionar, inf. va. to proportion, 
to adapt, to mitigate, to pro- 
cure. 

Proporcionen, F. Proporcionar, 
subj. pres. Sp. may proportion or 
procure. 

Proposito, sm. purpose, design; d 
proposito, adapted to. 

Propuesta, sf. proposal, representa- 
tion, application. 

Propuso, F. Proponer, ind. pret. 3s. 
it, he, or she proposed. 

Prorumpieron, F. Prorumpir, ind. 
pret. Bp. burst into. 

Prorumpio, F. Prorumpir , ind. pret, 
3s. burst into. 

Prorumpir, inf. pres. vn. to burst 
into, to burst forth. 

Prosa, sf. prose, verbiage, loquaci- 
ty, language. 

Proseguid, F. Proseguir, imp. pres. 
2p. continue, go on. 

Proseguir, inf. va. to continue, to 
follow, to pursue, to go on. 

Prosiguiendo, F. Proseguir, ger. 
continuing, following. 

Prosiguio, F. Proseguir, ind. pret 
3s. proceeded, continued. 

Prosperidad, sf prosperity, success, 
good fortune, luck. 

Prospero-a, a. prosperous, success- 
ful, fortunate. 

Proteccion, sf. protection, favour, 
shelter, asylum. 

Protectora, sf protectress, benefac- 
tress. 

247 



PUB 



PUL 



Protejer, inf. va. to protect, to pa- 
tronize, to encourage. 

Protervo, a. stubborn, arrogant, in- 
solent. 

Protesta, sf. protest, promise, asse- 
veration. 

Protestacion, sf. protestation, pro- 
test, solemn declaration. 

Prove cho, sm. profit, gain, profi- 
ciency, advantage, utility. 

Provechoso-a, a. profitable, benefi- 
cial, advantageous. 

Proveer, inf. va. to provide, to sup- 
ply, to dispose, to decree. 

Prove 1 a, F. Proveer, ind. impf. 1 or 
3s. provided. 

Provenir, inf. vn. to arise, to origi- 
nate, to proceed from. 

Providencia, sub. prop, f Provi- 
dence. 

Providencia, sf. providence, fore- 
sight, order of things. 

Proviene, F. Provenir, ind. pres. 3s. 
arises, follows. 

Provienen, ind. pres. 3p. they arise, 
spring. 

Provincia, sf. province; country, 
territory. 

Provisor, sm. vicar-general, praetor. 

Proyecto, sm. project, scheme, plan, 
design. 

Prudencia, sf prudence, wisdom, 
temperance. 

Prude nte, a. prudent, discreet, wise. 

Prueba, sf. proof, evidence. 

Prueba, F. Probar, ind. pres. Bs. 
proves. 

Prueben, F. Probar, subj. pres. 3p. 
may prove. 

Psiquis, sub. prop. Psyche, the be- 
loved of Cupid. 

Publicando, F. Publicar, ger. pub- 
lishing, proclaiming, manifest- 
ing. 

Publicar, inf. va. to publish, to ma- 
nifest. 



Publico-a, a. public, notorious, 

common ; S7n. the public. 
Pude, F. Poder, ind. pret. Is. I 

could. 
Pudiendo, F. Poder, ger. being 

able, or capable. 
Pudiera, F. Poder, subj. 1 impf. 1 

or 3s. might, could. 
Pudieramos, F. Poder, subj. 1 impf. 

\p. might, could. 
Pudieran, F. Poder, subj. 1 impf 

Sp. could. 
Pudieron, F. Poder, ind. pret. 3p. 

they could or were able. 
Pudiese, F. Poder, subj. 3 impf. 1 

or 3s. might, could. 
Pudo, F. Poder, ind. pret. 3s. could, 

was able. 
Pudor, sin. modesty, bashfulness. 
Pudrira, F. Pudrir, ind. fat. 3s. 

shall decay, rot. 
Pueblo, sm. town, population, the 

people ; nation. 
Puede, F. Poder, ind. pres. 3s. can, 

may. 
Pueden, F. Poder, ind. pres. 3p. 

they can, may. 
Puedes, F. Poder, ind. pres. 2s. thou 

canst, mayest. 
Puedo, F. Poder, ind. pres. Is. I 

can, am able, may. 
Puente, sm. bridge. 
Pueril, a. puerile, childish, foolish. 
Puerta, sf. door, gate. 
Puerto, sm. port, haven, harbour. 
Pues, or pues que, conj. then, since ; 

because. 
Puesto, sm. place, post, office ; part. 

placed, put. 
Puesto, or puesto que, conj. since. 
Pujante, a. powerful, strong, push- 
ing. 
Pule, F. Pulir, ind. pres. 3s. polish- 
es, brightens. 
Pulen, F. Pulir, ind. pres. 3p. they 

polish. 

248 



QUE 



QUE 



Pulir, inf. va. to polish ; to civilize, 
to enlighten. 

Punta, sf. point, extremity. 

Punto, sm. point, end, punctilio. 

Puntualinente, ad. punctually, ex- 
actly. 

Puntuoso-a, a. briery, thorny, spi- 
rited, pointed. 

Purga, sm. purge, medicine. 

Purisimo-a, a. super, most or very 
pure, chaste, uncontaminated. 

Puro-a, a. pure, unmingled. 

Purpura, sf. purple, royal mantle. 



Puee, F. Poner, ind. pret. Is. put, 
placed. 

Pusieron, F. Poner, ind. pret. Sp. 
set to, began, put. 

Pusiese, F. Poner, subj. 3 impf. 1 
or 3s. should place. 

Pusiesen, F. Poner, subj. 3 impf Sp. 
should place. 

Pusilanime, a. pusillanimous, nar- 
row-minded, mean-spirited. 

Puso, F. Poner, ind. pret. 3s. put, 
placed. 



Q 



Que, pron. rel. that, which, who, 
whom. 

Que, pron. rel. used absolutely, 
what. 

Que, conj. than ; for, because, since. 

Quebrantado, F. Quebrantar, part. 
broken. 

Quebrantar, inf. va. to break, to 
transgress. 

Queda, F. Quedar, ind. pres. 3s. re- 
mains, is. 

Quedaba, F. Quedar, ind. impf. 1 
or 3s. remained. 

Quedado, F. Quedar, part, remain- 
ed, stopped. 

Que dan, F. Quedar, ind. pres. Sp. 
they remain. 

Quedando, F. Quedar, ger. remain- 
ing, staying. 

Quedar, inf. vn. to stay, to remain, 
to continue, to last. 

Quedarais, F. Quedar, subj. 1 impf 
2p. ye or you would remain. 

Quedaron, F. Quedar, ind. pret. Sp. 
became, were, remained. 

Quede, F. Quedar, subj. pres. 1 or 
3s. may remain. 

Quedo, F. Quedar, ind. pres. Is. I 
remain, 



Quedo, F. Quedar, ind. pret. 3s. re- 
mained, became. 

Queja, sf complaint. 

Queja, F. Quejar, ind. pres. 3s. 
complains. 

Que j an, F. Quejar, ind. pres. Sp. 
they complain. 

Quejar, inf. vr. to complain, to la- 
ment. 

Quejas, F. Quejar, ind. pres. 2s. 
thou complainest. 

Quejo, F. Quejar, ind. pres. Is. I 
complain. 

Quejo, F. Quejar, ind. pret. 3s. it, 
he, or she complained. 

Que ma, F. Quemar, ind. pres. 3s. it, 
he, or she burns. 

Quemaba, F. Quemar, ind. impf 1 
or 3s. burnt. 

Quemar, inf. va. to burn, to waste, 
to parch. 

Quemar, inf. vn. to burn, to be very 
hot, to fret, to be impatient. 

Queramos, F. Querer, subj. pres. lp 
we may be willing. 

Quereis, F. Querer, ind. pres. 2p. 
ye, or you wish. 

Querer, inf. va. to wish, to be will- 
ing, to be fond of. 

249 



QUI 



QUf 



Queria, F. Querer, ind. impf. 1 or 

3s. wished, was willing, did want, 

fond of. 
Querian, F. Querer, ind. impf. 3p. 

they were willing. 
Querias, F. Querer, ind. impf 2s. 

thou wert willing. 
Quen'do-a, sub. dear, darling, lover. 
Querido, a. dear, beloved. 
Querido. F. Querer, part, wished, 

desired, being willing. 
Queriendo, F. Querer, ger. desiring, 

wishing, loving. 
Querubin, sm, cherub (a celestial 

spirit, next in order to the sera- 
phim.) 
Queve'do, (Francisco de) sub. prop. 

m. Quevedo, one of the greatest 

Spanish prose and poetic writers, 

and one of the most extraordinary 

men the world has produced. 

Born in Madrid, in 1580; died 

1645. 
Quiebra, sf failure, breaking. 
Quiebra, F. Quebrar, ind. pres. 3s. 

he breaks. 
Quien, pron. rel. that, who, which, 

whom. 
Quien, pron. indef. one, some, this. 
Quiera, F. Querer, subj. pres. 1 or 

3s. may be willing. 
Qui e ran, F. Querer, subj. pres. 3p. 

may please, may be willing. 
Q.uieras, F. Querer, subj. pres. 2s. 

thou mayest be willing. 
Quiere, F. Querer, ind. pres. 3s. is 

willing ; quiere decir, it means. 
Quieien, F. Querer, ind. pres. Sp. 

are willing. 
Quieres, F. Querer, ind. pres. 2s. 

thou art willing, thou lovest. 
Quiero, F. Querer, ind. pres. Is. I 

wish, I am willing. 
Quieto-a, a. quiet, tranquil. 



Quietiid, sf. quietude, tranquillity, 

undisturbed ease. 
Quijote, sub. prop. m. Quixote, the 

name of the most celebrated 

Spanish novel ; a ridiculous and 

extravagant man. 
Quince, a. num. fifteen. 
Quintana, (Manuel Jose) sm. prop. 

Quintana, one of the most distin- 
guished Spanish poets and prose 

writers. 
Quisiera, F. Querer, subj. 1 impf 

1 or 3s. should, would, (like.) 
Qui si e ran, F. Querer, subj. 1 impf 

3p. would, might wish. 
Quisieron, F. Querer, ind. pret. 3p. 

would, wished. 
'Quisiese, F. Querer, subj. 3 impf 

1 or 3s. would, should. 
Quiso, F. Querer* ind. pret. 3s. he 

loved, wished, desired. 
Quita, F. Quitar, ind. pres. 3s. takes 

away. 
Quitado, F. Quitar, part, deprived, 

taken, away. 
Quitado-a, part. abs. having taken, 

having deprived of. 
Quitamos, F. Quitar, ind. pres.lp. 

take, took away. 
Qui tan, F. Quitar, ind. pres. 3p. 

take away. 
Quitar, inf. va. to take away, to de- 
prive of, to separate, to leave. 
Quitaron, F. Quitar, ind. pret. 3p. 

took away. 
Qui tas, F. Quitar, ind. pres. 2s. thou 

takest away. 
Quitase, F. Quitar, subj. impf. 3s. 

should take away. 
Quito, F. Quitar, ind. pres. Is. I 

take away. 
Quito, F. Quitar, ind. pret. 3s. took 

away. 
Quiza, ad. probably, perhaps. 



250 



REA 



REC 



R 



Rabia, sf. rage ; madness ; fury. 

Rabioso-a, adj. furious, angry, 
wrathful. 

Racional, a. rational, humane, rea- 
sonable. 

Racionalidad, sf. reason, rationality, 
or conformity with reason. 

Radiante, a. radiant, refulgent, re- 
splendent. 

Ragaz, sm. bosom, centre, boy. 

Raiz, sf. root, origin, source. 

Rama, sf. branch, shoot, rack. 

Ramo, sm. germ, department, 
branch. 

Rapidamente, ad. rapidly, intrepidly . 

Raro-a, a. rare, curious, uncommon, 
eccentric. 

Rasgado-a, a. rent, open, torn. 

Rasgado, F. Rasgar, part, torn, 
broken to pieces. 

Rasgando, F. Rasgar, ger. tearing, 
rending. 

Rasgo, sm. act, trait, action, dash. 

Raso-a, a. plain, bare, open; pri- 
vate. 

Rastrero-a, a. creeping, cringing, 
mean, vile. 

Rastro, sm. track ; smell ; vestige, 
sledge. 

Rato, sm. while, a short time. 

Raudo, a. rapid, tremendous. 

Rayo, sm. thunderbolt, ray, beam. 

Razon, sf reason, right; tenia ra- 
zon, he was right. 

Razonado, F. Razonar, part, rea- 
soned, discoursed, talked, con- 
versed. 

Razonamiento, sm. speech, ha- 
rangue, argument, reasoning 

Real, a. royal, real, true, los reales, 
royal quarters. 

Realmente, ad. really, effectually, 
royally. 



Realzar, inf. va. to elevate, to 

heighten. 

Reanimar, inf. va. to reanimate, to 
cheer, to encourage. 

Reanimo, F. Reanimar, ind. pret 
3s. encouraged. 

Rebelde, sm. rebel. 

Rebelde, a. stubborn, perverse, re- 
bellious, contumacious. 

Rebosando, F. Rebosar, ger. glow* 
ing, overflowing. 

Rebosar, inf. va. to glow, to over- 
flow, to abound. 

Rebentar, inf. vn. to burst, to break 
in pieces, to break loose. 

Rebento, F. Rebentar, ind. pret. 3s. 
burst. 

Rebutido, F. Rebutir, part, filled 
up, stuffed, overcharged. 

Recado, sm. message, errand, pre- 
sent, gift. 

Recalcamiento, sm. extravagance, 
over-fulness. 

Recama, F. Recamar, ind. pres. 3s 
adorns or graces. 

Recamado, part, embroidered, orna- 
mented, variegated. 

Recatado-a, part, adjec. cautious, 
guarded, prudent. 

Recelo, sm. suspicion, fear, dread, 
mistrust. 

Rechazar, inf. va. to repel, to drive, 
to discharge, to contradict. 

Rechazo, F. Rechazar ind. pret. 3s. 
repelled. 

Recibido, F. Recibir,part. received* 
accepted, imbibed, experienced. 

Recibio, F. Recibir, ind. pret. 3s. 
received. 

Recibir. inf. va. to receive, to ac- 
cept. 

Recien, ad. recently, newly, lately; 
a. recent, new. 

251 



REC 



REF 



Recientemente, ad. recently, late. 

Recinto, sm. precinct, district, cor- 
ner. 

Reciprocamente, ad. reciprocally, 
mutually. 

Reciproco-a, a. reciprocal, mutual. 

Reclinado-a. F. Reclinar, part, ad- 
jec. reclined, leaning upon. 

Reel u ta, sm. recruit, recruiting. 

Recobrar, inf. pres. va. to recover, 
to get back. 

Recojer, inf. va. to collect, to ga- 
ther, to receive. 

Recojia, F. Recojer, ind. impf. 1 or 
3s. gathered. 

Recojido-a, part, adjec. collected, 
gathered ; secluded. 

Recompensa, sf. reward, recom- 
pense. 

Recompensar, inf. va. to recom- 
pense, to reward. 

Recompensaron, F. Recompensar, 
ind. pret. Sp. they rewarded. 

Recondito-a, a. recondite, secret, 
concealed. 

Reconoce, F. Reconocer, ind. pres. 
3s. acknowledges. 

Reconoceis, F. Reconocer, ind. pres. 
2p. acknowledge. 

Reconocen, F. Reconocer, ind. pres. 
Sp. acknowledge. 

Reconocer, inf. va. to recognize, to 
acknowledge, to examine. 

Reconoces, F. Reconocer, ind. pres. 
2s. thou acknowledgest. 

Reconoci, F. Reconocer, ind. pret. 
Is. I acknowledged. 

Reconoci an, F. Reconocer, ind. 
impf Sp. they acknowledged. 

Reconocido-a, F. Reconocer, part, 
abs. grateful; acknowledged. 

Reconociendo, F. Reconocer, ger. 
acknowledging. 

Reconocio, F. Reconocer, md. pret. 
3s. acknowledged. 



Recordar, inf. pres. va. to remind, 
to put in mind. 

Recorrer, inf. va. to examine, to re- 
connoitre, to ravage. 

Recreado, F. Recrear, pari, amused, 
delighted, gratified, diverted. 

Recrear, inf. va. to amuse, to de- 
light, to gratify. 

Recreas, F. Recrear, ind. pres. 2s. 
thou amusest. 

Rectitud, sf. rectitude, uprightness. 

Recto-a, a. right, straight, just. 

Recuerdan, F. Recordar, ind. pres, 
Sp. remind. 

Recuestro, sm. declivity. 

Recurso, sm. recourse, appeal, re- 
source, means. 

Red, sf. net, grate, snare. 

Rededor, sm. environs ; al redeaor 
de, around. 

Redentor, sub. prop. m. the Re- 
deemer ; sm. redeemer. 

Redil, sm. sheep-fold, cover. 

Redimi, F. Redimir, ind. pret. Is. I 
redeemed. 

Redimir, inf. va. to redeem, to res- 
cue, to succour, to relieve. 

Redobla, F. Redoblar, ind. pres. 2s 
redoubles. 

Redoblar, inf. va. to redouble, to 
clinch, to rivet. 

Redondo-a, a. round. 

Reduce, F. Reducir, ind. pres. 3s. 
reduces. 

Reducia, F. Reducir, ind. impf. 1 or 
3s. reduced. 

Reducido-a, part, adjec. reduced, 
converted. 

Reducir, inf. va. to reduce, to les- 
sen, to persuade. 

Redujo, F. Reducir, ind. pret. 3s 
reduced. 

Referir, inf. va. to relate, to say, tc 
report. 

Refiere, F. Referir, ind. pres. 3s 
relates. 

262 



KEG 



REM 



Refiriendo, F. Referir, ger. refer- 
ing, relating, narrating. 

Reflecsion, sf. reflection, considera- 
tion, meditation. 

Reflecsionar, inf. va. to reflect, to 
think, to meditate. 

Reflecsion ase, F. Reflecsionar, subj. 
imp/. 3s. should reflect. 

Refiejado-a, part, reflected (as the 
rays of light.) 

Reflejo, sm. light reflected. 

Reforma, sf. reform, reformation, 
amendment. 

Reformado-a, part, adjec. reformed 

Refrena, F. Refrenar, ind. pres. 3s. 
curbs, checks. 

Refrenar, inf. va. to curb, to check, 
to refrain, to contain. 

Refresco, sm. refreshment. 

Refujiaron, F. Refujiar, ind. pret. 
Sp. they took refuge. 

Refujio, sm. refuge, general asylum, 
protection. 

Llegado-a, a. watered, irrigated, 
sprinkled. 

Regalado-a, a. pleasant, delicate, 
delicious ; presented. 

Regalar, inf. va. to present, to re- 
fresh, to entertain, to caress. 

Regalo, F. Regalar, ind. pret. 3s. 
presented. 

Regalo, sm. present, comfort, plea- 
sure, dainty, repose. 

Regar, inf. pres. va. to water, to be- 
dew, to sprinkle, to irrigate. 

Regla, sf rule, regulation, ruler. 

Regla, F. Reglar, ind. pres. 3s. he 
rules. 

Regla, F. Reglar, imp. pres. 2s. re- 
gulate thou. 

Reglar, inf. va. to regulate, to rule, 
to direct, to reform. 

Regocijan, F. Regocijar, ind. pres. 
Sp. they rejoice. 

Regocijo, sm. joy, pleasure, delight, 
rejoicing. 
22 



Rehusar, inf. va. to refuse, to de- 
cline, not to accept. 

Rehusar e, F. Rehusar, ind. fut. Is. 
I shall refuse. 

Rei, sm. king ; reina, sf. queen. 

Reinan, F. Reinar, ind. pres. Sp. 
reign, prevail, pervade. 

Reinar, inf. va. to reign, to prevail, 
to govern, to command. 

Reino, sm. kingdom. 

Reir, inf. vn. to laugh, to smile, to 
sneer, to scoii. 

Reja, sf. grate, ploughshare. 

Rejion, sf. region, clime. 

Relacion, sf. relation, narration, ac- 
count. 

Relampaguean, F. Relampaguear, 
ind. pres. Sp. they flash. 

Relampaguear, inf. vn. to flash, to 
lighten, to sparkle. 

Relatar, inf. va. to relate, to nar- 
rate, to report, to say. 

Relijion, sf religion, piety, wor- 
ship. 

Relijioso-a, a. religious; s. chap- 
lain, monk, clergyman ; sf nun. 

Reliquia, sf. relic, remains, ves- 
tage. 

Remate, sm. conclusion, the highest 
bidding, vignette. 

Remedio, sm. remedy, reparation, 
resource, medicine. 

Remendar, inf. va. to repair, to 
mend, to correct. 

Remiendo, sm. repair, amending. 

Remiendo, F. Remendar, ind. pres. 
Is. I mend, repair. 

Remitir, inf. va. to send, to remit, 
to transmit, to refer. 

Remordimiento, sm. remorse, pain 
of guilt. 

Remozar, inf. pres. va. to render 
younger; remozarse, vr. to be- 
come younger. 

Remozarian, subj. 2 impfl Sp. would 
become younger. 

253 



REP 



RES 



Remozaron, ind. pret. Sp. became 
younger. 

Rencor, sm. rancour, animosity. 

Rendia, ind. impf. 3s. yielded, sur- 
rendered. 

Rendimiento, sm. submission, hu- 
miliation, delivery. 

Rendir, inf. pres. va. to yield, to 
surrender, to subject, to subdue. 

Rendir, inf. vr. to yield, to surren- 
der, to be fatigued. 

Renglon, sm. line. 

Renombre, sm. title, surname, re- 
nown, glory, fame. 

Renovo, F. Renovar, ind. pret. 3s. 
renewed. 

Renta, sf revenue, rent. 

Reo, sm, culprit, culpable, prisoner. 

Reojo, sm. a look askance; double- 
eye. 

Repara, F. Reparar, imp. 2s. ob- 
serve. 

Reparte, F. Repartir, ind. pres. 3s. 
divides. 

Repartir, inf. pres. va. to divide, to 
distribute, to assess taxes. 

Repasan, F. Repasar, ind. pres. Sp. 
they look over. 

Repasar, inf. va. to re-examine, to 
revise. 

Repetido-a, a. repeated, reiterated. 

Repentino-a, a. sudden, subita- 
neous, unexpected. 

Repite, F. Repetir, ind. pres. 3s. re- 
peats. 

Repetir, inf. va. to repeat, to say 
over, to reiterate. 

Replica, sf. answer, reply, repartee. 

Replicar, inf. vn. to reply, to an- 
swer, to contradict. 

Replico, F. Replicar, ind. pret. 3s. 
replied, answered. 

Reposado-a, a. tranquil, peaceful, 
quiet. 

Reposado, F. Reposar, part, reposed, 
rested, settled. 



Reposamos, F. Reposar, ind. pres. 

\p. we repose. 
Reposamos, F. Reposar, ind. pret. 

\p. we reposed. 
Reposar, inf. vn. to repose, to rest. 
Reposar i a, F. Reposar, subj. 2 impf. 

1 or 3s. should, would repose. 
Reposen, F. Reposar, subj. pres. Bp. 

may repose. 
Reposo, sm. repose, rest, tranquillity. 
Reprehende, F. Reprehender, ind. 

pres. 3s. reprehends. 
Reprehenden, F. Reprehender, ind. 

pres. Sp. reprehend. 
Reprehender, inf. va. to reprimand, 

to reproach, to censure. 
Reprehensible, a. reprehensible, 

censurable. 
Representa, F. Representar, ind. 

pres. 3s. represents. 
Representaba, F. Representar, ind. 

impf 1 or 3s. represented. 
Representar, inf. va. to represent, 

to set forth, to play (on the stage.) 
Represento, F. Representar, ind. 

pret. 3s. represented. 
Represento, F. Representar, ind. 

pres. Is. I represent. 
Reprimido-a, F. Reprimir, part. 

repressed, refrained, contained. 
Reprimiendo, F. Reprimir, ger. re- 
pressing, burying. 
Republica, sf. republic, common- 
wealth. 
Repugnar, inf. va. to dislike, to be 

repugnant. 
Repugne, F. Repugnar, subj. pres. 

3s. may object, dislike. 
Reponer, inf. pres. va. to reply; to 

replace, to collocate. 
Repuso, F. Reponer, ind. pret. Ss 

replied, placed. 
Reputacion, sf. reputation, fame, 

character, credit. 
Resbaladero, sm. a slippery place, 

enticement. 

254 



RES 



RET 



Resbaladizo-a, a. slippery. 
Rescatar, inf. pres. va. to ransom. 
Reseco-a, a. dry, lean, emaciated. 
Resentir, inf. pres. vr. to resent, to 
, express displeasure, to give way, 
to fail; to feel, to commiserate, 
to pity. 

Resienten, F. Resentir, ind. pres. 
Sp. they pity. 

Resiste, F. Resistir, ind. pres. 3s. 
it, he, or she resists. 

Resiste ncia, sf resistence, opposi- 
tion, defence. 

Resistir, inf. vn. to oppose, to resist, 
to contradict, to tolerate. 

Resolver, inf. va. to determine, to 
resolve ; dissolve. 

Resolvian, F. Resolver, ind. impf. 
Bp. resolved, did resolve. 

Resolvio, F. Resolver, ind.pret. 3s. 
it, he, or she resolved. 

Resonaba, F. Resonar, ind. impf 1 
or 3s. resounded, did resound. 

Resonar, inf. pres. vn. to resound, 
to re-echo, to rebound. 

Resorte, sm. spring ; means, cause, 
medium. 

Respecti vo-a, a. respective, relative. 

Respecto, sm. respect, relation, con- 
sideration ; ad. relative. 

Respetable, a. respectable, honour- 
able, worthy of consideration. 

Respeto, sm. respect, regard, vene- 
ration, attention. 

Respiraba, F. Respirar, ind. impf. 
1 or 3s. breathed. 

Respirar, inf. vn. to breathe, to rest, 
to animate. 

Resplandecen, F. Resplandecer, ind. 
pres. Sp. shine. 

Resplandecer, inf. vn. to shine, to 
glitter, to be brilliant. 

Resplandicieron, F. Resplandecer, 
ind.pret. Sp. shone, did shine. 

Resplandor, sm. splendour, brillian- 
cy, brightness. 



Responde, F. Responder, ind. pres. 

3s. answers. 
Responden, F. Responder, ind. pres. 

Sp. answer. 
Responder, inf. va. to answer, to 
reply, to acknowledge. 

Responderan, F. Responder, ind 
fat. Sp. will, shall answer. 

Respondia, F. Responder, ind. imp. 
1 or 3s. answered, did answer. 

Respondieron, F. Responder, ind. 
pret. Sp. answered, did answer. 

Respondio, F. Responder, ind.pret 
3s. replied. 

Respondisteis, F. Respona\r, ind. 
pret. 2p. you answered. 

Respuesta, sf. answer, reply. 

Restaba, F. Resiar, ind. impf. Ss. 
remained, was left. 

Restante, part. pres. remainder, 
residue. 

Restar, inf. vn. and va. to remain, 
to be left, to subtract. 

Resto, sub. collec. the rest, remain- 
ing part. 

Resulta, sf. effect, result, vacancy. 

Resultar, inf. vn. to result, to follow, 
to remain. 

Resultara, F. Resultar, ind. fat. 3s. 
will follow, result. 

Resulto, F. Resultar, ind. pret. 3s. 
arose, resulted. 

Retardar, inf. va. to retard, to de- 
lay, to postpone, to defer. 

Retira, F. Reiirar, ind. pres. 3s. it, 
he, or she retires. 

Retiraba, F. Retirar, ind. impf. lor 
3s. retired, did withdraw. 

Retirado, part . withdrawn, retired , 
a. secluded. 

Retiran, F. Retirar, ind. pres. Sp. 
they retire. 

Retirar, inf. va. to retire, to with- 
draw, to decline, to retreat. 

Re tiro, F. Retirar, ind. pret. 3*. 
withdrew, retired. 

255 



RIG 



ROD 



Retiro, F Retirar, ind. pres. Is. I 
retire ; s. retirement, asylum. 

Retorcer, inf. va. to twist; to turn 

Retorciendo, F. Torcer, ger. twist- 
ing, turning. 

Retostado, F. Retostar, part, toast- 
ed, baked. 

Retrato, sm. portrait, copy, imita- 
tion, likeness. 

Reuniendo, F. Reunir, ger. uniting, 
collecting. 

Reunir, inf. va. to join, to unite, to 
collect together. 

Revelacion, sf revelation. 

Reverencia, sf. respect, veneration, 
reverence. 

Reverenciar, inf. va. to venerate, to 
reverence, to respect. 

Reverencie, F. Reverenciar, ind. 
pret. Is. I reverenced. 

Reves, sm. back part, reverse; al 
reves, in a manner contrary to, on 
the wrong side. 

Revestido-a, a. invested with, ex- 
cited or elated by. 

Revestido, F. Rev estir, part, dressed, 
repaired, swayed. 

Revolucion, sf. revolution, change, 
sedition, commotion. 

Revolver, inf. va. to turn, to re- 
volve, to excite commotions. 

Revuelven, F. Revolver, ind. pres. 
Sp. they revolve. 

Ribera, sf. bank, sea-shore. 

Rico-a, a. rich, wealthy. 

Ridiculo-a, a. ridiculous, contemp- 
tible, strange, despicable. 

Rie, F. Reir, ind. pres. 3s. laughs. 

Riegan, F. Regar, ind. pres. 3p. 
they water. 

Riegas, F. Regar, ind. pres. 2s. thou 
waterest. 

Rienda, sf. rein, curb, bridle. 

Riesgo, sm. danger, risk, hazard. 

Rigor, sm. severity, rigour. 



Riguroso-a, a. severe, rigorous, 

strict, exact 
Rijido-a, a. rigid, stern, inflexible. 
Rincon, sm. corner, retirement. 
Rio, sm. river. 
Rio, F. Reir, ind. pres. 3s. laughed 

at. 
Rinde, F. Rendir, ind. pres. 3s. 

yields, submits. 
Rinden, F. Rendir, ind. pres. Bp. 

they yield. 
Riqueza, sf. riches, wealth, fertility, 

embellishments. 
Riquisimo-a, a. super, most or very 

rich, wealthy, excellent. 
Risa, sf. laughter, pleasing emotion. 
Risibilidad, sf. risibility, laughter. 
Risible, a. risible, laughable. 
Risueno-a, a. smiling, pleasing, 

agreeable. 
Rito, sm. rite, tenet, worship. 
Riza, sf. desolation, ravage, havoc. 
Roba, F. Robar, ind. pres. 3s. steals, 

robs. 
Rob db an, F. Robar, ind. impf. 3p. 

stole, did rob. 
Robado, F. Robar, part, robbed, 

plundered, stolen, swept away. 
Roban, F. Robar, ind. pres. 3p. 

steal. 
Robo, sm. robbery, theft. 
Robusto-a, a. strong, robust, vigor- 
ous. 
Rocinante, sub. prop. m. Rocinante, 

a name given to Don Quixote's 

horse, the name of the hero of 

a novel by Cervantes, a miserable 

clown. 
Rocio, sm. dew ; divine inspiration. 
Rode a, F. Rodear, ind. pres. 3s. 

surrounds, encircles. 
Rodeaban, F. Rodear, ind. impf. 3s. 

they turned. 
Rodeado-a, F. Rodear, part, adjec. 

surrounded, encircled. 



256 



HOP 



RuS 



Rodean, F. Rodear, ind. pres. 3p. 
they turn, surround, encircle. 

Rodear, inf. va. to encircle, sur- 
round, to run about. 

Rodela, sf shield, buckler, target. 

Rodeo, sm. turning, winding. 

Rodilla, sf. knee ; de rodillas, kneel- 
ing on one's knees. 

Rogado, part, implored, entreated, 
prayed for. 

Rogando, F. Rogar, ger. praying, 
asking, begging. 

Rogar, inf. va. to pray, to beseech, 
to implore, to entreat. 

Rogo, F. Rogar, ind. pres. 3s. im- 
plored. 

Rojerio, sub. prop. m. Roger, a 
man's name. 

R6jo-a, a. red, ruby. 

Roma, sub. prop.f Rome, a famous 
city in Italy ; in ancient times 
the capital of the Roman em- 
pire. 

Romano-a, a. Roman. 

Romero, sm. rosemary. 

Romper, inf. va. to break, to trans- 
gress, to interrupt. 

Romp i an, F. Romper, ind. impf. Sp. 
broke, did break. 

Rompio, F. Romper, ind. pret. 3s 
broke, did break. 

Rompo, F. Romper, ind. pres. Is. I 
break. 

Ronda, sub. prop. f. Ronda, a very 
romantic town of Spain, near 
Gibraltar, and belonging to the 
kingdom of Granada. 

Rondante, a. wandering, travelling, 
walking. 

Ropa, sf. clothes. 

Ropilla, S77i. coarse, or tattered 
clothes. 



|Rosada, sf. frost, freezing weather, 

or frozen objects. 
Rosal, sm. rose bush, a number of 

rose bushes. 
Rosicler, sm. rose colour, silver ore. 
Rostro, sm. countenance, face. 
Roto, F. Romper, part, broken. 
R6to-a, part. abs. being broken, 

ended. 
Rubicundo-a, a. reddish, rubicund. 
Rubio-a, a. red, reddish, ruby. 
Rubricado-a, part, adjec. ratified 

(by having a flourish annexed,) 

subscribed. 
Rudeza, sf. roughness, asperity, 

stupidity, dulness. 
Riido-a, a. rude, vulgar, barbarous 
Rue da, sf. w T heel, roller. 
Rue do, sm. rotation, circuit. 
Ruega, F. Rogar, ind. pres. 3s. en 

treats. 
Ruegan, F. Rogar, ind. pres. Bp. en 

treat. 
Ruego, sm. a prayer, petition, re- 
quest. 
Rufiano-a, sub. pander. 
Ruido, sm. noise, dispute. 
Ruina, sf. ruin, ashes; destruction. 
Ruindad, sf. meanness, baseness, 

poverty, avariciousness. 
Ruisenor, sm. nightingale. 
Rujido, sm. bellowing, roaring. 
Rumbo, sm. course, point, way. 
Rumor, sm. noise, rumour, whis- 
pering. 
Rusiano, (more commonly Ruso,) 

sm. Russian, a native of Russia. 
Rusticidad, sf. rusticity, simplicity, 

asperity, rudeness. 
Rustico-a, a. rustic, clownish. 
Rustico-a, sub. clown, peasant, a 

rustic person. 



22* 



257 



SAC 



SAL 



Saavedra Fajardo, (Diego) sub. 

prop. m. Saavedra Fajardo, a very 

distinguished politician and moral 

writer. His terse, polished, and 

finished style is highly praised. 

Born 1584, in Aljezares, Murcia; 

died 1648. 
Sabe, or Sabete, F. Saber, imp 

pres. 2s. know. 
Sabe, F. Saber, ind. pres. Ss. knows, 

knows how. 
Saben, F. Saber, ind. pres. Sp. they 

know. 
Saber, inf. pres. va. to know, to be 

learned. 
Saber, sm. knowledge, erudition 

learning. 
Sabes, F. Saber, ind. pres. 2s. thou 

knowest. 
Sabia, F. Saber, ind. impf. 1 or 3s. 

I, it, he, or she knew. 
Sabian, F. Saber, ind. impf. Sp. 

they knew. 
Sabido, part, substan. m. a learned 

or scientific man. 
Sabido-a, F. Saber, part, known, 

learned, acquired, heard. 
Sabidor-a, a. acquainted with. 
Sabiduria, sf wisdom, knowledge, 

prudence ; learning. 
Sabiendo, F. Saber, ger. knowing. 
Sabio-a, a. erudite, learned; wise. 
Sabroso-a, a. savoury, pleasing, pa- 
latable. 
Sacado, F. Sacar, part, drawn, 

taken oft, extracted. 
Sacando, F. Sacar, ger. drawing, 

plucking up. 
Sacar, inf. va. to take off, to draw, 

to extract. 
Sacara, F. Sacar, ind. fut. Ss. will, 

shall draw. 



Sacasen, F. Sacar, subj. 3 impf. Sp. 
they should draw. 

Sacerdote, sm. clergyman, priest. 

Saco, F« Sacar, ind. pret. Ss. took 
out, drew, drew out. 

Sacrificado, F. Sacrificar, part, sa- 
crificed, tortured, exposed, de- 
voted. 

Sacrificaron, F. Sacrificar, ind. pret. 
3p. immolated, sacrificed. 

Sacrificio, sm. compliance, sacri- 
fice. 

Sagacidad, sf. sagacity, acuteness, 
quickness of apprehension. 

Sagrado-a, a. sacred, consecrated ; 
execrable. 

Sagunto, s. prop. Saguntum, now 
called Murviedro, renowned for 
the matchless defence of the inha- 
bitants against the Carthaginians. 

Sal, sf salt ; grace, elegance, wit. 

Salado-a, a. salted, cured ; witty. 

Salamanca, sub. prop, f Salamanca, 
a city of Spain, renowned for its 
university. 

Salario, sm. salary, wages. 

Saldra, F. Salir, ind. fut. Ss. will, 
shall go out. 

Sale, F. Salir, ind. pres. Ss. goes 
out. 

Salen, F. Salir, ind. pres. Sp. go out. 

Saiga, F. Salir, imp. pres. Ss. let 
go out. 

Salgan, F. Salir, subj. pres. Sp. may 
go out. 

Sali, F. Salir, ind. pret. Ss. went 
out. 

Sali a, F. Salir, ind. impf. 1 or 3s. 
went out. 

Sali an, F. Salir, ind. impf Sp. went 
out. 

Salias, F. Salir, ind. impf. 2s. thou 
wentest out. 

258 



SlL 



SAZ 



SaKda, sf. sally, the act of going 

out. 
Sali do, F< Salir, part, gone out, 

issued, published. 
Salieron, F. Salir, ind. pret. 3p. they 

went out. 
Saliese, F. Salir, subj. impf. 1 or 3s 

might come out, appear. 
Salio, F. Salir, ind. pret. 3s. went 

out. 
Salir, inf. vn. to go out, to depart, 

to appear, to extricate one's self. 
Salis, F. Salir, ind. pres. 2p. ye go 

out. 
Saltan, F. Saltar, ind. pres. Sp. they 

jump. 
Saltar, inf. vn. to leap, to jump, to 

burst, to be obvious. 
Salteador, sm. highwayman, robber. 
Salud, sf. health, safety, good. 
Saludaba, F. Saludar, ind. impf 1 

or 3s. saluted. 
Saludable, a. wholesome, healthful, 

salutary, healthy. 
Saludado, F. Saludar, part, saluted, 

greeted, fired a salute. 
Saludan, F. Saludar, ind. pres. Sp. 

they salute. 
Saludar, inf. va. to salute, to greet, 

to express content. 
Salustio, sub. prop. m. Sallust, an 

eminent Roman historian. 
Salva, F. Salvar, ind. pres. 3s. saves. 
Salvado, sm. bran, (the husk of 

wheat ground.) 
Salva'n, F. Salvar, ind. pres. Sp. they 

save. 
Salvar, inf. pres. va. to free from 

danger, to remove, to save, to 

spare. 
Salvar, inf. vr. to escape from dan- 
ger, to get over difficulties. 
Salvaremos, F. Salvar, ind. fat. \p. 

we shall or will be saved. 
Salve, sf. the Salve Regina; inter. 

hail! 



Salvo, co7)j. and a. safe, except ; s. 
safety. 

Salvo (en,) ad. in safety; conj. ex- 
cept, save. 

Samaria, sub. prop, f Samaria, a 
city and country in Palestine, fa- 
mous in sacred history. 

Samaritano-a, a. Samaritan, rela- 
ting to Samaria. 

Sancho, sub. prop. m. Sancho, the 
second character in the novel 
written by Cervantes, called Don 
Quixote, or Quijote. 

Sangre, sf. blood, family. 

Sangriento, a. bloody, sanguinary. 

Santidad, sf sanctity, holiness. 

Santisimo-a, a. super, most holy, 
most sanctified. 

Santo-a, a. holy, sacred, grateful ; 
s. a saint. 

Sana, sf. wrath, anger, passion. 

Saque, F. Sacar, imp. pres. 3s. let 
it, him, or her take off. 

Saque, F. Sacar, subj. pres. 1 or 3s 
may take off. 

Saquen, F. Sacar, subj. pres. Sp 
they may take off. 

Sastre, sm. tailor. 

Satirico-a, a. satirical, censorious, 
full of invectives. 

Satisfaccion, sf. gratification ; satis 
faction ; recompense. 

Satisface, F. Satisfacer, ind. pres. 
3s. satisfies, gratifies. 

Satisfacer, inf. va. to satisfy, to 
gratify, to pay. 

Satisfagan, F. Satisfacer, subj. pres, 
Sp. they may satisfy. 

Satisfecho, a. satisfied, expiated; 
content ; self-conceited. 

Satisfizo, F. Satisfacer, ind. pret. 
3s. satisfied. 

Sauce, sm. willow (a tree.) 

Sazon, sf maturity, taste, opportu- 
nity, season. 

259 



SEG 



SEN 



Sazona, F. Sazonar, ind. pres. 3s. 
seasons. 

Sazonado-a, a. ripe, seasoned, time- 
ly, convenient. 

Sazonar, inf. va. to season, to bring 
to maturity ; vn. to ripen. 

Se, pron. per. ref.ec. o. itself, him- 
self, herself, themselves ; each 
other. 

Se, pron. per. o. to, in, frcm, with, 
on, it, him, her, them, you. 

Se, F. Saber, ind. pres. Is. I know. 

Sc, F. Ser, imp. pres. 2s. be thou. 

Sea, F. Ser, subj. pres. Is. may be, 
be, is. 

Seais, F. Ser, subj. pres. 2p. ye or 
you may be. 

Sean, F. Ser, subj. pres. Sp. may be. 

Seas, F. Ser, subj. pres. 2s. thou 
mayest be. 

Sebastian, sub. prop. m. Sebastian 
(a man's name.) 

Secado, F. Secar, part, dried, de- 
cayed. 

Secado, part, adjec. dry, lean, cool, 
repugnant. 

Seco-a, a. dry, barren, on land. 

Secretario, sm. secretary, clerk, 
confident. 

Secreto-a, sm. secret, caution. 

Secreto-a, a. concealed, secret, hid- 
den. 

Sectario, sm. sectarian, sectary, 
worshipper. 

Sed, sf. thirst, desire. 

Seda, sf. silk. 

Segliido, F. Seguir, part, followed. 

Seguir, inf. va. to follow, to prose- 
cute, to conform to. 

Segun, prep, according to, as. 

Segundo-a, a. num. second, favour- 
able. 

Seguramente, ad. surely, certainly, 
without doubt. 

Seguro-a, sm. secure, sure, certain, 
constant. 



Seguido-a, a. continued, followed, 
direct. 

Seis, a. num. six. 

Selecto-a, a. select, chosen. 

Selva, sf. forest, thicket. 

Sellado-a, a. sealed, stamped, mark- 
ed. 

Sera ana, sf. week. 

Semblante, sm. face, countenance, 
appearance. 

Sembrado, sm. ground, corn-field. 

Sembrado, F. Sembrar, part, sown, 
planted. 

Sembrando, F. Sembrar, ger. sow- 
ing. 

Semejable, a. like, similar, resem- 
bling. 

Semejan, F. Semejar, ind. pres. Sp. 
resemble. 

Semejante, sm. fellow-being; a. 
such, as, like. 

Semejanza, sf. similitude, resem- 
blance, likeness. 

Semejar, inf. vn. to resemble, to be 
like, to liken. 

Sencillamente, ad. plainly, inge- 
nuously, neatly. 

Sencillo-a, a. simple, natural, slen- 
der, silly, neat. 

Senda, sf. path, way. 

Seneca, sub. prop. m. Seneca, an 
ancient philosopher. 

Seno, sm. bosom, centre. 

Sensacion, sf sensation, feeling, 
sentiment. 

Sensibilidad, sf. sensibility, quick- 
ness of perception. 

Sensible, a. sensible, painful, easily 
affected. 

Sentado, F. Sentar, part, adjec. 
seated, established. 

Sentar, inf. va. to fix, to establish, 
to set up to enter, to lay down, 
to agree with. 

Sentar, (se) inf. vr. to sit down, to 
take a chair, a seat. 

260 



SEN 



SER 



Sentencia, sf. sentence, judgment, 
condemnation. 

Sentenciado-a, a. sentenced, con- 
demned, doomed. 

Sentenciosamente, ad. sententious- 
ly, concisely. 

Sentia, F. Sentir, ind. impf. 1 or 3s. 
felt. 

Sentido, sm. sense, reason, signifi- 
cation, import; part, resented. 

Sentimiento, sm. sentiment, feeling, 
perception; grief, resentment. 

Sentir, inf. va. to feel, to perceive, 
to be sorry for, to grudge. 

Sentirse de, inf. vr. to resent, to be 
moved by, to be angry for. 

Sentir a, F. Sentir, ind. fut. 3s. will 
feel. 

Sentir an, F. Sentir, ind. fut. Sp. 
will feel. 

Sento, F. Sentarse, ind. pret. 3s. sat 
down. 

Sena, sf sign, mark, watchword. 

Senal, sm. sign, landmark, symp- 
tom, seat. 

Senalado-a, a. signalized, famous. 

Senalado-a, F. Senalar, part, mark- 
ed, stamped, determined, indica- 
ted. 

Senalan, (se) F. Senalar, ind. pres. 
Sp. they assign; equalize them- 
selves ; point out. 

Senalar, inf. va. to stamp, to point 
out, to mark, to demonstrate. 

Senalaron, F. Senalar, ind. pret. 
Sp. they appointed. 

Senalas, F. Senalar, ind. pres. 2s. 
thou assignest. 

Senalase, F. Senalar, subj. S impf. 
1 or 3s. should point out. 

Senalaste, F. Senalar, ind. pret. 2s. 
thou didst assign or appoint. 

Senor, sm. Lord, gentleman, master, 
sir; Mr. or master. 

Senora, sf. lady, madam; Mrs. or 
mistress. 



Senoreaban, F. Senor ear, ind. impf 

1 or 3s. commanded, governed. 
Senoreando, F. Senor ear, ger. com- 
manding, ruling:. 
Senorear, inf. pres. va. to overlook, 

to rule, to govern, to command. 
Senorio, sm. dominion, command, 

arrogance, self-control. 
Senor ita, sf. a young lady, dim. of 

Senora. 
Senorito, sm. a young gentleman, 

dim. of Senor. 
Sepan, F. Saber, subj. pres. Sp. may 

know. 
Separa, F. Separar, ind. pres. 3s. 

separates. 
Separaba, F. Separar, ind. impf 3s. 

separated. 
Separan, F. Separar, ind. pres. Sp. 

separate. 
Separar, inf. pres. va. to separate, 

to divide, to part, to dissect, to 

withdraw. 
Separas, F. Separar, ind. pres. 2s. 

thou dividest. 
Septuajenario-a, a. and sub. seventy 

years of age. 
Sepulcro, sm. sepulchre, tomb. 
Sepultado-a, F. Sepultar, part, bu- 
ried. 
Sepultarse, v. pas. to be buried. 
Sepultura, sf. sepulchre, tomb, 

grave. 
Ser, ind. vn. to be, to exist, to be- 
long to, to occur. 
Ser, sm. being, existence. 
Sera, F. Ser, ind. fut. 3s. shall or 

will be. 
Serafin, sm. seraph, angel, extreme 

beauty. 
Seran, F. Ser, ind. fut. Sp. they 

shall or will be. 
Seras, F. Ser, ind. fut. 2s. thou 

shalt or wilt be. 
Sere, F. Ser, ind. fut. Is. I shall or 

will be. 

261 



SEV 



SIL 



Seremos, F. Ser, ind. fat. \p. we 
shall be. 

Serenidad, sf. serenity, presence of 
mind, coolness. 

Serena, inf. pres. 3s. becalms, cheers 
up, pacifies. 

Sereno, sm. evening dew; watch- 
man. 

Sereno-a, a. serene, calm, quiet. 

Sena, F. Ser, subj. 1 impf. 1 or 3s. 
would or should be. 

Serf an, F. Ser, subj. 1 impf. Sp. 
they would be. 

Serie, sf. series, chain, succession 

Seriedad, sf. gravity, sternness of 
aspect. 

Serio-a, a. serious, grand, undue. 

Sermon, sm. sermon, censure, lec- 
ture. 

Servia, F. Servir, ind. impf. 1 or 3s 
served. 

Servian, F. Servir, ind. impf Sp 
served 

Servicio, sm. service, favour, utility, 
benefit. 

Servido-a, part, served; pleased; 
kind enough to. 

Servidor, sm. servant. 

Servidumbre, sf. servitude, slavery, 
bondage; servants. 

Servir, inf. vn. to serve; to suit; to 
tend. 

Servir, inf. va. to serve, to do a fa- 
vour, to occupy a station. 

Servir, inf. vr. to be pleased, to 
deign, to vouchsafe. 

Serviran, F. Servir, ind. fut. Sp. 
will serve. 

Sesenta, a. num. sixty. 

Severidad, sf. severity, rigour, aus- 
terity, punctuality. 

Severisimo-a, a. super, most or very 
severe, rigorous. 

Severo-a, a. severe, rigorous, grave, 
punctual. 



Sevilla, sfprop. Seville, a renowned 
city of Spain. 

Si, pron. per. o. itself, himself, her- 
self, themselves, each other. 

Si, conj. if, though ; whether ; si 
bien, although. 

Si, ad. yes, yea, truly, in reality, 
without doubt. 

Sicilia, sub. prop, f Sicily, an 
island in the Mediterranean. 

Sicsto IV. sm. prop. Sixtus IV. a 
Pope who sat on the Pontifical 
Chair from 1474 to 1484. He 
was remarkable for nothing great. 
His name was Francis de Albes- 
cola. 

Sido, F. Ser, part. been. 

Siempre, ad. always, ever. 

Sien, sf. temple (part of the head.) 

Siendo, F. Ser, ger. being. 

Sienta, F. Sentir, subj. pres. 1 or 
3s. may feel. 

Sientan, F. Sentir, subj. pres. Sp. 
may feel. 

Siente, F. Sentir, ind. pres. 3s. feels. 

Siente, F. Sentar, subj. 3s. it, he or 
she may or will become. 

Sienten, F. Sentir, ind. pres. Sp. feel. 

Sientes, F. Sentir, ind. pres. 2s. 
thou dost feel or perceive. 

Siete, a. num. seven. 

Siglo, sm. age, century; a long time. 

Signiffca, F. Significar, ind. pres. 
3s. signifies. 

Significar, inf. va. to signify, to de- 
clare, to be worth, to mean. 

Sigue, F. Seguir, ind. pres. 3s. fol- 
lows. 

Siguiendo, F. Seguir, ger. follow- 
ing, prosecuting. 

Siguiente, a. following, successive. 

Sijilo, sm. inviolable secrecy. 

Silbaba, F. Silbar, ind. impf. Ss 
hissed. 

Silbar, inf. vn. to whistle, to whiz, 
to roar ; va. to hiss. 

262 



six 



SOB 



Silencio, sm. silence, taciturnity, se- 
crecy, reservedness. 

Silvestre, a. wild, uncultivated, 
savage. 

Silla, sf. a chair, seat ; silla volante, 

gig- 
Sima, sf. gulf, deep cavern, gap. 

Simple, a. simple, pure, plain. 
Simplicidad, sf simplicity, plain- 
ness. 
Simplicisimo-a, a. super, most or 

very simple, foolish, brief. 
Sin, prep, without ; sin par, match- 
less. 
Sinceramente, adv. sincerely, really. 
Sinceridad, sf sincerity, candour, 

frankness, purity of mind. 
Sincero-a, a. sincere, ingenuous 

honest. 
Sincon, sub. prop. m. Chincon, a 

town in Spain. 
Singular, a. singular, extraordinary, 

individual. 
Siniestro-a, a. left, vicious, unlucky ; 

s. left-hand. 
Sino, prep, but, except, only ; unless. 
Sintio, F. Sentir, ind. pret. 3s. he 

felt. 
Siquem, sub. prop. m. Sichem, a 

city that stood on Mount Ephraim, 

near Jerusalem. 
Siquiera, conj. even, though, at 

least. 
Sirena, sf. syren, a fabulous monster 

of the sea. 
Sirva, F. Servir, subj. pres. may 

serve, he instrumental in. 
Sirven, F. Servir, ind. pres. Bp. 

suit, serve, are used. 
Sirviendo, F. Servir, ger. serving. 
Sirviese, F. Servir, subj. imp. 3s. 

should tend. 
Sirvio, F. Servir, ind. pret. 3s. 

served. 
Sitiado-a, adj. and sub. beseiged. 
Sitio, sm. place, site, spot ; situation. 



Situacion, sf situation, state, site, 
assignation. 

So, prep, under, beneath. 

Soberano, sm. the sovereign, the 
king. 

Soberano-a, a. sovereign, delightful, 
excellent. 

Soberbiamente, ad. proudly, arro- 
gantly, vainly. 

Soberbio-a, a. proud, haughty, arro- 
gant ; soberbia, sf haughtiness. 

Soborno, sm. subornation, bribe, in- 
ducement. 

Sobra, ind. pres. 3s. there is, pos- 
sesses in excess. 

Sobraba, F. Sobrar, ind. impf. 3s. 
had in excess. 

Sobran, F. Sobrar, ind. pres. 3p. 
can spare. 

Sobrar, inf. va. to surpass, to ex- 
ceed. 

Sobrar, inf. pres. vn. to have more 
than is necessary, to be more than 
enough, to be able to spare. 

Sobre, prep, on, upon, over; be- 
sides, independently of. 

Sobrecejo, sm. frown, supercilious 
aspect. 

Sobrellevaban, F. Sobrellevar, ind. 
impf 3p. bore, did bear. 

Sobrepujan, ind. pres. 3p. they ex- 
ceed, surpass, excel. 

Sobrepujasen, F. Sobrepujar, subj. 
3 impf. 3p. they should excel. 

Sobrepujemos, F. Sobrepujar, subj. 
pres. \p. we may excel, or let us 
excel, or be superior to. 

Sobresaltan, F. Sobresaltar, ind. 
pres. 3p. they frighten or surprise 

Sobresaltar, inf. va. to surprise, to 
frighten ; vn. to be startled at, to 
be astonished. 

Sobrevenir, inf. vn. to happen, to 
fall out, to come to pass. 

Sobre viene, F. Sobrevenir, ind. pres 
3s. happens to come. 

263 



SOL 



SOR 



Sobriedad, sf. sobriety, regularity, 
abstemiousness. 

Sociedad, sf. society, friendship, 
union. 

Socorred, F. Socorrer, imp. pres. 2p. 
succour ye or you. 

Socorrer, ind. pres. va. to succour, 
to aid, to administer relief. 

Socorri, F. Socorrer, ind. pret. 3s. I 
succoured, or aided. 

Socorro, sm. succour, aid, salary. 

Sofoque, F. Sofocar, ind. pret. Is. 1 
was excited or suffocated. 

Soi, F. Ser, ind. pres. Is. I am. 

Sois, F. Ser, ind. pres. 2p. ye or 
you are. 

Sojuzgar, inf. va. to subjugate, to 
subdue, to conquer. 

Sol, sub. prop, and sub. sun. 

Solamente, ad. only, alone, solely. 

Soldado, sm. soldier, private. 

Soledad, sf. solitude, desert, conso- 
lation. 

Solemnidad, sf. solemnity, pomp, 
magnificence, formality. 

Solemnisimo-a, a. super, most or 
very solemn, complete. 

Soler, inf. pres. vn. to be in the ha- 
bit, to be wont, to be in the cus- 
tom. 

Solia, F. Soler, ind. impf. 3s. was 
in the habit. 

Solian, F. Soler, ind. impf Sp. were 
wont. 

Solicita, F. Solicitar, ind. pres. 3s. 
solicits. 

Solicitaban, F. Solicitar, ind. impf 
Sp. solicited. 

Solicitar, inf. va. to desire, to soli- 
cit, to importune, to entreat. 

Solicito-a, a. solicitous, anxious, 
desirous, careful. 

Solio, sm. throne. 

Solis, (Antonio de) sub. prop. m. 
Solis, the celebrated Spanish his- 
torian of the conquest of Mexico, 



and one of our distinguished dra- 
matic writers. His prose style 
will not sutler from a comparison 
with that of any ancient or mod- 
ern writer. Perhaps he is the 
greatest model, in that respect, 
all things considered, that Spain 
has produced. Born in Alcala 
de Henares in 1610; died 1686. 

Solo, ad. only, alone ; bereft ; a so- 
las, alone. 

Soltais, ind. pres. 2p. you let go, 
drop. 

Soltar, inf. va. to let loose, to set at 
liberty ; to shed. 

Soltura, sf. dexterity, nimbleness, 
activity. 

Soma, sm. Soma, a Greek, eminent 
for his generosity. 

Sombra, sf. shade; shelter; appear- 
ance. 

Sombrero, sm. hat, cap. 

Sombrio-a, a. cloudy, dark, shady. 

Soinete, F. Someter, ind. pres. 3s. 
submits. 

Somos, F. Ser, ind. pres. \p. we are. 

Son, sm. sound. 

Son, F. Ser, ind. pres. Sp. are, there 
are. 

Soneto, sm. sonnet, a poetical com- 
position. 

Sonoro-a, a. sonorous, agreeable, 
harmonious. 

Sonrisa, sf. smile. 

Sonrojen, subj. pres. 3s. may be af- 
fronted. 

Sordo, sm. deaf, silent person. 

Sordo, a. deaf, silent, callous. 

Sorprende, F. Sorprender, ind. pres. 
3s. surprises. 

Sorprender, inf. va. to surprise, to 
deceive, to astonish. 

Sorprendido-a, F. Sorprender, part. 
surprised. 

Sorprendieron, F. Sorprender, ind. 
pret. Sp. surprised. 

264 



SUB 



SUJ 



Sosegadamente, ad. quietly, calmly 

Sose^ado-a, a. peaceful, quiet, tran- 
quil ; being quelled, appeased. 

Sosiego, sm. tranquillity, calmness 
repose. 

Soslayo, sm. cross look. 

Soslayo, ad. obliquely. 

Sostener, inf. pres. va. to maintain, 
to support, to sustain, to feed. 

Sostiene, F. Sostener, hid. pres. 3s 
supports. 

Stockolmo, sm. prop. Stockholm, 
the principal city of Sweden. 

Su, pron. pos. n. or o. its, her, his, 
their, your. 

Suavidad, sf. suavity, softness, deli- 
cacy. 

Sube, F. Subir, ind. pres. 3s. as- 
cends. 

Suben. F. Subir, ind. pres. Sp. as- 
cend. 

Subia, F. Subir, ind. imp/. 1 or 3s 
ascended. 

Sub i an, F. Subir, ind. impf. Sp. ran 
up, ascended. 

Subido, F. Subir, part, ascended, 
walked up. 

Subido-a, a. finest, most excel 
lent. 

Sublime, a. sublime, magnificent 
grand. 

Subiendo, F. Subir, ger. ascending, 
mounting. 

Subio, F. Subir, ind. pret. 3s. as- 
cended. 

Subir, inf. vn. to walk up, to as- 
cend, to mount, to rise. 

Subir, inf. va. to climb, to ascend, 
to lift up, to enhance. 

Subito, ad. immediately, directly, 
suddenly. 

Subito-a, a. quick, sudden. 

Subsistencia, sf. subsistence, main- 
tenance, stability. 

Substancia, sf. substance, matter, 
nutriment. 
23 



Suceder, inf. vn. to happen ; to suc- 
ceed. 

Sucedido, F. Suceder, part, hap- 
pened, taken place, come to pass. 

Sucedieron, F. Suceder, ind. pret. 
Sp. succeeded ; came after. 

Sucediese, F. Suceder, subj. 3 impf 
1 or 3s. should happen. 

Sucedio, F. Suceder, ind. pret. 3s. 
happened. 

Sueesivo-a, a. successive, follow- 
ing; s. future. 

Suceso, sm. success, event, inci- 
dent; occurrence. 

Sucesor-a, sm. successor. 

Sucintamente, ad. succinctly, brief- 
ly, shortly. 

Suave, a. soft, smooth. 

Sueia, sf. sole, leather. 

Sueldo, sm. wages, pay, salary. 

Suelen, F. Soler, ind. pres. Sp. are 
apt, in the habit. 

Sueio, sm. floor, ground, soil. 

Suelta, F. Soltar, ind. pres. 3s. he 
lets out. 

Sueltan, F. Soltar, ind. pres. Sp. 
they untie or let loose. 

Sueiia, F. Sonar, ind. pres. 3s. 
dreams. 

Suenan, F. Sonar, ind. pres. Sp. 
dream. 

Sueno, sm. sleep, dream, vision. 

Suerte, sf. fate, chance, lot. 

Sufocar, inf. va. to suffocate, to 
smother, to harass, to molest. 

Sufridor-a, sm, sufferer ; capable of 
enduring. 

Sufre, F. Sufrir, ind. pres. 3s. suffers. 

Sufria, F. Sufrir, ind. impf. 1 or 3s. 
suffered. 

Sufrir, inf. va. to suffer, to endure, 
to bear, to tolerate. 

Sufrire, F. Svfrir, ind. fut. Is. I 
shall suffer. 

Sujerisron, F. Sujerir, ind. pret. Sp. 
they suggested, 

265 



TAC 

Sujerfr, inf. va. to suggest, to hint, 

to intimate, to instigate. 
Sujetainos, F. Sujetar, ind. pres. Ip. 

we subject. 
Sujetar, inf. va. to subject, to re- 
duce, to overcome. 

Sujeto, sm. person, individual; sub- 
ject, matter. 

Suj^to-a, a. subject, liable, exposed. 

Suma. sf sum, amount; en suma, 
ad. in short. 

Surname nte, ad. extremely, very, 
very much. 

Sumerjiendo, F. Sumergir, gcr. 
plunging into. 

Sumerjir, inf. va. to plunge into, to 
sink, to embarrass. 

Sumia, F. Sumir, ind. pres. 1 or 3s. 
was sinking. 

Sumir, inf. vr. to be sunk, to be 
swallowed up, to sink under 
ground. 

Sumira, F. Snmir, ind. fat. 3s. will 
sink, or be sunk. 

Sumo, a. super, highest, loftiest. 

Suntuoso-a, a. sumptuous, splendid, 
expensive. 

Superficie, sf. superficies, outward, 
exterior. 

Superior, sm. superior, elder. 

Superior, a. comp. superior, higher, 
greater. 

Superioridad, sf. superiority, pre- 
eminence, superior excellence. 

Supersticioso-a, a. superstitious, 
over scrupulous. 



TAC 

Supieron, F. Saber, ind. pret. 3p. 
knew. 

Supiesen, F. Saber, subj. 3 impf. 3p. 
should know. 

Suplica, sf. petition, request, memo- 
rial. 

Suplicar, inf. va. to beseech, to sup- 
plicate, to demand. 

Suph'co, F. Suplicar, ind. pres. Is. 
I supplicate. 

Suplique, F. Suplicar, ind. pret. Is. 
I beseeched. 

Supo, F. Saber, ind. pret. 3s. 
knew. 

Supremo, a. super, supreme, high- 
est. 

Sus, pron. dem. n. oro. its, her, his, 
their, your. 

Suspiro, sm. sigh, breath, hissing. 

Sustentaba, F. Sustentar, ind. impf 
1 or 3s. maintained. 

Sustentado, F. Sustentar, a. sup- 
ported, maintained, sustained. 

Sustentan, F. Sustentar, ind. pres. 
3p. sustain. 

Sustentar, inf. va. to maintain, to 
sustain, to support. 

Sustento, sm. food, sustenance, 
maintenance. 

Susto, sm. fright, terror, fear. 

Susurrante, a. murmuring, whisper- 
ing, purling, whizzing. 

Sutil, a. subtle, sharp, acute. 

Suyo-a, pron. pos. o. or n. his, hers, 
theirs, yours ; of him, her, them. 



Tabla, sf. table, board, plot of earth. 
Taburete, sm. stool, chair. 
Tacha, sf fault, imperfection, 

way. 
Tacha, F. Tachar, ind. pres. 3s. finds 

fault. 



Tachan, F. Tachar, ind. pres. 3p. 

they accuse, impeach, find fault. 
Tachar, inf. pres. va. to find fault, 

to censure, to reprehend. 
Tacito, sub. prop. m. Tacitus, a 

very eminent ancient historian. 
266 



TE 



TEN 



Tacito-a, a. tacit, understood, im- 
plied. 

Taciturno-a, a. silent, taciturn, re- 
served, D.elancholy. 

Tacto, sm. touch, sense of feeling. 

Tafetan, sm. riband. 

Tahali, sm. shoulder belt. 

Tajo, sub. prop. m. Tagus, a river 
in Spain. 

Tal, ad. and a. such, such as ; cer- 
tain ; tal vez, perhaps. 

Talamo, sm. bride chamber, nup- 
tial bed. 

Talento, sm. talent (an ancient 
piece of money,) talents, genius, 
abilities. 

Tamano, sm. size, shape, stature. 

Tarnbien, ad. also, likewise, in the 
same manner. 

Tarnbien, conj. also, and. 

Tampoco, conj. neither, nor. 

Tan, ad. as, so, as much. 

Tanjer, sm. prop. Tangier, a town 
on the straits of Gibraltar, on the 
African side. 

Tanto, ad. so much, as much, so ; 
par lo tanto, therefore. 

Tariendo, ger. playing on. 

Taiiido, sm. knell, melancholy 
sound. 

Tapado-a, F. Tapar, part, covered, 
stopped. 

Tarda, F. Tardar, ind. pres. 3s. de- 
lays. 

Tardan, F. Tardar, ind. pres. 3p. 
delay. 

Tardar, inf. vn. to delay, to put off, 
to procrastinate. 

Tarde, a. slow, tardy. 

Tarde, ad. late, afternoon, past the 
time. 

Tardo-a, sub. a slow person. 

Tarea, sf. labour, occupation, work. 

Tasa, sf. check, bounds ; tax, rate. 

Te, sm. tea. 



Te, F. Tu, pron. per. s. o. thee, to 

thee. 

Teatro, sm. theatre, play-house. 
Tejldo, sm. texture, stuff. 
Tejido, part, adjec. devised, woven, 

designed. 
Tema, F. Temer, imp. pres. 3s. let 

it, him, or her fear. 
Tema, F. Temer, subj. pres. 1 or 3s. 

may fear. 
Teme, F. Temer, ind. pres. 3s. fears 
Teraed, F. Temer, imp. pres. 2p. 

fear you or ye. 
Temer, inf. va. to fear, to dread, to 

reverence. 
Temeridad, sf. rashness, temerity, 

imprudence, excess. 
Temeroso-a, a. fearful, timorous, 

cowardly. 
Temiesen, F. Temer, subj. 3 impf 

3p. they should fear. 
Terno, F. Temer, ind. pres. Is. I 

fear. 
Temperamento, sm. temperature, 

temperament, constitution. 
Tempestad, sf. tempest, storm, 

commotion. 
Templado-a, a. tempered, mode- 
rated, tuned, benign. 
Templanza, sf temperance, tempe- 
rature. 

Templo, sm. temple, church. 
Templo, F. Templar, ind. pret. 3s. 

he tempered or moderated. 
Temor, sm. fear, terror. 
Ten, F. Tener, imp. 2s. hold, keep. 
Tender, inf. va. to extend, to stretch 

to spread, to distend. 
Tender, inf. vn. to direct, to tend, 

to refer. 
Tendi, F. Tender, ind. pret. Is. I 

extended. 
Tendia, F. Tender, ind. impf 1 or 

3s. tended. 
Tendido, part, adjec. stretched, ex- 
tended, lying down. 

267 



TER 

Tendremos, F. Tener, ind. fit. \p 

we shall or will have. 
Tenebroso-a, a. dark, obscure 

gloomy. 
Tened, F. Tener, imp. 2p. have. 

hold, consider. 
Teneis, F. Tener, ind. pres. 2p. ye 

have. 
Tenemos, F. Tener, ind. pres. Ip. 

we have, we keep, hold. 
Tener, inf. va. to have, to hold, to 

possess, to maintain, to support, 

to keep. 
Tenga, F. Tener, subj. pres. 1 or 3s. 

I, it, he, or she may have. 
Tengan, F. Tener, subj. pres. Sp. 

they may have. 
Tengas, F. Tener, subj. pres. 2s. 

thou may est have. 
Tengo, F. Tener, ind. pres. Is. I 

have. 
Tenia, ind. impf 3s. kept, had ; 

razon, he was right ; no tenia 

razon, he was wrong. 
Teniamos, F. Tener, ind. impf. \p. 

we had. 
Tenian, F. Tener, ind. impf Sp. 

they had. 
Tenido, F. Tener, part, held, had; 

kept; followed. 
Teniendo, F. Tener, ger. having, 

possessing. 
Tener, inf. va. to dye, to stain. 
Tentacion, sf temptation, instiga- 
tion. 
Teiiido-a, a. dyed, tinged, impreg- 
nated with any colour. 
Termas, sub. prop. m. Terrnas, a 

town in Spain. 
Terremoto, sm. earthquake. 
Terreno, sm. place, space of ground. 
Terron, sm. clod of earth, lump. 
Terso-a, a. clean, polished, beauti- 
ful. 
Termino, sm. term, termination, 

object, period. 



TIR 

Terneza, sf. tenderness, softness, 

suavity. 
Ternura, sf. tenderness, delicacy. 
Tertuliano-a, adj. and s. visiter. 

Tesoro, sm. treasure, wealth. 

Testifican, F. Testificar, ind. pres. 
Sp. they attest. 

Testigo, sm. witness, proof, evi- 
dence. 

Testimonio, sm. witness, testimony, 
proof, attestation, copy. 

Ti, F. Tu, pron. per. s. o. thee, to 
thee. 

Tibieza, sf. indifference, careless- 
ness, lukewarmness. 

Tiembla, F. Temblar, ind. pres. 3s. 
he trembles. 

Tiempo, sm. time, weather, leisure, 
opportunity. 

Tienda, sf. tent, shop. 

Tiendecita, sf small shop, or store, 
dim. of Tienda. 

Tienden, F. Tender, ind. pres. Sp. 
they stretch or extend. 

Tiene, F. Tener, ind. pres. 3s. has; 
se tiene, considers himself. 

Tienen, F. Tener, ind. pres. Sp. 
they have. 

Tienes, F. Tener, ind. pres. 2s. thou 
hast. 

Tiernamente, ad. tenderly, affec- 
tionately. 

Tierno-a, a. tender, affectionate, 
delicate. 

Tierra, sub. prop, f the earth, 
country, ground, land, soil. 

Tinieblas, sfp. darkness, obscurity. 

Tino, sm. judgment, prudence. 

Tinta, sf ink, tint. 

Tinto-a, F. Tenir, part. abs. being 
stained, tainted. 

Tino, F. Tenir, part, dyed, stained. 

Tirania, sf. tyranny, despotism. 

Tirano, sm. tyrant, despotic mo- 
narch. 

Tirano-a, a. tyrannical. 



t6m 



t6q 



Tiro, sm. discharge, mark, shot. 

Tiro, F. Tirar, ind. pres. 3s. draw, 
open. 

Tito, sub. prop. m. Titus, the first 
name of Livy, a Roman historian, 
born at Patavium, now called 
Padua. 

Titulo, sm. title. 

Tivoli, sub. prop. m. Tivoli, a town 
in the territory of Rome. 

Tobillo, sm. ankle. 

Toca, sf. head-dress. 

Toe aha, F. Tocar, ind. imp/. 3s. it 
belonged to, it was his duty. 

Tocar, inf. va. to touch, to feel, to 
go deeply. 

Tocar, inf. vn. and a. to belong to, 
to be his, hers, ours, theirs, mine, 
go to, fall to one's lot, to be one's 
turn. 

Tocase, F. T&car, subj. 3 impf. it 
should touch, appertain or belong. 

Toco, F. Tocar , ind. pres. Is. I 
touch, I am near. 

Toco, F. Tocar, ind. pret. 3s. it 
touched, pertained, or belonged. 

Todavia, ad. notwithstanding, yet, 
still. 

T6do-a, a. all ; entirely ; every kind 
of; s. all, every thing; con todo 
notwithstanding; del todo, en- 
tirely. 

Todopoderoso, sub. prop. m. Al- 
mighty God. 

Toga, sm. gow T n, toga, costume 
worn by the Romans. 

Tolerar, inf. pres. va. to tolerate, to 
suffer, to permit, to indulge. 

Tolero, F. Tolerar, ind. pret. 3s. it, 
he, or she tolerated. 

Toma, sf. taking, seizing, appre- 
hension. 

Toma, F. Tomar, imp. pres. 2s. 
take thou. 

Toma, F. Tomar, ind. pres. 3s. 
takes. 
23* 



Tomaba, F. Tomar, ind. impf. 3s. 

took. 
Tomad, F. Tomar, ind. pres. 2p. 

take you or ye. 
Tornado, F. Tomar, part, taken, 

possessed of, understood. 
Toman, F. Tomar, ind. pres. Bp, 

they take. 
Tomando, F. Tomar, ger. assuming, 

taking. 
Tomar, inf. va. to take, to assure, 

to occupy. 
Tomara, F. Tomar, subj. 1 impf 

Is. I would take. 
Tomaron, F. Tomar, ind. pret. 3p, 

they took. 
Tomas, F. Tomar, ind, pres. 2s. 

thou takest. 
Tomas, sub. prop. m. Thomas, a 

man's name. 
Tomasen, F. Tomar, subj. 3 impf 

Sp. they should take. 
Tome, F. Tomar, subj. pres. 1 or 

3s. may take. 
Tomen, F. Tomar, subj. pres. 3p. 

they may take. 
Tomo, F. Tomar, ind. pres. Is. I 

take. 
Tomo, F. Tomar, ind. pret. 3s. 

took. 
Tono, sm. tone, voice, manner, 

tune. 
Top aba, F. Topar, ind. impf 3s. 

met with. 
Top ado, F. Topar, part, met, run 

against. 
Topar, inf. pres. va. to run against, 

to meet with, to encounter. 
Topo, F. Topar, ind. pres. Is. I 

meet. 
Topo, F. Topar, ind. pret. 3s. 

met. 
Toque, F. Tocar, subj. pres. 1 or 

3s. may touch. 
Toque, sm. touch, ringing of bells, 

essay. 

269 



TRA 



TRi 



Toquen, F. Tocar, suhj. pres. Bp 

they may touch. 
Torcer, inf. va. to twist, to turn, to 

deviate. 
Torciendo, F. Torcer, ger. taking a 

wrong path. 
Torcieron, F. Torcer, ind. pret. 3p. 

twisted, deviated. 
Tormenta, sf. tempest, storm. 
Tormento, sm. torment, pain, an- 
guish, torture. 
Torna, ind. pres. and imp. returns 

to, return thou. 
Tornara, F. Tomar, ind. fat. 3s. 

will return. 
Torno, sm. wheel, circumvolution; 

en torno, arround. 
Torpe, s. a clumsy, rough, or rude 

person. 
Torpe, a. rude, clumsy, barbarous, 

libidinous. 
Toro, sm. bull. 
Torre, sf. steeple, tower. 
Torrente, sm. torrent, rapid stream, 

abundance. 
Torreon, sm. a round tower. 
Tortura, sf. rack, torture, tortuosity. 
T6sco-a, a. rough, rude, unpolished, 

ill-bred. 
Total, sm. the whole, sum, totality, 

amount. 
Total, a. general, universal, total. 
Trabaja, F. Trabajar, ind. invpf. 3s. 

worked. 
Trabajamos, F. Trabajar, ind. pres. 

lp. we labour. 
Trabajamos, F. Trabajar, ind. pret. 

\p. we laboured. 
Trabajando, F. Trabajar, ger. la- 
bouring, working. 
Trabajar, inf. va. to labour, to work. 
Trabajaremos, F. Trabajar, ind. 

fat. lp. we shall work. 
Trabajaron, F. Trabajar, ind. pret. 

3p. they laboured. 



Trabajo, sm. work, impediment, 

trouble, poverty. 
Trabajo so- a, a. laborious, hard, 

painful, elaborate. 
Traductor, sm. translator. 
Trae, F. Traer, ind. pres. 3s. brings, 

or carries. 
Traer, inf. va. to bring, to carry, to 

take, to fetch, to attract. 
Triifajo, sm. traffic, commerce, 

trade. 
Trafico, sm. traffic, commerce. 
Tragaron, F. Tragar, ind. pret. 3p. 

they swallowed. 
Traje, sm: dress, costume, garb. 
Trajedia, sf. tragedy; any dreadful 

event. 
Trajeron, F. Traer, ind. pret. Sp. 

brought. 
Traia, F. Traer, ind. impf. 1 or 3s. 

brought, wore. 
Traian, F. Traer, ind. impf 3p. 

they brought. 
Traicion, sf. treason, treachery. 
Traiga, F. Traer, imp. pres. 3p. let 

bring. 

Traiga, F. Traer, subj. pres. Zs. 

may bring. 
Traigan, F. Traer, subj. pres. Bp. 

may bring. 
Traigo, F. Traer, ind. pres. Is. I 

bring. 
Trajo, F. Traer, ind. pret. 1 or 3s. 

brought. 
Tramposo, s. swindler. 
Tramposo-a, a. deceitful, swindling. 
Trance, sm. danger, perilous situa- 
tion, the last stage of life. 
Tranquilamente, ad. tranquilly, 

peacefully. 
Tranquilo-a, a. tranquil, calm, quiet. 
Transferido, F. Transferir, part. 

transferred, transported. 
Transito, sm. distance, transition, 

passage, way ; road. 



270 



TRA 



TRO 



Transparente, a. transparent. 

Transportar, inf. va. to transport, to 
convey, to remove. 

Transporte, F. Transpertar, subj. 
pres. 1.9. I may transport. 

Transporte, sm. transport, transpor- 
tation. 

Tras, prep, behind, independently 
of. 

Traslada, F. Trasladar, ind. pres. 
3s. it, he, or she translates. 

Trasladado, part, removed, trans 
lated, transcribed, copied. 

Trasladar, inf. va. to translate, to 
remove, to transcribe. 

Traspasado-a, part. abs. penetrated 
struck; run through. 

Traspasar, inf. va. to pierce, to 
cross, to move to compassion. 

Traspasaron, ind. pret. Sp. they 
pierced. 

Trastornado-a, a. overthrown, up- 
set, deranged, entangled. 

Trastornar, inf. pres. va. to subvert, 
to overthrow, to confuse, to per- 
suade, to derange. 

Trasudor, sm. sweat, perspiration. 

Trata, F. Tratar, ind. pres. 3s. it, 
he, or she treats. 

Tiataba, (se) ind. impf. he intend- 
ed, he fared. 

Trataban, F. Tratar, ind. impf. Sp. 
treated, endeavoured to. 

Tratan, ind. pres. Sp. set about. 

Tratando, F. Tratar, ger. treating, 
touching, trading. 

Tratar, inf. pres. va. to investigate, 
to intend, to have intercourse, to 
fare. 

Tr&tkron,. ind. pret. 3p. they treated, 
thought of. 

Trato, F. Tratar, ind. pres. Is. I 
wish. 

Trato, sm. intercourse, commerce, 
treatment, usage, fare. 



Travieso-a, a. oblique, turbulent, 
intemperate. 

Trayendo, F. Traer, ger. carrying,, 
bringing. 

Traza, sf plan, scheme. 

Trecho, sm. space, distance, situa- 
tion, plight. 

Tregua, sf repose, truce, cessa- 
tion of hostilities. 

Treinta, a. num. thirty. 

Trenticinco, a. num. thirty-five. 

Trenza, sf. braided hair. 

Tres, a. num. three. 

Tretico-a, adj. melancholy, sombre, 
dark, gloomy. 

Tribunal, sm. tribunal, court (of 
justice.) 

Tributo, sm. tribute, tax, contribu- 
tion. 

Trigo, sm, wheat. 

Trinchera, sf. entrenchment 

Triste, a. sad, melancholy, dull, 
doleful. 

Triste za, sf. sadness, grief, afflic- 
tion, sorrow. 

Triunfando, F. Triunfar, ger. tri- 
umphing, subduing. 

Triunfar, inf. vn. to triumph over, 
to conquer, to gain a victory. 

Triunfo, F. Triunfar, ind. pret. 3s. 
it, he, or she triumphed over. 

Triunfo, sm. triumph, conquest, 
trophy. 

Trocado, F. Trocar, part, changed, 
permuted. 

Trocara, F. Trocar, subj. 1 impf 
1 or 3s. would exchange. 

Tronco, sm. trunk; and also, 
branch. 

Tronera, sf hair-brained; loop- 
hole. 

Trono, sm.. throne, royal seat, 

Tropa, sf troop, soldiers. 

Tropel, sm. noise, hurry, bustle, 
confusion. 



27 i 



tfLT 



tfNA 



Tropel, pron. collec. a crowd, a 
number of persons or things 
heaped or confused together. 

Tropezar, inf. pres. vn. to stumble, 
to be detained, to wrangle, to 
dispute. 

Tropieza, sm. stumble, obstacle, 
error. 

Trueca, F. Trocar > ind. pres. Ss. he 
exchanges. 

Trucha, sf. trout. 

Trueno, sm. thunder, report of fire 
arms. 

Trueque, sm. exchange ; a Tmeque, 
by the loss, provided, in order, 
exchanging. 

Tu, pron. per. n. s. thou. This 
pronoun is used, in Spanish, only 
by parents in addressing their 
children ; masters, their servants ; 
and intimate friends, each other. 
Sometimes it is used also in ad- 
dressing God, or any celestial es- 
sence. V. Vd. or Vmd. meaning 
Usted or Vuestra Merced, may be 
said to be the pronoun in general 
use, in addressing ourselves to 
persons in general. 

Tu, pron. pos. s. n. or o. thy, thine. 

Tubo, sm. tube. 

Tucidides, sub. prop. m. Thucy- 
dides, a celebrated ancient histo- 
rian. 



Tulip an, sm. tulip (a flower.) 

Tumba, sf. tomb, sepulchre. 

Tumulto, sm. tumult, uproar, mob. 

Tunante, sm. a cunning, crafty, or 
sagacious rogue. 

Turba, sf. crowd, multitude. 

Turba, F. Turbar, ind. pres. Ss. dis- 
turbs ; s. a crowd. 

Turbacion, sf. perturbation, confu- 
sion, disorder. 

Turban, F. Turbar, ind. pres. Sp. 
disturb. 

Turbando, ger. disquieting, disturb- 
ing; inverting. 

Turbar, inf. va. to disturb, to alarm, 
to trouble, to surprise. 

Tus, pron. pos. p. n. or o. thy, your. 

Tuviera, F. Tener, subj. impf. 1 or 
3s. would, might have. 

Tuvierais, F. Tener, subj. 1 impf. 
2p. you or ye should have. 

Tuviere, F. Tener, subj. fit. 1 or 3*. 
should have. 

Tuvieron, F. Tener, ind. pret. Sp. 
possessed. 

Tuvieseis, F. Tener, subj. 3 impf. 
2p. should have. 

Tuviesen, F. Tener, subj. 3 impf. 
Sp. should have. 

Tuvo, F. Tener, ind. pret. Ss. it, he, 
or she had felt. 

Tuyo-a, pron. pos. o. or n. sub. thy, 
thine. 



u 



U, prep, or, either. 

Ufano-a, sub. proud, haughty, con- 
ceited. 

Ufano, a. proud, arrogant, haughty, 
cheerful, joyful. 

TJltimamente, ad. lastly, ultimately. 

tjltimo-a, a. last, final, finished; 
par ultimo, at last. 



Ultraje, sm. outrage, contempt, op- 
probrium. 

Un, a num. one, a ; contraction of 
uno. 

Una, sf. nail, talon. 

Una, adj. fern, of uno, en una, or a 
una, conjointly, unitedly. 

Una, F. Unir, subj. pres. 1 or 3s. 
may unite. 

272 



V.M. 

Une, F. Unir, ind. pres. 3s. unites. 

Unen, F. Unir, ind. pres. 3p. unite. 

Unico-a, a. only, alone, singular, 
excellent. 

Unir, inf. pres. va. to join, to unite, 
to mix, to incorporate. 

Universal, a. universal, general. 

Universo, sm. universe, or the gene- 
ral system of created things. 

Uno-a, a. num, one, a, an ; some. 

Urbanidad, sf. politeness, urbanity, 
civility. 

Urbano-a, a. polite, civil, courteous. 

Urna, sf. urn, glass, case. 

Utilidad, sf. utility, usefulness. 

IJsa, F. Usar, ind. pres. 3s. uses. 

Usaba, F. Usar, ind. impf. 3s. used. 



VAL 

Usaban, F. Usar, ind. impf Zp> 

used. 
Usado-a, part, adjec. used, worn 

out, skilful, versed. 
Usan, F. Usar, ind. pres. Bp. they 

use. 
Usar, inf. va. to use, to employ, to 

exercise, to make use of. 
Uso, sm. usage, use, employment. 
Usted, s. you, or your worship. 

See V. 
Usurpa, F. Usurpar, ind. pres. 3s. 

it, he, or she usurps. 
Usurpadp, a. and part, usurped, 

taken away, robbed. 
Util, a. useful, advantageous* 



V. This letter stands in printed or 
written composition, as a contrac 
tion of usted, which is, in itse-lf, 
another contraction of Vuestra 
Merced, 'your worship.' V, which 
is also often written or printed 
Vd. or Vmd. must invariably be 
read usted, 'you,' or 'your wor- 
ship.' This pronoun is, in Span- 
ish, almost universally used in 
addressing ourselves to others, 
instead of tu, or vos, and may 
therefore be said to be the equiva- 
lent of the English 'you.' As it 
is in itself a pronoun of the third 
person, it requires that the verb 
agreeing with it should also be in 
the third person ; although used 
in regard to persons spoken to. 
It is also because Vmd. is in the 
third person, that the objective 
pronoun le, stands for d vmd. 'to 
you,' or to 'your worship.' 

V. M. contraction of vuestra majes- 



tad, your majesty; and also of 
usted. 

VV. read ustedes, s. p. you or your 
worships. 

Va, F. Ir, ind. pres. 3s. goes. 

Vac a, sf. cow, veal. 

Vaciedad, sf. emptiness, vacuity, 
arrogant speech. 

Vacilando, F. Vacilar, ger. waver- 
ing, staggering. 

Vacilar, inf. pres. vn. to vacillate, 
to stagger, to waver. 

Vacio-a, a. empty, unoccupied, dis- 
engaged. 

Vago-a, a. vagrant, restless, unea- 
sy, vague. 

Vago-a, sub. vagabond, an unculti- 
vated piece of ground. 

Valde, sm. bucket ; de valde, gratis. 

Vale, F. Valer, ind. pres. 3s. is 
worth. 

Valen, F. Valer, ind. pres. Sp. they 
are worth. 

Valentfa, sf. valour, courage, spirit. 



273 



VAR 



VEL 



Valer, inf. pres. vn. to be worth, 

valuable ; to serve. 
Vaterosarnente, ad. valiantly, cour- 
ageously. 

VaIer6so-a, a. valiant, courageous, 
strong, powerful. 

Valga, F. Valer, subj. pres. Bs. may 
be worth. 

Valgan, F. Valer, subj. pres. Bp. 
may be worth. 

Valla, F. Valer, ind. impf. Is. I was 
worth. 

Valido, sm. favourite, predilect 

Valido, F. Valer, part, bee^ii worth. 

Valiendo, F. Valer, ger. taking ad- 
vantage, being worth. 

Valiera, subj. impf. would be worth; 
mas valiera, it would be better. 

Valiente, a. valiant, courageous, 
strong ; s. a bully, a valiant man. 

Vaiiesen, F. Valer, subj. 3 impf. Bp. 
they should be worth. 

Valor, sm. valour, value, income. 

Vaiiado, sm. enclosure, paling. 

Valle, sm. ovf. valley, vale. 

Vamos, F. Ir, subj. pres. \p. come 
on, let us go. 

Van, F. Ir, ind. pres. Bp. go. 

Vanaglorioso-a, a. vain, boastful, 
vain-glorious, conceited, proud. 

Vanamente, ad. vainly. 

Vando, sm. edict, law, party. 

Vanidad, sf. vanity, ostentation, 
vain parade. 

Vano-a, a. vain, arrogant, empty, 
useless. 

Varela (Felics) sub. prop. m. Vare- 
la, a distinguished living philo- 
sophic writer; author of <Lec- 
ciones de Filosofia,* and other 
valuable works. 

Variedad, sf. variety, variation, in 

constancy. 
l r ario-a, a. various, changeable, 

vague, wild. 
faron, sm. man. 



Vasallo, sm. subject, vassal, slave. 
Vaso, sm. vessel, vase, receptacle, I 

tumbler. 
Vastago, sm. stem, bud, shoot. 
Vasto-a, a. vast, grand, huge. 
Vaya, F. Ir, imp. pres. 3s. let it, 

him, or her go. 
Vaya, F Ir, subj. pres. 1 or 3s. may 

go. 
Vayan, F. Ir, subj. pres. Bp. they 

may go. 
Vd. read usted, s. you or your wor- 
ship. See V. 
Vds. read ustedes, s. p. you, or your 

worships. See V. 
Ve, F. Ir, imp. pres. 2s. go thou. 
Ve, F. Ver, imp. pres. 2s. see, or 

look thou. 
Vea, F. Ver, imp. pres. Bs. see you, 

or let him see. 
Vea, F. Ver, subj. pres. 1 or 3s. may 

see. 
Veas, F. Ver, subj. pres. 2s. thou 

mayest see. 
Veais, F. Ver, subj. pres. 2p. ye or 

you may see. 
Veamos, F. Ver, imp. pres. Ip. let 

us see. 
Veamos, F. Ver, subj. pres. \p. we 

may see. 
Veces, sf. office, purpose, station. 
Ved, F. Ver, imp. pres. 2p. see, be- 
hold, ye or you. 
Vega, sf. a plain, lawn, prairie. 
Vejez, sf. old age, decay, imbecility. 
Veia, F. Ver, ind. impf. 1 or Bs. 

saw. 
Veian, F. Ver, ind. impf Bp. they 

saw. 
Veinte, a. num. twenty. 
Vela, F. Velar, ind. pres. Bs. 

watches. 
Velad, F. Velar, imp. pres. 2p. 

watch ye or you. 
Velamos, F. Velar, ind.' pret. \p. 

we sat up. 

274 



VEN 



VEN 



Velando, F. Velar, ger. sitting up, 
watching. 

Velar, inf. vn. to sit, to watch, to 
keep guard, to observe. 

Velar, inf. va. to watch, to preserve, 
to keep, to attend. 

Velo, sm. veil, pretence, curtain. 

Velio, sm. down, soft hair, wool. 

Venios, F. Ver, imp. pres. lp. let us 
see. 

Veuios, F. Ver, subj. pres. lp. we 
may see. 

Ven, F. Venir, imp. pres. 2s. come 
thou. 

Vena, sf vein, artery, bandage. 

Venal, a. venial, venal, pardonable. 

Vence, F. Veneer, impf pres. 3s. 
conquers. 

Vencedor, sm. conqueror. 

Vencen, F. Veneer, ind. pret. Bp. 
conquer. 

Veneer, inf. va. to conquer, to over- 
come, to prevail upon. 

Vencldo-a, part, and a. conquered, 
overcome, subdued. 

Vencimiento, sm. conquest, control, 
victory. 

Vencimos, F. Veneer, ind. pret. lp. 
we conquered. 

Vende, F. Vender, ind. pres. 3s. 
sells. 

Vender, inf. pres. va. to sell, to be- 
tray, to deceive, to prostitute. 

Vender! ais, F. Vender, subj. 2 impf. 
2s. you would sell. 

Venderias, F. Vender, subj. 2 impf. 
Sp. would sell. 

Vend i an, F. Vender, ind. impf. Sp. 
sold. 

Vendible, a. saleable, vendible. 

Vendiendo, F. Vender, ger. selling, 
vending. 

Venecia, sm. prop. Venice, a terri- 
tory in Italy, celebrated for its 
ancient power and splendour. It 
was a republic ; now a province 



of the Austrians. Its capital 
Venice, is remarkable for its being 
built on 70 islets of the Adriatic 
sea, for its palaces, and the many 
monuments of art it contains. 

Veneciano-a, adj. or s. com. Vene- 
tian, a native of Venice. 

Veneno, sm. poison, venom. 

Veneracion, sf veneration, respect, 
worship. 

Venero, sm. flood, course, vein, 
root, source. 

Venga, imp. pres. 3s. let it, him, or 
her revenge, or come. 

Venga, subj. pres. 1 or 3s. may 
avenge or come. 

Vengad, F. Vengar, imp. pres. 2p. 
avenge ye. 

Vengan, subj. pres. Sp. they may 
come, or avenge. 

Venganza, sf. revenge, vengeance. 

Vengar, inf. pres. va. to revenge, 
to avenge, to return an injury. 

Vengar, inf. pres. vr. to be revenged 
on. 

Vengaremos, F. Vengar, ind. fut. 
lp. we shall avenge. 

Vengaremos, F. Vengar, subj. fut. 
lp. we should avenge. 

Vengas, F. Venir, subj. pres. 2s. 
thou mayest come. 

Vengas, F. Vengar, subj. pres. 2s. 
thou mayest revenge. 

Vengativo-a, a. revengeful, vindic- 
tive. 

Vengo, F. Venir, ind. pres. Is. I 
come. 

Vengo, F. Vengar, ind. pres. Is. I 
avenge. 

Ven i a, F. Venir, ind. impf. 1 or 3s. 
came. 

Ven i an, F. Venir, ind. impf. Sp. 
came. 

Venidero-a, a. next, future, com- 
ing. 

275 



VER 

Venido, F. Venir, part, come, ar- 
rived. 
Venir, inf. vn. to come, to draw 
near, to happen, to become. 

Venis, F. Venir, ind. pres. 2p. ye 
or you come. 

Ventaja, sf advantage, preference. 

Ventana, sf. window, balcony. 
\ r entero, sm. innkeeper, landlord; 
a. scenting, (hunting.) 

Ventura, sf. fortune, success, luck, 
casualty. 

Venturoso, a. lucky, successful, 
fortunate. 

Veo, F. Ver, ind. pres. Is. I see. 

Ver, inf. va. to see, to behold, to 
observe, to judge. 

Veraces, a. p. true, real. 

Verano, sm. summer. 

Veras, F. Ver, ind. pres. 2s. thou 
wilt or shalt see. 

Verdad, sf truth, reality, maxim ; 
a la verdad, in truth, truly. 

Verdaderamente, ad. truly, in fact, 
indeed. 

Verdadero-a, a. real, true, sincere, 
ingenuous. 

Verde, a. green, young, raw, untu- 
tored. 

Vere, F. Ver, ind. fut. Is. I shall 
or will see. 

Vergonzoso-a, a. shameful, shame- 
faced, modest. 

Vergiienza, sf. shame, diffidence. 

Verificar, inf. va. to realize, to ve- 
rify, to aifect, to accomplish. 

Verifique, (se) subj. pres. 1 or 3s. 
may, or shall be effected. 

Verjel, sm. flower-garden, orchard. 

Verosimilmente, ad. likely, proba- 
bly ; with verisimilitude. 

Versalles, sf. Versailles, a town of 
France, near Paris. 

Verso, sm. verse, versification, a 
line of poetry. 



VIJ 

Verter, inf. va. to shed, to spill, io 

empty, to exceed, to divulge. 
Vertiendo, F. Verter, ger. shedding, 

spreading. 
Ves, F. Ver, ind. pres. 2s. thou seest. 
Vestido, sm. dress, suit, costume. 
Vestido-a, a. dressed, empowered. 
Vestir, inf. va. to dress, to wear, to 

adorn, to embellish. 
Vez, sf. time ; una vez, once, once 
upon a time ; a veces, some times ; 

tal vez, perhaps ; en vez, instead. 
Vi, F. Ver, ind. pret. Is. I saw. 
Via, sf. street, way. 
Viaje, sm. voyage, journey. 
Viajero, sm. traveller, passenger. 
Viatico, sm. viaticum (the Holy 

Eucharist given or brought to 

sick persons.) 
Vicio, sm. vice, artifice, defect. 
Vicioso'-a, a. vicious, luxuriant, 

abundant. 
Vicisitud, sf. vicissitude, change. 
Victima, sf. victim, sacrifice. 
Victoria, sf victory, triumph, con- 
quest. 
Vida, sf life, existence, livelihood. 
Vidrio, sm. glass, vessel, pane. 
Viejo-a, a. old, antiquated, ancient. 
Viendo, F. Ver, ger. seeing. 
Viene, F. Venir, ind. pres. 3s. comes. 
Vienen, F. Venir, ind. pres. Bp. 

they come. 
Vienes, F. Venir, ind. pres. 2s. thou 

comest. 
Viento, sm. wind, vanity. 
Vientre, sm. belly, womb, body. 
Viera, F. Ver, subj. 1 impf. 1 or 3s 

would see. 
Vieron, F. Ver, ind. pret. Sp. they 

saw. 
Vierta, F. Verter, subj. pres. 1 or 3s. 

may shed. 
Vierte, F. Verier, ind. pres. 3s. sheds. 
Vigor, sm. vigour, force, energy. 
Vijilia, sf. vigil, watch, lucubration. 
276 



VIR 



VfV 



Vil, a. vile, base. 

Vileza, sf. baseness, vileness, mean- 
ness. 

Villa, sf town. 

Villamayor, sub. prop. m. Villa- 
mayor, an eminent Spanish cha- 
racter. 

Villa.no, sm. clown, villain. 

Villano-a, a. vulgar, rustic, wicked. 

V( mos, F. Ver, ind. pret. \p. we saw. 

Vinculo, sm. tie, entail, charge. 

Viniendo, F. Venir, ger. coming. 

Viniere, F. Venir, subj. fat. 3s. he 
should come. 

Vinieron, F. Venir, ind. pret. 
came. 

Viniese, F. Venir, subj. 3 impf. 1 
or 3s. I or he should come. 

Vino, F. Venir, ind. pret. 3s. came. 

Vino, sm. wine. 

Vina, sf. vineyard, vine. 

Vio, F. Ver, ind. pret. 3s. saw. 

Violaban, F. Violar, ind. impf. Sp. 
they violated. 

Violencia, sf. violence, compulsion, 
wrong. 

Violentado-a, a. forced, violated, 
enforced, erroneously interpreted. 

Violentamente, ad. violently, for- 
cibly. 

Violentando, F. Violentar, ger, 
forcing, violating. 

Violentar, inf. pres. va. to force, to 
violate. 

Violento-a, a. violent, forced, iras- 
cible. 

Violeta, sf. violet (a flower.) 

Virjinal, a. virginal, uncontamina- 
ted, pure. 

Virtelia, sub. prop. f. Virtelia, a 
fictitious person in the works of 
Gracian. 

Virtiid, sf virtue, efficacy, rectitude, 
quality. 

Virtuoso-a, a. virtuous, powerful, 
vigorous. 
24 



Visaje, sm. visage, grimace, contor 
tion. 

Visible, a. visible, evident. 

Visitado, F. Visitar, part, visited; 
examined, frequented. 

Visitante, sm. visitor. 

Visitar, inf. va. to visit, to search 
(ships), to examine ( prisons ^ 

Viso, sm. sight, prospect, conjeecuic 

Vista, sf. sight, landscape, appari- 
tion. 

Viste, F. Vestir, ind. pres. 3s 
dresses, wears. 

Viste, F. Ver, ind. pres. 2s. thou 
sawest. 

Vistieron, F. Vestir, ind. pret. Sp. 
dressed, wore. 

Vistio, F. Vestir, ind. pret. 3s. it, 
he, or she dressed. 

Visto, F. Ver, part. seen. 

Visto-a, part. abs. being seen, be- 
held. 

Vistoso-a, a. beautiful, delightful, 
magnificent. 

Viterbo, sub. prop. m. Viterbo, a 
town in Italy. 

Vituperio, sm. vituperation, cen- 
sure, infamy, disgrace. 

Vituperan, F. Vituperar, ind. pres 
Sp. decry. 

Viuda, sf. widow. 

Viudo, sm. widower. 

Viva, sm. cheer; inter, huzza 1 
hurrah! 

Viva, F. Vivir, subj. pres. I or 3* 
may live. 

Viva, F. Vivir, imp. pres. 3s. let it, 
him, or her live. 

Vivamente, ad. with fervour; lively, 
in a brisk manner, quickly. 

Vivan, F. Vivir, subj. pres. Sp. may- 
live . 

Vivaz, a. lively, active. 

Vive, F. Vivir, ind. pres. 3s. lives. 

Viven, F. Vivir, ind, pres. Sp. live. 

Viveres, sm.p. provisions, supplies. 
277 



VOL 

Vives, F. Vivir, ind. pres. 2s. thou 

livest. 
Vivia, F. Vivir, ind. impf. 1 or 3s. 

lived. 
Vivian, F. Vivir, ind. impf. Sp. 

lived. 
Vivid, F. Vivir, imp. pres. 2p. live 

ye or you. 
Viviendo, F. Vivir, ger. living, ex- 
isting. 
Vviere, F. Vivir, subj.fut. 1 or 3s. 

should live. 
Viviese, F. Vivir, subj. 3 impf. 1 or 

3s. I should live. 
Vivir, inf. pres. vn. to live, to last, 

to be remembered. 
Vivira, F. Vivir, ind. fat. 3s. will live. 
Viviremos, F. Vivir, ind, fat. Ip. 

we shall or will live. 
Vivisimo-a, a. super, most vivid, 

most lively, most burning. 
Vivo, sm. edging, forte. 
Vivo-a, a. alive, lively, brisk, acute, 

ingenious. 
Vizcaino-a, a. Vizcayan, a native 

of Biscay, Spain. 
V. M. contraction of vuestra majes- 

tad, your majesty. 
Vmd. read usted, s. you, or your 

worship. See V. 
Vmds. read ustedes, s. p. you, or 

your worships. See V. 
Voceador, sm. vociferator, perpetual 

talker. 
Voi, F. Ir, ind. pres. Is. I go, I am 

going to. 
Voiaiv %nf. pres. vn. to fly, to vanish, 

to nang over, to go rapidly. 
Volaron, F. Volar, ind. pret. Sp. 

they flew. 
Vol 6, F. Volar, ind. pret. 3s. flew, 

did fly. 
Voluntad, sf. will, affection, desire, 

disposition. 
Voluntario-a, a. voluntary, willing, 
spontaneous. 



VUE 

Volver, inf. vn. va. to return, to in- 
vert, to reflect. 

Volvera, F. Volver, ind. fat. 3s. will 
retnrn. 

Volveran, F. Volver, ind. fat. 3p. 
will return. 

Volvere, F. Volver, ind. fat. Is. I 
will return. 

Volvi, F. Volver, ind. pret. Is. I re- 
turned. 

Volvian, (se) F. Volver, ind. impf 
Sp. they turned, return. 

Volviendo, F. Volver, ger. return- 
ing, coming or going back. 

Volvieron, (se) F. Volver, ind. pret. 
Sp. they returned. 

Volvio, F. Volver, ind. pret. 3s. it, 
he, or she returned. 

Vos, pron. per. n. you, ye. This 
pronoun is generally used in our 
addresses to the Divinity and 
other celestial essences. Some- 
times, although rarely, we find it 
employed in common conversa- 
tion, instead of Vmd.; and others 
in addresses to persons of high 
rank. The King generally uses 
vos instead of Vmd. in his Royal 
provisions and commissions. 

Voto, sm. vow, vote, opinion, exe- 
cration. 

Voz, sf. voice, word, shriek, ex- 
pression. 

Vuela, F. Volar, ind. pres. 3s. it, 
he, or she flies. 

Vuelan, F. Volar, ind. pres. Sp. 
they fly. 

Vuelo, sm. flight, wing (of an edi- 
fice,) ruffle, leap. 

Vuelta, sf. turn, repetition, lashing, 
excursion. 

Vuelto, F. Volver, part, returned. 

Vuelva, F. Volver, imp. pres. 2s. let 
him return. 

Vuelva, F. Volver, subj. pres. 1 or 
3s. may return. 

278 



ZAP 

Vuelve, F. Volver, ind. pres. 3s. 
returns. 

Vuestra Merced, 5. you, your wor- 
ship. See. V. 

Vuestro-a, pron. per. p. o. or n. 
your, yours. 



ZOZ 

Vulgar, sub. collec. m. the vulgar. 

Vulgar, a. common, vernacular, 
vulgar. 

Vulgo, sub. collec. m. vulgar, popu- 
lace, generality of people. 



or > 

i. 5 



conj 



and. 



Ya, conj. already, now-a-days ; now, 
at one time, at another. 

Yace, F. Yacer, ind. pres. 3s. lies. 

Yacen, F. Yacer, ind. pres. 3p. they 
lie. 



Yacer, inf. vn. to lie, to repose, to 

be stretched out. 
Yedra, sf. ivy. 
Yelmo, sm. helmet. 
Yendo, F. Ir, ger. going. 
Yerba, sf. herb, grass. 
Yo, pron. per. s. n. I. 
Yugo, sm. joke 



Zagala, sf. swain (a country girl.) 
Zagaleja, sf a little, pretty swain. 
Zamarra, sf shepherd's dress (made 

of skins.) 
Zampona, sf. bagpipe. 
Zapato, sm. shoe. 



Zaragoza, sub. prop, f Zaragossa, 

a city in Spain. 
Zaragiiellos, sm. p. drawers, 

breeches. 
Zarza, sf thorn, bramble. 
Zozobra, sf uneasiness, anguish, 

anxiety. 



279 



LEFe 



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